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NUMBER TWENTY-TWO (35.12) 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FREER GALLERY OF ART 

ORIENTAL STUDIES, NO. 7 



THE FREER 
CHINESE BRONZES 

Volume I Catalogue 

BY 

JOHN ALEXANDER POPE 
RUTHERFORD JOHN GETTENS 
JAMES CAHILL 
NOEL BARNARD 




WASHINGTON 
1967 



(SMITHSONIAN PUBLICATION 4706) 



PRINTED BY THE MERIDEN GRAVURE COMPANY, MERIDEN, CONNECTICUT 



ORIENTAL STUDIES SERIES 



No. 1. The Story oi Kalaka, 1933 
[V. Nor mail Brown 

No. 2. A Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue of Miniature Paintings 
OF THE Jain A Kalpasutra, 1934 
W. Norman Brown 

No. 3. A Descriptive and Illustrative Catalogue of Chinese Bronzes 

Acquired During the Administration of John Ellerton Lodge, 1946 
Lodge, Wenley and Pope 

No. 4. Shiraz Painting in the Sixteenth Century, 1949 
Grace Dunham Guest 

No. 5. The Field of Stones, 1962 
Richard Edwards 

No. 6. Armenian Manuscripts in the Freer Gallery of Art, 1963 
Sirarpie Der Nersessian 



IN MEMORIAM 
ARCHIBALD GIBSON WENLEY 

(1898-1962) 



CONTENTS 



Page 

PREFACE ....... . xiii 

LIST OF PLATES ...... • xv 

BRONZES LISTED IN NUMERICAL ORDER . . xix 

MAP OF CHINA ....... xxi 

MAP OF CHINA (DETAIL) ..... xxii 

INTRODUCTION ....... 1 

The Collection and the Catalogue 
The Study of Chinese Bronzes 
The Vessels and their Decoration 
Terminology 
Chronology 



THE CATALOGUE ....... 19 

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . .621 

LIST OF CHINESE CHARACTERS .... 630 

INDEX ........ 633 



xi 



PREFACE 



The first published catalogue of Chinese bronzes in the Freer Gallery of 
Art appeared in 1946 under the title A descriptive and illustrative catalogue of 
Chinese bronzes acquired during the administration of John Ellerton Lodge. It 
was Number 3 in the series known as Freer Gallery of Art Oriental Studies; 
and, as the title indicates, it dealt only with those bronzes added to the 
collection by Mr. Lodge. By 1956 that book was out of print, and Mr. Wenley 
began to think in terms of a second bronze catalogue to include the many 
important pieces that had been added during his directorship. Unfortunately 
he died just as the project was getting well started, and the work has been 
carried on by the Gallery staff and has been expanded to include all the 
ceremonial vessels in the collection. 

During the last four years the preparation of the manuscript has occupied 
the time and effort of a good many members of the staff. The principal burden 
has fallen on the shoulders of Rutherford John Gettens, Head Curator of the 
Freer Gallery Technical Laboratory, who has planned and supervised the 
technical work on all the vessels, and has written the Technical Observations 
in Volume 1 and the whole of Volume II. In this work he has had the able 
assistance of Mrs. Elisabeth West Fitzhugh, Mrs. 1. V. Bene and W. T. 
Chase. Considerable assistance on the technical side has been received from 
outside sources, and this is acknowledged in detail in Volume II. The basic 
research and most of the writing for the section on Style and Chronology was 
done by Dr. James Cahill while he was still on the Freer Gallery staff, and he 
has continued to be helpful since his departure in the summer of 1965 to join 
the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley. The study of the in- 
scriptions was undertaken by Dr. Noel Barnard of the Australian National 
University at Canberra; and he has supplied all the inscription notes for 
Volume I, and has written the whole of Volume III. The writer of this preface 
has prepared the preliminary descriptions for each bronze, and has collabo- 
rated closely with Dr. Cahill and Mr. Gettens on the Style and Chronology 
and the Technical Observations. All three of us have been quite free in our 
criticism of one another's work, and we have tried to make the book a 
consolidated statement of our common effort and knowledge. For geographi- 



xiii 



cal reasons the same close collaboration has not been possible with Dr. 
Barnard, and except for routine editorial changes the sections on inscriptions 
are his work alone. 

The photographic work has been carried out by Raymond A. Schwartz, 
Chief of the Freer Gallery Photographic Laboratory, and his industry and 
patience in cooperating with three extremely demanding authors have been 
exemplary. He has at all times had the cooperation of his Assistant Photo- 
grapher, James W. Riggs. Several Librarians have helped with the biblio- 
graphic work. Mrs. Bertha M. Usilton got the task started before her retire- 
ment, and it was carried on by her successor Mrs. Constance B. Olsen and 
the Assistant Librarian Mrs. Aleita M. Hogenson, and finally brought to 
completion by the present Librarian Mrs. Priscilla P. Smith. Takashi Sugiura 
made the rubbings of most of the inscriptions and Takashi Katsuki has 
provided translations and summaries of excavation reports from mainland 
China thus saving us much time in keeping up to date with current archaeolog- 
ical activity in the field. The maps were drawn by Frank Haenschke; and the 
jacket was designed by Crimilda Pontes. Innumerable copies of the manu- 
script have been typed and retyped and all the notebooks and files have been 
kept in order by Mrs. Daphne McCloskey and Miss Lucille Aldrich. 

The final and painstaking task of bringing this huge mass of material 
together and putting it into publishable form has been the responsibility of 
our Editorial Secretary, Lloyd E. Langford. He has worked out the prob- 
lems of style and layout for all the text and text figures as well as for the 
plates, and has handled the negotiation of all practical matters with the 
printer. Harold Hugo and John Peckham of the Meriden Gravure Company 
have spared no pains in providing us with trial proofs until they got exactly 
what we wanted. Finally we are indebted to The Ford Foundation for a 
substantial grant to assist in the publication of this volume which we hope is 
a fitting memorial to Archibald Gibson Wenley whose initiative and scholar- 
ship brought it into being. 

JOHN ALEXANDER POPE 

Washington, D.C. 
June 1966 



xiv 



LIST OF PLATES 



Plate Page 

Frontispiece NUMBER TWENTY-TWO (35.12) iv 

1 NUMBER ONE (09.334) 21 

2 NUMBER TWO (13.30) 27 

3 NUMBER THREE (56.26) 35 

4 NUMBER FOUR (49.5) 41 

5 NUMBER FIVE (48.1) 47 

6 NUMBER SIX (07.34) 51 

7 NUMBER SEVEN (11.51) 55 

8 NUMBER EIGHT (40.3) 59 

9 NUMBER NINE (43.9) 65 

10 (COLOR) NUMBER TEN (51.18) 69 

11 NUMBER ELEVEN (17.202) 75 

12 NUMBER TWELVE (55.1) 79 

13 NUMBER THIRTEEN (44.1) 85 

14 NUMBER FOURTEEN (09.279) 91 

15 NUMBER FIFTEEN (16.142) 95 

16 NUMBER SIXTEEN (51.19) 99 

17 NUMBER SEVENTEEN (25.2) 105 

18 (COLOR) NUMBER EIGHTEEN (50.18) 111 

19 NUMBER NINETEEN (09.257) 117 

20 NUMBER TWENTY (23.1) 121 

21 NUMBER TWENTY-ONE (07.37) 127 

22 NUMBER TWENTY-TWO (35.12) 133 

23 NUMBER TWENTY-THREE (56.19) 139 

24 NUMBER TWENTY-FOUR (54.15) 143 

25 NUMBER TWENTY-FIVE (25.3) 147 

26 NUMBER TWENTY-SIX (53.83) 151 

27 NUMBER TWENTY-SEVEN (11.39) 155 

28 NUMBER TWENTY-EIGHT (60.18) 161 

29 NUMBER TWENTY-NINE (59.15) 165 

30 NUMBER THIRTY (46.31) 171 



XV 



Plate 



Page 



31 


NUMBER 


TH I RT Y-ONE (47 11) 


177 


32 


NUMBER 


THIRTY-TWO (1141) 


181 


33 


NUMBER 


THIRTY-THREE (46.4) 


185 


34 


NUMBER 


THIRTY-FOUR (50 7) 


191 


35 


NUMBER 


THIRTY-FIVE (09.261) 


197 


36 


NUMBER 


THIRTY-SIX (54.13) 


201 


37 


NUMBER 


THIRTY-SEVEN (15.136) 


207 


38 


NUMBER 


THIRTY-EIGHT (30.54) 


213 


39 


NUMBER 


THIRTY-NINE (42.1) 


223 


40 


NUMBER 


FORTY (36.6) 


229 


41 


NUMBER 


FORTY-ONE (33.2) 


233 


42 


NUMBER 


FORTY-TWO (39.53) 


239 


43 


NUMBER 


FORTY-THREE (38.5) 


243 


44 


NUMBER 


FORTY-FOUR (49.10) 


249 


45 (color) 


NUMBER 


FORTY-FIVE (61.33) 


255 


46 


NUMBER 


FORTY-SIX (12.72) 


263 


47 


NUMBER 


FORTY-SEVEN (42.14) 


269 


48 


NUMBER 


FORTY-EIGHT (11.50) 


275 


49 


NUMBER 


FORTY-NINE (40.11) 


279 


50 


NUMBER 


FIFTY (30.26) 


285 


51 


NUMBER 


FIFTY-ONE (11.55) 


291 

^ y v 


52 


NUMBER 


FIFTY-TWO (09.260) 


295 

^ y ^ 


53 


NUMBER 


FIFTY-THREE (09.258) 


299 

y y 


54 


NUMBER 


FIFTY-FOUR (60.20) 


305 


55 


NUMBER 


FIFTY-FIVE (16.361) 


311 


56 


NUMBER 


FIFTY-SIX (11.36) 


315 


57 


NUMBER 


FIFTY-SEVEN (11.37) 


321 


58 (color) 


NUMBER 


FIFTY-EIGHT (47.12) 


325 


59 


NUMBER 


FIFTY-NINE (11.82) 


333 


60 


NUMBER 


SIXTY (37.1) 


337 


61 


NUMBER 


SIXTY-ONE (41.8) 


343 


62 


NUMBER 


SIXTY-TWO (94.17) 


347 


63 (color) 


NUMBER 


SIXTY-THREE (38.20) 


351 


64 


NUMBER 


SIXTY-FOUR (11.38) 


359 



xvi 



Plate Page 





NI TMRFR 

1 > U IVl DC/ fx 




JDJ 


f\f\ 

\J\J 


NI IMRFR 


SIXTY-SIX ni 10^ 


j\jy 


u / 


NI JMRFR 


SIXTY-SFVFN M7I0^^ 


17S 


yJO 


Nl IMRFR 


SIXTY-FIGHT i\(^A'l<C\\ 


3R I 

JO I 




NI IMRFR 
IN kj ivi l>l- rv 


SIXTY-NINF Ml 


JO J 




Nl IMRFR 


SEVENTY MS 10''^ 


38Q 


71 


NI IMRFR 


SFVFNTY-ONF HX 6^ 


3Q5 


79 


NI IMRFR 


SEVENTY-TWO MQ6^ 


3QQ 

jyy 




NI IMRFR 


SFVFNTY-THRFF M 1 40^ 


403 




NI IMRFR 


SEVENTY-FOUR ^^4 199^ 


407 


7S 


NI IMRFR 


SFVFNTY-FIVF ^SQ 14^ 


41 3 


76 
/ u 


NI JMRFR 


SEVENTY-SIX 

o 1—/ y L/ 1 ^ 1 1 o i/x 1 ^ . 1 y 


41 9 


77 


NI JMRFR 

i ^ w IVl U X_, IX. 


SEVFNTY-SFVFN (60 19) 


425 


78 
/ o 


NI JMRFR 

i ^ IVl LI IX 


SEVENTY-FIGHT (09 2S9) 

OL-yLi^i 1 1-/ 1 xj 111 J J 


431 


7Q 


Nl JMRFR 

I ^ w IVl U L- IX 


SEVENTY-NINE (1149) 


437 




NI IMRFR 

1 ^ KJ IVl U L. IX 


EIGHTY (11 S4) 

!_/ 1 VJ 111 1 ^11.^"^ 


441 


O 1 


NI IMRFR 

i ^ w IVl U IX 


EIGHTY-ONE (^^4 1 U 

L- 1 Xj 111 1 V_/ i ^ L, y .111 


445 


89 


NI IMRFR 

1 ^ \^ IVl U J__/ IX 


FIGHTY-TWO (11 3S) 

l_v 1 VJ 111 1 ivy X-/ ^ 1 1 t ^ ^ f 


449 


8"? 


NIJMRFR 

1 ^ V-/ IVl Ul_, IX 


EIGHTY-THREE (15 104) 

1 VJ 111 1 llllX L/ y 1 . 1 v/ 1 y 


453 


84 


NIJMRFR 


EIGHTY-FOUR (07 33) 

1—, 1 XJ 1111 1 X^ X-/ IX \\J 1 , ^ ^ 1 


457 


8^ 


NUMBER 


EIGHTY-FIVE (1157) 

1 XJ 1111 1 1 V 1 / \ 1 I • / ^ 


465 




NIJMRFR 

i ^ 1 V 1 U 1_^ IX 


EIGHTY-SIX (1160) 

L 1 VJ 1111 kJ 1 y V 111. V^V/ ^ 


465 




NUMBER 


EIGHTY-SEVEN HI 59) 


465 




NUMBER 

i ^ w i V 1 U Lj IX 


FIGHTY-FIGHT (1158) 

l_j 1 VJ 111 1 l_rf 1 VJ 111 \ I L * ^ KJ t 


465 


86 


NUMBER 


EIGHTY-NINE (1147) 


469 




NUMBER 


NINETY (16 248) 


469 




NUMBER 

iVlUL/lx 


NINETY-ONE (1146) 

i ^ 1 1 ^ L 1 1 V/ i ^ 11 1 1 


469 




NUMBER 


NINETY-TWO (11.44) 


469 


87 


NUMBER 


NINETY-THREE (61.31) 


473 


88 


NUMBER 


NINETY-FOUR (39.5) 


479 


89 


NUMBER 


NINETY-EIVE (15.107) 


485 


90 


NUMBER 


NINETY-SIX (47.20) 


491 


91 (color) 


NUMBER 


NINETY-SEVEN (57.22) 


497 


92 


NUMBER 


NINETY-EIGHT (56.15) 


503 



xvii 



Plate 



Page 



93 


NUMBER 


NINETY-NINE (24.12) 


509 


94 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


(61.32) 


513 


95 (color) 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


ONE (15.103) 


519 


96 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


TWO (09.280) 


525 


97 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


THREE (32.13) 


529 


98 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


FOUR (38.7) 


533 


99 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


FIVE (39.41) 


539 


100 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


SIX (11.45) 


543 


101 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


SEVEN (13.14) 


547 


102 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


EIGHT (09.336) 


551 


103 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


NINE (11.66) 


555 


104 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


TEN (11.630) 


559 


105 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


ELEVEN (09.254) 


565 


106 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


TWELVE (61.30) 


569 


107 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


THIRTEEN (11.81) 


575 


108 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


FOURTEEN (24.13) 


579 


109 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


FIFTEEN (09.333) 


583 


110 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


SIXTEEN (09.335) 


589 


111 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


SEVENTEEN (11.56) 


593 


112 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


EIGHTEEN (66.14) 


597 


113 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


NINETEEN (51.2) 


603 


114 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


TWENTY (46.11) 


607 


115 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


TWENTY-ONE (51.5) 


611 


116 


NUMBER 


ONE 


HUNDRED 


TWENTY-TWO (23.2) 


617 



xviii 



BRONZES 



LISTED IN 



NUMERICAL ORDER 



FGA No. 


Cat. No. 


FGA No. 


Cat. No. 


FGA No. 


Cat. No. 


94.17 


62 


11.55 


51 


25.2 


17 


07.33 


84 


11.56 


117 


25.3 


25 


07.34 


6 


11.57 


85 


30.26 


50 


07.37 


21 


11.58 


88 


30.54 


38 


09.254 


111 


1 1.59 


87 


31.10 


66 


09.257 


19 


11.60 


86 


32.13 


103 


09.258 


53 


11.66 


109 


33.2 


41 


09.259 


78 


11.81 


113 


35.12 


22 


09.260 


52 


11.82 


59 


36.6 


40 


09.261 


35 


11.630 


110 


37.1 


60 


09.279 


14 


12.72 


46 


38.5 


43 


09.280 


102 


13.14 


107 


38.6 


71 


09.333 


115 


13.21 


76 


38.7 


104 


09.334 


1 


13.30 


2 


38.20 


63 


09.335 


116 


15.102 


70 


39.5 


94 


09.336 


108 


15.103 


101 


39.41 


105 


11.35 


82 


15.104 


83 


39.53 


42 


11.36 


56 


15.107 


95 


40.3 


8 


11.37 


57 


15.136 


37 


40.11 


49 


11.38 


64 


16.142 


15 


41.8 


61 


11.39 


27 


16.248 


90 


42.1 


39 


11.40 


73 


16.361 


55 


42.14 


47 


11.41 


32 


16.480 


68 


43.9 


9 


11.44 


92 


17.193 


67 


44.1 


13 


11.45 


106 


17.202 


11 


46.4 


33 


11.46 


91 


19.6 


72 


46.11 


120 


11.47 


89 


23.1 


20 


46.31 


30 


11.49 


79 


23.2 


122 


47.11 


31 


11.50 


48 


24.11 


81 


47.12 


58 


11.51 


7 


24.12 


99 


47.20 


96 


11.53 


69 


24.13 


114 


48.1 


5 


11.54 


80 


24.14 


65 


49.5 


4 



xix 



FOA No 


Cat Nn 


FGA No 


pot No 


FGA No 


Tat No 




44 


54 1 5 


24 


60 1 8 

\j\J t 1 O 




^0 7 


34 


54 122 


74 


60 19 


77 


50 18 


1 8 

1 o 


55 1 


12 


60 20 


54 


D 1 .Z 




JO. 1 J 


yo 




in 


51.5 


121 


56.19 


23 


61.31 


93 


51.8 


10 


56.26 


3 


61.32 


100 


51.19 


16 


57.22 


97 


61.33 


45 


53.83 


26 


59.14 


75 


66.14 


118 


54.13 


36 


59.15 


29 







XX 




MAP OF CHINA 



MAIN CITIES AND SOME HISTORICAL SITES 



xxi 




SHENSI 



P'u-tu-ts'un • 
Chang-chia-po • 

( Fengr-hsi area ) 




Lan-t'ien 
Ssu-po-ts'un 




SKETCH MAP OF THE YELLOW RIVER VALLEY WITH 
THE BRONZE SITES REFERRED TO IN THIS VOLUME. 




Hsi-pei-kang 
Hou- chia-chuang 
Hsido-t'un 
Ta-ssu-k'ung-ts'un 




'AN-YANG 



• Hou-ma 



HUI-HSIEN 

chen / 




Shang-ts'un-ling 




Erh-li-t'ou 



Chung-chou-lu 



• CHElSfG-CHOU 

• Hsin-cheng 



HONAN 



• Pao-chi 



■ Fu-feng 



Hsi-pei-kang 
Hou-chia-chuang 
Hsiao-t'un 
Ta-ssu-k'ung-ts'un 



SHENSI 





•AN-YANG ' 



HUI-HSIEN 
•Shan-piao- 



T'ai-pu-hsiang 



P'u-tu-ts'un • 
Chang-ohia-po • 
( Feng^-hsi area ) 



iCH'ANG-AN 



• Lan-t'ien 

• Ssu-po-ts'un 



CHENG-CHOU 
Hsin-cheng 



HONAN 






SKETCH MAP OF THE YELLOW RIVER VALLEY WITH 
THE BRONZE SITES REFERRED TO IN THIS VOLUME. 



INTRODUCTION 



The collection and the catalogue 

Charles Lang Freer bought his first Chinese ceremonial bronze in 1894, 
and this book is a catalogue of the 122 vessels that make up the collection 
begun with that purchase. Of that number Mr. Freer himself collected 58 
before his death in 1919. The first director of the Freer Gallery of Art, John 
Ellerton Lodge, continued the collection by adding 28; and 31 more were 
acquired by the second director, Archibald Gibson Wenley. Finally four 
bronzes were given by Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Meyer in accordance with the 
provision of Mr. Freer's Will that made the gift possible; and one Han 
bronze was purchased in 1966. The collection thus formed is of interest for 
several reasons. Not only does it provide a selective sampling of the Chinese 
bronze caster's art from the An-yang period of the Shang dynasty down to 
Han times, it also covers the history of bronze collecting in the West. Not 
only does it include a good many vessels of the highest quality, it also has 
some examples of indifferent and even downright poor workmanship. And 
finally, while more than 100 of the bronzes are genuine products of their 
times, some 15 vessels are clearly later copies, imitations, or interpretations of 
archaic types, and at least two others are doubtful. 

In recent years catalogues of Chinese bronzes have customarily included 
only those pieces which the compiler, or the collector himself, considered en- 
tirely above reproach in every way. Quality and authenticity are the twin 
goals; and when one or the other of these was wanting, the off'ending bronze 
was unceremoniously swept under the rug. The original plan for the present 
catalogue was drawn up with the same formula in mind; it was to include only 
fine quality bronzes of unquestioned authenticity. That meant, in effect, a re- 
examination of the bronzes bought by Mr. Lodge and already published in 
1946, to see what new light might be thrown on them by the scholarly progress 
of the last two decades, and the first detailed publication of the bronzes added 
by Mr. Wenley and the four in the Meyer gift. In other words over half the 
bronzes in the collection would be left out; and further than this, they would 
in all probability never be published for it seemed most unlikely that anyone 
would ever take the trouble to make a separate publication of the lesser ones 
alone. While many of them are of inferior quality and some are later archaistic 



1 



copies of the real thing, all of them are instructive in one way or another. All 
can teach something about the bronze caster's art, something about the ideas 
that motivated the copyist and the forger, and something about the history of 
knowledge and taste among collectors. 

No one publication could include all the bronzes in the collection, and 
some sort of limits had to be drawn. For that reason the scope of this work is 
strictly limited to the ceremonial vessels. The famous Middle Chou tigers and 
the great Late Chou bell, already published in 1946, have been omitted; and 
they together with weapons, incense burners, mirrors, belthooks and the rest 
will have to await future study and publication. With the decision made, the 
problem was to arrange the bronzes in some sort of reasonable order and to 
get together as much information as possible about each one. The examina- 
tion of many bronze catalogues reveals that the Chinese, tradition-bound as 
they are in so many ways, have never been consistent about the sequence of 
types. The arrangement used in this volume is purely our own and is basically, 
though not strictly, chronological, in the first place because a precise and 
rigid chronology still eludes us, and in the second because it is sometimes 
more useful to deal with a series of vessels of one type running through a long 
period without interruption. In general the later copies have been placed 
along with the ancient vessels of the types the copyist was trying to imitate. 
They are uniformly given the designation "recent"; and this is intended to 
signify simply that they are post-Han in manufacture. There is still much un- 
certainty about whether any individual bronze was made in Sung, Ming, or 
Ch'ing times; and only now is the matter beginning to receive serious atten- 
tion. In some cases, where any sort of indication is available, the question has 
been discussed in the description of the individual vessel. 

A heading for each vessel gives the type-name, accession number, period, 
inscription data, dimensions and weight. This is followed by a brief descrip- 
tion and where applicable some of Mr. Freer's own notes on bronzes he 
bought. The detailed documentation is then set forth under the following 
headings: 

Style and Chronology - Here the shape of the vessel is compared with the 
shapes of others of similar type, and similarities and differences are noted with 
reference wherever possible to published examples for which either the in- 
scription texts or the circumstances of excavation tend to provide hints to 
chronology. The decoration or any significant features thereof are subjected 
to a similar comparative study; and the statement as a whole provides the 



2 



basis for the date suggested for the vessel, especially in the case of unin- 
scribed bronzes and those with uninformative inscriptions. 

Technical Observations - Each bronze has been subjected to a detailed ex- 
amination and analysis. Using all the scientific techniques available to us, in- 
cluding microscopy, metallography, analysis by spectrographic, X-ray diffrac- 
tion, and wet chemical methods, examination in ultra-violet light, and in 
many cases radiography, we have tried to find out everything we can about 
the physical and chemical properties of the alloy, about the methods by 
which the vessels were made, decorated and inscribed, and about the nature 
of the processes of corrosion which have altered the metal in the course of 
centuries. All the facts we have been able to find have been recorded for each 
bronze and the analysis of the alloy is included. Except for the work done by 
Japanese chemists on mirrors and weapons that is referred to later, this is, to 
the best of our knowledge, the first time any considerable group of ancient 
Chinese bronzes has been systematically studied in a technical laboratory. It 
has, therefore, seemed worthwhile to set forth, in addition to the facts about 
each individual vessel, some general observations about the group as a whole. 
This is the subject of a separate volume. It may be just as well in this connec- 
tion to state here what is implied in that volume. No amount of laboratory 
examination and analysis can per se "date" a Chinese bronze. It is simply a 
means of adding additional facts not otherwise obtainable to our store of 
knowledge, the knowledge by which in the last analysis the bronze must be 
judged. 

Inscriptions - In the case of the inscribed bronzes, we have had to go out- 
side the Freer Gallery staff for help; and the work of Dr. Noel Barnard of the 
Australian National University, Canberra, has already been acknowledged. 
With his customary thoroughness he has subjected each inscription to the 
most searching scrutiny and has brought to bear on it his encyclopedic 
knowledge of the vast literature of Chinese epigraphy. It soon became clear 
that the sheer bulk of his studies would be far beyond the physical limitations 
of the present volume, and consequently we have had to confine the notes 
under the above heading to brief summaries which he has provided. In the 
long run, when this phase of the work is completed we hope it may be pub- 
lished as a third volume. On the subject of inscriptions one more point 
should be noted. The question of authenticity imposes itself in the field of 
epigraphy as elsewhere, and among the 65 inscribed bronzes are a number of 
perfectly genuine vessels with inscriptions which Barnard declares forgeries. 



3 



These cases are described as they occur and need not be cited in detail here, 
but a summary statement seems desirable to make our position clear. To 
reconcile the presence of an inscription he considers a forgery in a bronze 
otherwise considered genuine, Barnard states that the characters of the text 
have been cut into the bronze in recent times; ''spuriously incised'' is the 
phrase he favors. He holds that we must either accept the fact that the in- 
scription is incised or, if we insist that the inscription is cast with the vessel, 
accept the fact that the vessel itself is a forgery. We do neither. When this 
irreconcilable conflict of opinion first appeared, we took the bronzes con- 
cerned back to the laboratory for further and, if possible, even more thorough 
examination. Considering the nature of bronze in general and of corroded 
bronze in particular, we believe it unlikely that an incision could be made in 
the surface without leaving at least some trace of the tool. Re-examining the 
characters in the suspect bronzes with a variety of lights and magnifications 
and by probing the corrosion products in and around the strokes, we com- 
pared them by the same methods with the characters of other inscriptions 
which had raised no doubts of any kind. This latest and most thorough 
examination tends to support our contention that an inscription incised in 
cold corroded bronze can hardly simulate an inscription cast when the bronze 
was made centuries ago to the point of deceiving the careful observer. In two 
cases we found the incriptions to be incised, and a third remains in doubt. 
Another possibility has also to be considered, however, for mechanical cut- 
ting with a tool is not the only way of working the surface of cold bronze. 
Similar results can be achieved by etching with strong acids, and in this area 
we are still very much in the dark. The few experiments we have made in our 
own laboratory reveal that an etched line can be much more deceiving than an 
incised line if it has been carefully covered with a layer of artificial corrosion. 
Several of our inscriptions may fall in this category; but, in the present state 
of our knowledge, we have to admit that many questions remain unanswered. 
Such findings as we have made are recorded under the bronzes concerned 
(Nos. 2, 29, 33, 37, 53, 60, 64, 67, 69, 74, 78, 94), and future scholars may one 
day settle the matter. 

The study of Chinese bronzes 

As a part of the great intellectual flowering that took place in Northern 
Sung (960-1127), the study of ancient ceremonial bronzes first took shape 



4 



under the guise of epigraphy. The writings of the ancients have always com- 
manded the respect of the Chinese; and in the eleventh century no less dis- 
tinguished a statesman, historian, literary critic, and essayist than Ou-yang 
Hsiu (1007-1072) compiled and annotated the first repertory of archaic in- 
scriptions, the Chi-ku-lu, which included some bronze texts. As the century 
drew to a close, Lii Ta-lin published the first illustrated catalogue of cere- 
monial bronzes, the K'ao-ku-fu (1092); and some time in the Hsiian-ho 
reign (1119-1126) the Emperor Hui-tsung saw the completion of the great 
catalogue of the more than 800 bronzes in his collection, compiled by a com- 
mittee of scholars under Wang Fu. The bibliographic history of these works 
and their supplements, and of the great Ch'ing dynasty catalogues that 
followed them, though only after a lapse of more than six centuries, is well 
known to specialists and hardly germane to the purposes of our book so it 
need not be repeated here. 

In the West, the first book devoted to Chinese ceremonial bronzes may well 
be Thoms' delightful little volume, Ancient Chinese vases of the Shang 
dynasty, published in London in 1851, the same year that saw the publication 
in Paris of Biot's translation of the Chou-li (The Rites of Chou). In this work 
the author, P. P. Thoms, who had been sent to China to oversee the printing 
of the Rev. Dr. Morrison's Chinese dictionary, translated and annotated the 
descriptions of 42 vessels and a mirror from the Po-ku-t'u-lu. The extent to 
which the Western view of China and things Chinese has changed in the last 
115 years is perhaps most clearly demonstrated by quoting the paragraph 
with which Thoms closes his pioneer effort : 

''While the preceding paper introduces the Reader to an acquaintance with 
the ancient usages and rites of the Chinese, during their early history, it 
cannot have escaped his notice, that the embellishments of the Vessels, if 
not elegant, are always chaste, and, as it has been shown, were admonitory. 
Regretting, as we must, their ignorance of God's Word, it is pleasing, in 
the midst of great darkness, to see the happy effects of the principle of 
filial piety, or reverence for parents - respect for the elders of the same 
family - and for those who hold important situations. This principle, or 
doctrine, was doubtless held by FUH-HE, and his immediate descendants; 
but CONFUSCIUS embodied it, and caused it to be, as they say, a blessing 
to ten thousand ages. We wonder not, therefore, that so many Vessels 
should have the character Tsze, a 'son,' and Sun, a 'grandson,' as well as 
the many significant devices by way of ornament, nor the most invariable 



5 



attendant, the all-seeing eye, engraved on them, implying the inevitable 
consequences of impiety." 

From this earnest beginning sprang a whole Western literature on Chinese 
bronzes, mostly in English, which by now runs to hundreds of titles. With 
rare exceptions ceremonial bronzes did not begin to reach the West until the 
20th century; and while some very good pieces came over by 1911 or 1912, 
the really fine bronzes that are the pride of our collections today did not 
appear until after the first World War which was, be it noted, also after the 
fall of the Chinese Empire. This progress is quite naturally reflected in the 
bibliography; and with appearance of the first volume of Yetts' monumental 
three-volume catalogue of the Eumorfopoulos Collection in 1929, serious 
study had really begun. In that same year the excavations at An-yang were 
already in progress; and as the revelations of that site transformed the Shang 
dynasty from legend to history, the pace increased. From that time until 
World War II our view of ancient China was almost revolutionized by the 
publications of H. G. Creel, Jung Keng, O. Karlbeck, B. Karlgren, Kuo 
Mo-jo, Liu T'i-chih, Lo Chen-yii, and Umehara Sueji among others. 

Since the advent of the new regime in China, archaeological work has 
flourished to an extent never known before in that country; and the publica- 
tion of the findings has proliferated accordingly. In the last 15 years the 
periodical now known as Wen-wu has issued more than 50 numbers, each 
containing several articles of archaeological or antiquarian interest; and 
since 1956 some 50 numbers of K'ao-ku-hsueh-pao (also under varying titles) 
have brought us an additional wealth of important contributions. Mono- 
graphs dealing with individual sites have appeared in the series entitled 
Clnmg-kiio-f ien-yeh-k'' ao-ku-pao-kao-chi to the number of more than a 
dozen volumes in the last decade. This veritable spate of Chinese archaeolo- 
gical writings has had its effect on Western scholars who in the last 20 years 
have brought forth some 20 important books or catalogues and more than 60 
articles on the subject of ancient China and largely concerned with bronzes. 
In Japan the researches of Mizuno and Umehara and others have continued 
to supply valuable material. 

As the writings of the 1930s and '40s brought to life the late Shang civilisa- 
tion at An-yang, so the disclosures of the '50s and '60s have not only filled in 
many details of that picture and contributed greatly to the knowledge of the 
sprawling complex of the succeeding Chou culture in widely separated parts 
of China, but also revealed the existence of a pre-An-yang phase of Shang 



6 



history. The site of Erh-H-tou in Yen-shih Hsien, Honan Province (between 
Lo-yang and Cheng-chou), has been identified with some confidence as the 
capital city of T'ang, the founder of the Shang dynasty. While no bronze 
vessels were found there, the ceramic prototypes of such vessels as the ting, li, 
ku, chia, chiieh, fmo, and others, foreshadow the ritual paraphernalia asso- 
ciated with the later centuries of the dynasty. Again, in less than two decades 
our whole view of early China has been revised and enlarged. Pre-An-yang 
bronzes are not represented in the Freer collection at this time and hence need 
not be discussed; but a number of them have made their way to the West; 
and the publication of finds made in recent years has made it possible to 
identify those few strays in various collections that had been troublesome 
because they did not fit comfortably into any of the familar categories pro- 
vided by our knowledge of An-yang and the various subdivisions of Chou. 
With the materials thus made available, we are a step nearer to an under- 
standing of the beginnings of bronze culture in China. But the final gap in our 
knowledge still remains, for it is hard to imagine that a people in the experi- 
mental stages of a new technique, whether imported or indigenous, could 
produce such finished work as that which went into the taut and elegant 
vessels of earliest times with their spare and meticulous decoration. 

It is a curiously contradictory fact that in spite of this considerable increase 
in our knowledge of early China, we still know very little or nothing about 
how the bronze vessels were used. One of the essential facts of the social and 
political life of Shang was that in exercising the powers of government, the 
rulers and government officials at various levels depended on the wisdom of 
their deceased ancestors. To get sound advice they had to stay on good 
terms with them; and this meant rigorous adherence to ceremonial protocol. 
The right offerings had to be made and the appropriate sacrifices performed, 
each in its proper season. Questions to the ancestor-gods were embodied in 
the oracular sentences inscribed on tortoise shell and bone; and the answers, 
awaited no doubt with the most solemn dread and awe, were revealed by 
priests who were often as not the kings themselves, skilled in the interpreta- 
tion of supernatural phenomena and occult signs. This much we know from 
the study of the tens of thousands of fragments of oracle bones that have been 
recovered from the Waste of Yin, as the site of the Shang capital at Hsiao- 
t'un near An-yang was traditionally called, a study that has gone on almost 
continuously ever since the bones began to turn up at the end of the last 
century. Here our knowledge ends, and we are forced to fall back on assump- 



7 



tion. It may be fair to assume that the bronze vessels that adorn our museums 
today were used in the performance of those propitiatory ceremonies in one 
way or another. No contemporary text survives to give us a clue; and even in 
the longer inscriptions of early and middle Chou which include historical facts 
and personal data of great interest, which often tell us why the vessels were 
made, they still fail to reveal the secrets of how they were used when the 
ceremony was in progress. 

A text of much later date contains a passage that may be suggestive if we 
treat it as no more than that. It is a part of the Chinese literary tradition that 
in the year corresponding to A.D. 281 there was dug up in a tomb presumed 
to have been that of King Hsiang (reigned 318-296 B.C.) of the late Chou 
State of Wei, a text describing the celebrated, if legendary, travels of King Mu 
of the Chou dynasty. This text, the Mu-fien-tzu-chuan, which is considered 
by some to date only from the first century A.D., introduced into Chinese 
lore the account of the incredible eight horses of King Mu which could 
each run 1,000 // a day, and tells the story of the King's visit to the fabled 
realm of Hsi-wang-mu, the "Queen Mother of the West'' whose identity has 
given rise to so much scholarly speculation; and who, in the more romantic 
and imaginative days of Sinology, was once tentatively identified with the 
Queen of Sheba.'' In Chapter 6 of this famous legend is the tragic story of the 
Lady Sheng, most beautiful of the ladies of the court and loved by the King 
above all others. One day, accompanying the King while he was trapping 
animals in a marsh, the Lady Sheng caught cold; and in spite of all that 
could bedone, a few days later she died. In the description of her funeral we read : 
''Tseng, the sacrificial officer, was in charge of the sacrificial tables on 
which he spread offerings such as meat soup, raw meat, dry meat, minced 
meat, dates, millet-gruel, cold porridge, dry fish, scallions, and a hundred 
other things. There were twelve tsu of raw meat and raw fish, ninety ton of 
cooked meat, and forty ting, tun, hu, and tsun of hot food and wine. 
Tseng, the sacrificial officer, began offering the sacrifice by presenting the 
soup and the wine to the chief mourner, I Hu, who received them with a 
bow and presented them to the spirit of the dead. The ladies also presented 
their offerings to the chief lady mourner, Yung Tso, who performed the 
ceremonies as had 1 Hu. The sacrificial officer then gave some of the wine 
to the court musicians." 

aporke, A. Mu Wang und die Konigen von Saba, in Mitieilimgen des Seniincus fur Orientalische Sprachen, 
Berlin, V. vn(1904) pp. 117-172. 



8 



The vessels and their decoration 

Questions of the vessel types and of the varying shapes and styles as well as 
the decorations, as these factors relate to the chronological development of 
the bronze art, are discussed in detail for each bronze, and there is no need 
for a resume of that information here.*" On the other hand a few general ob- 
servations may help to provide a framework for some of the detailed informa- 
tion and terminology that come later. 

As might be expected, some of the vessels are carry-overs from pottery 
shapes that were known and used in the pre-bronze Neolithic age. The tripod 
called ting is one of these; and this type, basically a hemispherical bowl on 
three solid legs, is one of the two most enduring types. The ting and a basic 
vase type called hu survived without interruption but with certain easily 
recognizable changes of form, from Neolithic times right on down to the Han 
dynasty. Both forms in fact lasted through the whole of Chinese history; but 
in post-Han and later times they tended to be archaistic, imitating one or 
another of the classic forms, rather than to develop along new lines. Equally 
ancient and apparently uniquely Chinese is the // (not represented in this 
collection), another tripod form distinguished by the fact that the bottom of 
the bowl is divided into three parts which become the hollow legs on which 
the vessel stands. Going back equally to prehistoric times, the // disappeared 
from the scene in the latter part of the Chou dynasty, somewhere near the 
beginning of the fifth century B.C., again after having passed through a num- 
ber of modifications in form. 

With the coming of the Bronze Age and the beginning of Shang, a whole 
new series of types came into being. The kuei, lei, ku, chih, cliileh and chia 
are known at the earliest Shang sites and may go back to the 16th century 
B.C.; and further new types like the p'an, p'ou, tsun, yu,fang-i, hiw, kuang 
and yii came in some time after the move to An-yang about 1300. As will be 
seen later, some of these did not even survive the downfall of Shang while 
others lasted into the Chou dynasty for varying lengths of time. Under the 
Chou regime more new types appeared such as the hsil, fu, ton, i (pouring 
vessel), chien, an and tui; but the spark was gone and the general dullness of 
these latter forms betrays a lack of spirit and imagination that may be 

bA number of good lists of vessel types have been published. Yetts, Eunwrfopoidos . . . pp. 43-51 describes 28 
types in some detail; Hansford, A glossary . . . gives 30-odd types on pp. 4-9. and illustrates them with line 
drawings on pp. 89-92; Mizuno, In-shu . . . includes a folding chart illustrating many of the common shapes and 
showing the chronological development of each. Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, pp. 23-38, provides a very 
useful discussion of the development of 23 types and indicates the time when each was at the height of its 
popularity. 



9 



accounted for by the increasing confusion of the poHtical scene as the Chou 
authority steadily weakened and by the attendant (or consequent?) change in 
the character of the rehgion and in the nature of the ceremonies it required. 

As the vessel types and the variations of style within the types provide some 
of our basic clues to chronology, so the surface decorations give even more 
detailed information of the same kind. Again these matters are examined in 
detail under the discussions of the individual bronzes in the catalogue, but 
a few points may help to direct the reader's attention to the overall develop- 
ment. The earliest bronzes we now know, those from the sites of early Shang, 
are decorated in a manner best described as austere. In many cases the decor 
is limited to a single band or zone cast in very low relief; and even where 
more of the vessel is covered with design, the surface is always slick and 
smooth; and the emphasis is on the overall shape of the vessel. One of the 
characteristic features of the style is the simultaneous appearance of the same 
motifs executed in two quite different techniques producing two quite dif- 
ferent visual effects. In one case, usually on the upper band, the design has 
evidently been incised in the clay of the mold so that it appears in thin raised 
lines in the final bronze; the other technique is just the opposite in that the 
raised part of the final design consists of flat bands broader than the lines that 
separate them. Intricate and elaborate though they be within themselves, the 
decorated areas remain flat; there are no protruding elements; the eyes of the 
fao-fieh are very slightly rounded; and flanges when present are minimal. 
None of this dominates or overburdens the surface or intrudes upon the 
smooth and elegant profile of the vessel. With the move to An-yang the 
spirit changed; and gradually more and more of the surface was covered; and 
the elements of decoration multiplied and elaborated almost beyond recog- 
nition.' As time went on, the entire surface of the vessel was often covered 
with decoration leaving only occasional horizontal bands plain to serve as 
frames or boundaries between zones with various motifs. Frequently the 
entire background came to be filled with the squared spirals known as lei-wen, 
"thunder pattern"; variations of the "'fao-fieh" proliferated; the varieties of 
"dragons" became more numerous and more complex; and certain birdlike 
forms also appeared in a variety of shapes. Along with these fantastic beasts, a 
number of perfectly recognizable species of birds and animals began to appear 

cLoehr, The bronze styles . . ., When this very useful paper was written, the author was able to say, "Shang 
sites earlier than An-yang, yielding the hoped for archaeological evidence, have not been uncovered thus far." 
Thirteen years later in the light of what we have learned from the earliest finds, it seems that Loehr's An-yang I 
and H may in fact be pre-An-yang, and that his III may be the first true An-yang style. 



10 



including owls, fish, serpents, tigers, water buffalo, elephants, hares, cicadas, 
etc. Animal masks recognizable as feline and bovine in inspiration began to 
be seen at intervals on the plain bands set on the shoulders of vessels and 
forming the tops of handles. As these latter motifs appeared, the vertical 
flanges began to increase in length, height and thickness; and for the first 
time high relief became a major factor in the overall design. Gradually 
various parts of the t'ao-t'ieh, eyebrows, horns, tusks, etc., and other features 
of the decoration began to take on higher and higher relief and even to pro- 
trude in the round until the whole vessel took on a rough, uneven and 
encrusted look. 

This was the general trend at the time of the Chou conquest. At the same 
time it must be stressed that there was by no means a uniform "style of the 
period." On the contrary, as we understand it today, the closing decades of 
the Shang and the first few decades of Chou provide such a bewildering 
variety of decoration, ranging from relatively sparse ornamental bands on 
otherwise smooth surfaces to almost solid all-over coverings of lei-wen with 
either fairly slick and uninterrupted profiles or else bristling with protrusions 
of all kinds, that it has been impossible so far to bring order or system into 
this apparent stylistic chaos. So the situation is that while we can now 
recognize a number of bronzes of apparently very different aspects as "Late 
Shang or Early Chou,'' the problem of explaining the differences between 
them has still to be solved. In this short span from about 1050 to 1000 B.C., 
the best solution for the time being may be to speak, quite honestly, of the 
styles of the Shang-Chou transition. 

Many instances of this curious situation could be cited, but an outstanding 
example occurs in our own collection where the fang-i Number 38, with its 
richly decorated surface encrusted with a great variety of motifs in high, low 
and medium relief, and its profile almost lost in the framework of heavily 
notched and segmented flanges, is related by the content of its inscription to 
the huo Number 41. The latter, again richly decorated all over, presents an 
entirely different aspect with its uniformly low relief only very faintly inter- 
rupted by the eyes of the several fao-fieh so that the striking thing about the 
piece is its shape rather than its decoration. This huo in turn is associated, by 
its inscription, which in this case is not merely related but identical, with a yu 
in the Hakutsuru Museum in Kobe."* Quite unlike our huo, the yu is again 
heavily encrusted with relief in several levels, is dominated by heavy hooked 

^Mizuno, In-shu . . ., pi. 103. 



11 



flanges, and in addition has boldly realistic rams' heads in the round termina- 
ting the handle. All three vessels and related members of the Nieh-Iing and 
Ch'en-ch'en sets to which they belong have been assigned by epigraphers to 
the reign of King Ch'eng (1024-1005), and the huo and the vz^ must have been 
designed and cast in the same place at the same time. 

Notwithstanding the apparent confusion in this transitional period, 
valiant efforts have been made to classify the minutiae; and it may be that 
studies such as those of Karlgren and Watson, though they are by no means 
in total harmony, point out a path which may ultimately lead to clearer 
understanding. In any case that time is still a long way off, and much work 
remains to be done. 

As the Chou dynasty wore on, the picture became clearer; and the motifs 
that had appeared in such profusion and multiplied with such almost infinite 
variety began to take on more standard forms and eventually to fall into 
more easily recognizable categories. Dragons and birds and all the rest 
tended to become more stylized (if the phrase may be used in connection with 
a form that starts out as the stylization of an idea); and as time passed the 
stylization led to greater and greater abstraction. In about the 10th century, 
birds and dragons begin to appear in more bold and simple forms composed 
of broad, plain bands and then, very gradually, they start to disintegrate 
before our very eyes. Crests are no longer attached to the heads they adorn, 
and legs and tails become separated from their proper bodies until in the 
long run the birds and beasts lose their identities altogether; and the vessels, 
except for a monster mask here and there, or a head in the round atop a 
handle, are decorated with purely abstract patterns in broad flat bands, the 
style of Middle Chou. 

The finest of the Middle Chou ceremonial vessels were decorated with a 
simplicity and strength not seen before or after this in the history of Chinese 
bronze casting. Perhaps because the designs were uncomplicated they were 
not always given the skill and attention that were customary in earlier times, 
and much of the output of the period was undeniably crude. But the best of 
Middle Chou has a strength and monumentality that set it quite apart.'' 

From this turning point, the movement began, in a sense, to reverse. As we 
have already seen, the new vessel shapes of the second half of the dynasty 

*^E.g. our kiiei No. 77, the Nelson Gallery kuei, and the two hu belonging to Denis Cohen, Esq., and to the Art 
Institute of Chicago, the three latter illustrated by Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, pis. 48b, 52, 53. There are 
many other examples. 



12 



were uninspired at best. If anything saved them from obhvion, it was the 
decoration ; but even then there was nothing comparable to what had gone 
before. In a general way the trend can be described in these terms: (a) the 
broad bands that made up the decor of Middle Chou began gradually to 
shrink in size and to take on an ever more animalistic character, often show- 
ing quite recognizable heads and rudimentary legs; (b) the interlocking 
became tighter, and the individual strips were, so to speak, cut up into small 
"dragons" which were arranged in horizontal bands and with hemispherical 
"eyes" where they intersect in forming the rectangular patterns (e.g. No. 86); 
(c) later, instead of intersecting loosely, the pattern became very tight; and 
the surfaces of the bands were covered with intaglio scrolls and fitted with 
appendages in slight relief to form the pattern known as "abundant hooks 
and volutes" (e.g. No. 97); and finally the bands became narrower, the rec- 
tangular "dragon" units became smaller and the divisions between horizon- 
tal zones disappeared until the overall effect was that of an abstract diaper 
pattern uniformly covering the surface of the vessel (e.g. the fu No. 107). 

While these developments were taking place in the last two centuries or so 
of the Chou dynasty, an entirely new factor appeared on the scene. This was 
the so-called "hunting style" which introduced into the decorative scheme 
recognizable animals and men in attitudes suggestive of the chase. While 
much remains to be learned about the origin and introduction of this style, 
one or two hints are available. The inscriptions on two such vessels refer to 
events that took place in the northeast of China, and a fine "hunting /zw" was 
among the bronzes excavated near T'ang-shan some 60 miles northeast of 
present day Tientsin. Under the circumstances it is hard to avoid the im- 
pression that the "hunting style" was an intrusion into the agrarian Chinese 
culture from the non-Chinese hunting cultures indigenous to the mountainous 
and wooded areas that lie beyond the Great Wall in what we used to call 
Manchuria. (See Nos. 95 and 98.) 

This was the situation when the bronze-age civilization drew to a close. 
Bronze, as a metal, has of course continued in use; but with the unification of 
China by the Ch'in and the estabHshment by the Han of a strong and lasting 
central government based on Confucian principles, the "good old days" 
came to an end. Bronze vessels no longer played such an essential part, and 
from the Han dynasty onward, simple, utilitarian, though often nonetheless 
handsome, vessels were the rule; and the surface decoration, when present at 
all tended to be purely ornamental rather than charged with meaningful 



13 



magic. The last few vessels in the catalogue illustrate some aspects of the 
development that was to take place along those hues. 

Terminology 

In the descriptions of the bronzes a number of the standard technical 
terms are used either in romanization or in translation of the original 
Chinese, and it may be in order to add a few notes on the terminology of 
bronze decoration in general and on our use of that terminology in this book. 
How the motifs on the bronzes were described by those whose minds con- 
ceived them and whose hands first delineated them we have no way of know- 
ing. Some of the names of the vessel-types go back to inscriptions on the 
vessels themselves;^ but many of them, and apparently most of the names of 
the motifs of decoration, originated with the compilers of the Sung and later 
catalogues who used them, it must be noted, with an inconsistency and 
vagueness that are deeply frustrating. Since the early days of Chinese bronze 
studies in the West, students have been faced with the problems of inter- 
preting those terms. 

Various approaches have been used. Some have treated the motifs in a 
more or less straightforward way simply translating the terms as they appear 
under the respective characters in the standard Chinese-English dictionaries, 
or else just using them in romanized form. Others have gone to much 
trouble trying to construct or reconstruct whole theories about the spiritual 
and psychological life of ancient China on the basis of their interpretation of 
the motifs. In so doing, they have failed to realize that the surviving works 
on which we base our knowledge of early Chinese thought were not only 
written centuries after the bronzes were made, but have come down to us in 
imperfect form, edited and re-edited centuries after they were written, and 
can hardly have any relation at all to the thinking of Shang and early Chou. 
Excursions into the beliefs and practices of the primitive peoples of Asia and 
Oceania never fail to make good reading; whether they shed any light on the 
religious life of the early Chinese remains to be seen.^ Still another approach 
has been taken by those who have sought to classify and categorize the motifs 

fHayashi, In-shu . . . lists some 30 type names as appearing in the inscriptions on vessels and implements. 

gCarl Hentze was a pioneer in this field, and his Bronzegerdt . . . sums up more than 20 years of research in the 
field of folklore which he feels was the inspiration of much of the bronze decoration. Waterbury, Early Chinese 
symbols . . . leans heavily on Hentze's early work; and Ackerman, Ritual bronzes . . ., most comprehensive of all 
in her outlook, brings everyone from the Phoenicians to the Navajo Indians into her search for explanations. 



14 



and to seek a precise definition for each variation of form and detail." 

In the present volume we have followed generally accepted views if such a 
thing can be said in a field where there is so much difference of opinion; and 
we have tried to keep exotic terms to a minimum. One or two words of ex- 
planation may not be amiss, however, in the case of what may be the four 
most frequently used terms. The word "dragon" inevitably causes confusion 
because the vision it conjures up is that of the great scaley reptilian monster 
with or without wings which flies through the skies or swims through the 
seas, exercises control over the rainfall, and is graphically depicted in paint- 
ing, carving, and casting from the Han dynasty onward. The dragon of the 
bronze age bears no resemblance to this familiar form; and we don't even 
know that the concept existed in the mind of the Chinese of that time. What 
these beasts meant to them, or if they even called them lung as their descen- 
dants called the raingiver, we do not know. For our purposes here it is simply 
a convenient term for any unreal, imaginary, or fabulous beast that defies 
zoological identification. It is invariably seen in profile and may or may not 
have horns, a crest, feet, wings, etc. The Chinese term k'uei which is defined 
as a one-legged monster, is often prefixed to the word "dragon" and usually 
refers to clearly defined beasts (regardless of the number of legs) that appear 
singly or in pairs, or even in continuous parades, around vessels in bands of 
varying widths. No attempt is made to distinguish between ordinary dragons 
and k'uei dragons, and there are many marginal types; both terms are used 
loosely. 

Perhaps the most characteristic motif of bronze decor is the so-called 
fao-fieh, a. term that has always proved troublesome' and that has never 
failed to seduce students into all sorts of complex speculations. Here we use it 
in the broadest sense to describe a full-face, mask-like design that is represen- 
ted flat or in low relief on the surface of the bronze. Its most striking features 
are the prominent staring eyes, the eyebrows and/or horns that may be simple 
or elaborate, and the fact that it usually lacks a lower jaw. Without going into 
the almost infinite number of variations that may occur (almost no two are 
identical), it may be added that the mask may be integral in form as on the 
base of Number 63, or made up of two dragons confronted across a flange 
as seen on the body of the same vessel. 

hKarlgren, Yin and Chou . . .; and A grammar . . .; and Consten, A terminology . . . are the most methodical 
and thoroughgoing studies using this approach. 

iConsten, op. cit. gives a useful resume of the many interpretations of this enigmatic term. 



15 



The third term constantly used in romanization is lei-wen which means 
"thunder pattern" because of some remote, or even fancied, resemblance 
that it bears to archaic script forms of the character for thunder. In practice, 
as a motif of design on the bronzes, this resemblance is tenuous at best; and 
the rows of spiral patterns, either squared or round, have equally been called 
yiin-wen (cloud patterns) by the Sung cataloguers with no apparent effort to 
distinguish between the two forms. Purists have advocated the abolition of 
the term from the vocabulary of bronze decoration;' but it is so embodied in 
the existing literature, and has become so familiar to all who know Chinese 
bronzes that no useful purpose would be served by its sudden withdrawal. 
We continue to use it in our text along with such English alternatives as 
"squared spirals" and "spiral filling" to describe the intricate and elegant 
background against which many of the bolder designs are set. For the rest, 
the terminology is pretty orthodox in keeping with the repertories established 
and catalogued by Karlgren and Consten in the works already cited. 

Chronology 

It is well known that two sets of dates exist for all Chinese reigns before 
841 B.C. and there is no need to review all the arguments on both sides of 
the question. In the discussions that follow, we have adopted the following 
system : 

Hsia A legendary period 

probably ending in 
the 16th century B.C. 
Shang (also called Yin) ca. 1523-1027 B.C. 

P'an Keng moves capital to Yin in 1300 
Chou (see details on next page) 1027- 256 B.C. 

After 256 B.C. the Ch'in State controlled most 

of China. The King proclaimed himself 

"Emperor" in 221. 
Chin 221- 207 B.C. 

Former (Western) Han 207 B.C. - 8 A.D. 

Hsin (the interregnum of Wang Mang) 9- 25 A.D. 

JKarlgren, A grammar . . ., p. 1. 

k Loehr, Relics of ancient China, pp. 58-62, gives a useful discussion of the conflicting views and a com- 
parative table of the relevant dates. 



16 



Later (Eastern) Han 25- 220 

The Three Kingdoms 220- 265 

Wei 220-265 North China 

Shu Han 221-264 Southwest China 

Wu 222-265 Southeast China 

Western Chin 265- 316 

Eastern Chin 317- 420 

Six Dynasties (includes Wu and Eastern Chin) 220- 589 

Sui 589- 618 

T'ang 618- 906 

The Five Dynasties 906- 960 

Northern Sung 960-1127 

Southern Sung 1127-1279 

Yuan 1260-1368 

Ming 1368-1644 

Ch'ing 1644-1912 



The Chou dynasty 



A major division in the dynasty occurred in 771 B.C. when the ruler 
moved his capital from near Ch'ang-an in Shensi to a site near Lo-yang some 
330 km. to the east in Honan. The two periods are loosely known as Western 
Chou and Eastern Chou respectively. For the Eastern Chou the Chinese had 
two much more picturesque names : 

Period of the Spring and Autumn Annals 

(Ch'un-ch'iu) 772- 481 B.C. 

Period of the Warring States (Chan-kuo) 481- 221 B.C. 

The Kings of Western Chou were: 



Wu 


1027- 


1025 


I 


907- 


-898 


Ch'eng 


1024- 


1005 


Hsiao 


897- 


-888 


K'ang 


1004- 


967 


I 


887- 


-858 


Chao 


966- 


948 


Li 


857- 


-828 


Mu 


947- 


928 


Hsiian 


827- 


-782 


Kung 


927- 


908 


Yu 


781- 


-771 



In Eastern Chou the central power deteriorated to such an extent that the 
Kings were mere figureheads, and the Dukes of the various states ruled 
almost independently. When names are found at all in bronze inscriptions of 



17 



the latter half of Chou, they are likely to be the names of Dukes rather than 
those of the Chou Kings. 



P'ing 


770-720 


Ching 


544-520 


Huan 


719-697 


Ching 


519-476 


Chuang 


696-682 


Yiian 


475-469 


Hsi 


681-677 


Chen Ting 


468-441 


Hui 


676-652 


K'ao 


440-426 


Hsiang 


651-619 


Wei Ling 


425-402 


Ch'ing 


618-613 


An 


401-376 


K'uang 


612-607 


Lieh 


375-369 


Ting 


606-586 


Hsien 


368-321 


Chien 


585-571 


Shen Ching 


320-315 


Ling 


570-545 


Nan 


314-256 



18 



THE CATALOGUE 



NUMBER ONE 



PLATE 1 



P'ou 

Shang dynasty (middle An-yang, 12th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 17.1 cm. (6f in.) 

Width, 24.2 cm. {9\ in.) 

Weight, 2.49 kg. (5 lbs., 8 oz.) 

Accession number 09.334 



The squat vessel with large mouth and foot is decorated in low relief. 
Below a plain lip and neck is a shoulder band of embryonic monocular 
dragons amid lei-wen spirals. The main design consists of lei-wen 
arranged to form quadrangular lozenges each centered on a stud. The 
over-all conception of the design is sophisticated, but the workmanship 
is essentially crude. The surface is covered with a smooth, olive-green 
patina, and no attempt has been made to conceal the three vertical mold- 
marks by working the cold surface of the bronze. 

Mr. Freer bought this piece in 1909 from Count Tanaka through 
Samurai Shokai of Yokohama. After studying it, he wrote the following 
comments : 

"Supposed to be late Chou or early Han. Suspicious in every way and 
recolored, but useful for study and worthy of thoughtful attention. 
Compare the decorations in lower band, nipple design in lozenge- 
shaped spaces, with illustrations on page 48, a Shang jar, of Thoms' 
Ancient Chinese Vases of the Shang Dynasty. Examine refinement of 
certain areas of upper band of decoration and look carefully into 
eroded spaces on rim and on edge of foot; note also pattern lines." 



20 



PLATE 1 




NUMBER ONE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Vessels of this shape, usually called p'ou, or sometimes lei, might seem 
from the simplicity of their design and their evident derivation from 
ceramic prototypes to be among the earliest of Shang vessel types. 
Apparently, however, they were preceded by the ku, chiieh, and other 
forms. The earliest extant p'ou seem to belong to the middle An-yang 
period, around the 12th century. In the combination of geometric decor 
on the main area of the body with a band of monocular dragons on the 
shoulder, the present example is related in design to Shang white pottery 
vessels like the well-known lei in our collection (39.42). The same com- 
bination appears on a bronze p'ou found at An-yang, a simpler and 
rounder vessel than ours and probably somewhat earlier.^ 

On another p'ou of less squat shape but related design in the Nara 
Museum,^ fully formed, clearly recognizable tigers take the place of the 
inchoate creatures of the shoulder zone of our vessel, suggesting that the 
latter, since they co-exist with motifs of a more representational char- 
acter, are not so primitive as one might at first think. Closer to ours in 
shape and decor, but far more refined in execution, is the one in the 
Sumitomo Collection.^ On this, however, both the monoculi in the 
shoulder band and the angular design on the body are set against fine 
lei-wen grounds. The relative crudeness of our p'ou, in both design and 
casting, is more likely attributable to provincial manufacture, or simply 
to a less accomplished workshop, than to earlier date. Other vessels of 
the type exhibit a similar crudeness; e.g., one in the Berlin Museum.'' 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The object was cast in one piece, and the three equally spaced vertical 
lines running from top to bottom on the sides appear to be mold marks; 
but this is not certain. The decor elements show poor register at the join 
lines as if the pattern of each panel had been applied to the mold mech- 

1 Li Chi, The beginnings . . . , pi. XXXVI. 

2 Umehara, SKS, l/12b. 

3 Sumitomo, Sen-oku . . . , 11/52. 

4 Umehara, op. cit., 11/125. 



22 



NUMBER ONE 




Figure 1 



anically {fig. 1). The ragged edges of the Unes of the design suggest that 
the plastic medium into which they were pressed may have been soft, 
Hke wet clay. Moreover, within each of the three segments of decor, there 
are faint vertical lines about equally spaced which are difficult to explain ; 
but they may be joins in the wood or other material from which the 
model was made. No decor pattern of this character has been observed 
on any other bronze in the collection. The bottom underside is plain, and 
no chaplets have been observed. 

The patination is peculiar although it appears to be natural and 
authentic. Beneath the thin green surface is a whitish layer that resembles 
plaster, but X-ray diffraction analysis shows that it is mainly tin oxide. It 
is stained blue in places, but this is caused by copper compounds, not 
artificial dye or pigment. 

The vessel has been repaired. A portion of the decor on the shoulder 
about one-third around is crudely drawn in a kind of plaster which is 
colored with Paris green pigment. The interior of this unmatching surface 



23 



NUMBER ONE 



is also encrusted with Paris green-stained, plaster-like material which 
fluoresces pinkish in ultraviolet light ; but no evidence of metal replace- 
ment in the vessel wall was found. It is probable that the original tin- 
oxide corrosion product in this area had fallen away, and the repairs 
were made simply to hide the losses. On the inside of the foot what was 
probably a hole is patched with thin strips of copper covered over with 
green-stained plaster. 

Composition : Samples taken from edge of foot. 
Wet chemical analysis: Cu 71.7%; Sn 12.2; Pb 13.9; Total 97.8. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.02%; 
Fe 0.02; Co < 0.001 ; Ni 0.001 ; Si 0.002. 



24 



NUMBER ONE 




A radiograph of the bottom of the vessel. This 
shows clearly the three mold joins and a large 
area of repair (near top of radiograph) 



25 



NUMBER TWO 



PLATE 2 



P'ou 

Shang or Early Chou dynasty (12th-l 1th century B.C.) 

Inscription of 62 characters inside bottom 

Height, 37.2 cm. (14f in.) 

Width, 32.1 cm. (12|in.) 

Weight, 8.99 kg. (19 lbs., 13 oz.) 

Accession number 13.30 



The large covered vessel is divided vertically into six segments by thin 
flanges on the lid, body and foot. The two upper sets of flanges look like 
processions of birds in silhouette; those on the base have simple notches. 
On the lid is a tall stem topped by a hollow finial in the shape of a bud 
with a loose ball inside making it a rattle. Decoration in relief consists of 
upside-down t'ao-t'ieh masks on the lid and three pairs of confronted 
k'uei dragons on the shoulder over the major t'ao-tUeh masks on the 
belly. Around the base are three elongated t'ao-tieh made up of con- 
fronted stylized dragons. Much of the surface has a smooth, dark green 
patina interrupted by areas of azurite and malachite corrosion. The 
quality of the casting is fine, but the vessel is broken and damaged in a 
number of places. 

Mr. Freer's original comment reads: 
"Very important and thoroughly representative of the best designing 

and casting during the Chou dynasty. From the collection of late 

Prince Kung, who formerly owned also S.I. 389, 13.21." 



26 



PLATE 2 



i 



i' \ 



1 



NUMBER TWO (13.30) 



NUMBER TWO 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Several p'ou vessels are known which appear to be of late Shang date 
similar except for the hooked flanges.^ The shape derives from the 
squatter, lidless p'ou of which examples are discussed in connection with 
Number One. A link between these and the later variety, with relief decor 
and flanges producing an irregular silhouette, may be seen in a piece in 
the Seligman Collection, « with its high relief horned-animal heads on the 
shoulder and rudimentary flanges. The hooked flanges here are not of 
the type associated with typical Early Chou vessels, but have more in 
common with those that are found, although unfrequently, on Shang 
vessels (cf. discussion of No. 4). However, the transformation of these 
flanges into the forms of birds, with the hooks serving as beaks and tails, 
is an uncommon feature, as is the combination of dragons with a 
modified form of the "whorl circle" on the shoulder. Finally, while the 
rattle nob on the lid is reminiscent of rattles on horse fittings, pole finials 
and other bronze objects of Shang date, its occurrence on a vessel lid and 
its lotus-like shape are uncommon. A vessel identical in design is in the 
Sumitomo Collection, Kyoto. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Mold marks and webs show plainly along the six flanges of both vessel 
and lid which indicate they were each cast in a three-piece (six-division) 
mold assembly with true joins vertically in line with the three rectang- 
gular holes at top of the foot. The bottom underside is plain. Along the 
edge of the foot is a low ridge which appears to be a join line formed by 
juncture of the upper core and outer mold. Although traces of such join 
lines are often seen on the foot rim of vessels like this, the lines seen here 
are unusually prominent. Three pairs of chaplets are located symmetric- 
ally around the neck and two within the decor area. Two have fallen out. 
The edges of the hole left by one lost chaplet show evidence of spill-over 

5 Mizuno, In-shii . . ., color plate 8, Umehara, SKS, 11/127, University Museum, Philadelphia, and 128, 

Metropolitan Museum, New York. 
^ Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, plate 3b. 

Sumitomo, Senoku, no. 51. 



28 



NUMBER TWO 



metal on the inside, indicating that the spacers were in place when the 
vessel metal was poured. Further chaplets are similarly disposed under 
the vessel bulge. The chaplets are irregular in size and shape; some are 
triangular, others square, and they range in size from 0.5 cm. to 1.3 cm. 
in the largest dimension. In the upper band the edges of the chaplets are 
ill-concealed and surrounded by a gap in the metal; but under the bulge 
the edges are so perfectly flush that they can only be detected by their 
pale green color in contrast to the darker green surrounding them. The 
edges of one of the chaplets in the lower band and one in the upper band 
were scraped down to bare metal, and in both instances no difference in 
color between chaplet and matrix metal was observed. Both are appar- 
ently made from the same yellowish alloy. Analysis of one of the chap- 
lets from the upper plain area shows: Cu 83.0"o; Sn 15.7; Pb none; 
Total 98.7. This confirms the visual observation that the chaplets and 
matrix metal are closely similar in composition. 

The presence of a seam at the bottom of the stem supporting the rattle 
on top of the lid shows it was separately cast and the lid metal cast onto 
it {fig. 2). The stem juts out slightly beneath the under surface of the lid. 




Figure 2 



29 



NUMBER TWO 



The casting is poor, and there are several large flaws in the side wall of 
the vessel which were filled and repaired at time of fabrication. These 
repair inserts have a smooth patina like the body metal, but the tone is a 
little lighter. Some of the inserts in the decor area have had decor 
elements cut into them to maintain the continuity of design {fig. 3). 




Figure 3 



Sections of the rim have broken away and extensive repairs have been 
made with soft solder; paint and luting materials have been used to hide 
the mends. One section of the rim is entirely missing. Two small holes on 
the inside of the foot are filled with soft solder. 

The corrosion products are of special interest. An area on one side of 
the upper bulbous middle carries a number of irregular conical prom- 
inences looking almost like barnacles which seem to have been local 
centers of active corrosion. The sides of the cones are horizontally ridged 



30 



NUMBER TWO 



or stepped as if their growth was intermittent. They are composed mostly 
of copper carbonate and appear to be free from chloride ion. Conical 
prominences like these are often seen on Chinese bronze mirrors and 
other bronze types. Elsewhere on the vessel are blue crystalline crusts of 
azurite, but most of the surface is covered with a smooth, enamel-like 
tin-oxide patina stained dark green by copper salts. At low magnifica- 
tions ghosts of the dendritic cast structure of the original metal can be 
seen in the thick tin-oxide crust. Much of the surface of this vessel serves 
as an excellent example of pseudomorphic replacement of copper by tin 
oxide. 

Because of the broken edge, this is one of the few vessels in the collec- 
tion from which a specimen of metal could be taken and prepared for 
metallographic study. Microscopic examination of the mounted and 
polished specimen after etching shows that the metal has a typical 
dendritic structure characteristic of cast high-tin bronze. The specimen 
is quite exceptional because there are no rounded inclusions of lead 
which confirms the absence of lead in the chemical analysis {vide infra). 
At the edge corrosion is not selective for any particular phase but has 
advanced towards the center with a straight line front. The copper that 
was leached out in surface corrosion has been almost replaced pseudo- 
morphically by tin oxide. 

Some earthy residues adhere to the insides of both the vessel and the 
foot. If originally buried, the piece has probably been above ground for 
a long time. 

The long inscription on the bottom appears to have been incised. 
Though the inside bottom of the vessel is heavily corroded and has been 
partially cleaned by chipping, the corrosion crusts at no point obscure 
the inscription. The characters show chatter marks and interior ridges 
(double-cutting) in the grooves, and the ends of the grooves are ploughed 
up as if a chisel had been used {fig. 4). A radiograph revealed that two 
chaplets are intersected by characters (for instance, the fifth character in 
the last column), and the characters appear more faintly than usual in 
the radiograph, which leads to the conclusion that they were cut in the 
corroded surface of the metal. While some of these features might be 



31 



NUMBER TWO 




present in a cast inscription which had been cleaned after long burial, 
their concurrence here suggests that this inscription is incised. 

Composition : Sample taken from rim. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 8 1 .9% ; Sn 1 7.8 ; Total 99.7. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Pb 0.3%; 
Ag0.03 ; FeO.2 ; Co 0.001 ; Ni 0.002 ; As < 0.07 ; Mg < 0.001 ; Si < 0.001 . 

INSCRIPTION 

The 62 characters of this inscription are roughly and in several cases 
incorrectly written. They may be translated as follows: the highly literal 
rendering indicates faulty or questionable aspects of the composition: 

1. In the 12th month, the c/zV/z-phenomenon (occurring) on the day 
keng- 

2. sheu (the 57th day of the cycle), Ch'en-X-(=a title ?)-Shih's grand- 
son, Y. made. 

3. on behalf of. go (= sacrifice?) Grand Ancestral Temple's 

sacrifices 



32 



NUMBER TWO 



4. (this) honored / to be employed in offerings to his august grand- 
father 

5. and august grandmother; to be employed in ... . ( = verb) his 
majestic. Presume to make obeisance and 

6. bow low the head to respond and extol and Son of Heaven's great, 
illustrious, 

7. august grace. Therefore pray for a myriad years ripe 

8. old age without limit, son and grandson (=descendants) forever 
value and employ (it). 

Upon the basis of the ductus of the script alone, there remains little 
question as to the fraudulent nature of the inscription. Comparison with 
the calligraphy of several well-known, forged inscriptions of similar style 
illustrates the point. 




33 



NUMBER THREE 



PLATE 3 



P'an 

Shang dynasty (late An-yang, 12th-l 1th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 12.3 cm. (4J in.) 

Width, 32.4 cm. (12iin.) 

Weight, 5.30 kg. (11 lbs., 11 oz.) 

Accession number 56.26 



The broad basin of the vessel rests on a high circular foot around 
which is a procession of six k'uei dragons heading to the right. The body 
is decorated with three pairs of confronted dragons in a horizontal band 
below which are pendant blades. The main design inside is a single large 
dragon coiled completely around the vessel with its head in the center. 
The body is decorated with diamond lozenges and the head with bottle 
horns. Small dragon forms fill the rest of the available space inside the 
coil. Just below the lip is a band consisting of a bird, a fish, and a dragon 
repeated three times and moving around to the left. All the decoration is 
in fine sharp intaglio with only the eyes of the main dragon in slight 
relief. The surface is covered with a pale greenish-gray patina which 
shows areas of malachite and cuprite encrustation. A small rectangle 
with concave sides and two pairs of crossed strokes above it appears on 
the dragon's forehead and may or may not be an inscription {fig. 5). 



34 



PLATE 3 




NUMBER THREE (56.26) 



NUMBER THREE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The p'an of this shape belongs generally to the middle and later An- 
yang period ; an example with simple geometric pattern was found at An- 
yang,^ and others can be dated by their decor to the latter part of the 
Shang dynasty. 9 Versions of the design persist into Chou, and p'an with 
coiled serpents filling the interior surfaces were still current in Middle 
Chou^o and as late as the seventh century, the Ukely date of the tombs 
at Shang-ts'un-ling, where one of them was found. 

The closest relatives to our p'an, however, date from the Shang 
period. One of the earliest, perhaps, is a vessel reportedly from An-yang, 
which is the simplest in design, and closest in shape to pottery vessel. 
tortoise, rather than a serpent, occupies the main area of the interior. It 
is encircled by a procession of bird, tiger, and fish, in the same order as 
here but moving clockwise, in the zone just below the rim of the vessel. 
Similar in shape but more elaborate in decor is another p'an found at 
An-yang which has a curled serpent in the center and the same series of 
creatures surrounding it.^^ A further elaboration is seen in a p'an in the 
British Museum, on which small representations of tigers, fish, snakes, 
and a dragon surround the head of the large serpent. The bird, tiger, 
and fish again encircle this main motif, but now move in a counter- 
clockwise direction. In these features the design agrees most closely with 
our /?'«/?, on which small dragon forms occupy the spaces around the 
horns and ears of the serpent, and the animals around the rim move 
counter-clockwise. In shape, however, the British Museum vessel differs 
in having a higher foot and shallower bowl. Another closely related p'an 
is in the Brundage Collection (B.60 B.89). 



8 Li Chi, The beginnings . . . , PI. IXd. 

9 The vessel of which a line drawing is placed by Mizuno under "Late Anyang" in the typological chart 
accompanying his In shU ... is very similar in shape. 

E.g. Mizuno, In shii . . . , PI. 121, from Lo-yang. 

11 Shang-ts'un-ling . . . , PI. XVHL 

12 Huang, Yeh-chiing . . . , U, A, 34. It corresponds closely, both in shape and in the absence of any de- 
sign other than the simplest relief "bowstring" pattern on the exterior, to the p'an appearing under 
"Early An-yang" in Mizuno's typological chart. 

13 Huang, op. cit., HI, B, 6. This is also published in Umehara, SKS/J, n/84, as "ExColl. of T. Ota, 
Kyoto"; rubbing in Jung Keng, Shang Chou . . . , L P- 112. 

l'^ Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. 26a-b; rubbing in Jung, op. cit., p. 113. 



36 



NUMBER THREE 



Ours is the only one of these with lei-wen in its decor, and even here it 
is used only sparingly, on the head of the serpent and in the more con- 
ventional designs of the exterior. The remainder of the design, executed 
in intaglio, and unusually pictorial in character for the Shang dynasty, 
reinforces the impression made by the shape, that the early p'aii may 
have begun as simple translations into bronze of footed bowls made of 
pottery or wood with designs engraved in the surfaces of those materials. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast in one piece, apparently in a three-piece mold with true 
joins coinciding with the three openings in the foot just below the vessel 
bottom. The three low flanges midway between the true joins show no 
evidence of pattern join, and in the leaf blade decor just below the 
flanges there is no interruption in the decor elements. The underside of 
the vessel is featureless. There is evidence of four chaplets in and around 
the head of the coiled dragon. 




Figure 5 



37 



NUMBER THREE 



The pale greenish, powdery patina overlying a nearly continuous layer 
of reddish cuprite is spread rather uniformly over interior and exterior. 
Fossae of the design are lined with cuprite, and covering much of this 
cuprite is a thin layer of black, which is remarkably lustrous and in 
places gives a false impression of being paint. On the vessel's underside 
this black covers extensive areas of the undecorated surface which 
suggests that originally the whole surface was black. X-ray diffraction 
analysis and chemical behavior indicate that the black is mostly cuprite, 
which is ordinarily red in color. Blackness may be caused by admixture 
with small amounts of carbon or may result from the presence of black 
cupric oxide, although no direct evidence for those substances was ob- 
tained by chemical or physical tests. X-ray diffraction analysis of the 
powdery, pale green patina gives a pattern whose lines correspond 
mainly to the mineral cassiterite (stannic oxide). If crusty copper 
minerals, e.g., azurite and malachite, were originally present, they have 
been mostly cleaned off. A distinguishing characteristic of the object is a 
flattened area 7 to 8 cm. long on the side of the foot, which seems to have 
resulted from a hard blow or fall in antiquity. This malleability of the 
alloy testifies to the high copper and low tin content shown by the 
chemical analysis. There are no repairs and no evidence of touch-up. 

Composition : Sample taken from rim of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 87.2% ; Sn 9.9 ; Pb 0.4 ; Total 97.5. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.09%; 

Fe 0.4; Co 0.01 ; Ni 0.01; As <0.1; Bi <0.03; Cr 0.002; Mg 0.001; 

Mn < 0.001; Si 0.02. 



38 



NUMBER THREE 




NUMBER FOUR 



PLATE 4 



Hu 

Shang dynasty (middle An-yang, 12th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 17.5 cm. (6|in.) 

Width, 11.7 cm. (4f in.) 

Weight, 0.94 kg. (2 lbs., 1 oz.) 

Accession number 49.5 



A small covered vessel, round in section, this hu is somewhat atypical 
in form. The surface is covered all over with very sharply cast designs 
arranged in five main horizontal bands. The cover and neck each have 
three vertical hooked flanges. Surmounting the cover is a mushroom- 
shaped knob decorated with whorl circles which are repeated around the 
base of the stem; and between the flanges are three fao-fieh facing up- 
ward. On the neck three more masks are centered on the flanges. The 
designs described thus far are executed in broad flat surfaces; below this 
the lines are much finer. On the shoulder is a band of six horizontal 
monoculi between borders of small circles. On the belly an overall lei- 
wen pattern is arranged in a rectangular scheme within a network of 
interlocking T's; a single band of lei-wen surrounds the foot. One side of 
the vessel has been damaged and repaired. The patina is a smooth, even 
gray-green on the raised surfaces, and the casting is extremely fine. 



40 



PLATE 4 




NUMBER FOUR (49.5) 



NUMBER FOUR 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The body of this vessel is covered with a geometric design of extra- 
ordinary precision and clarity. A similar combination of purely abstract 
surface pattern with motifs of a minimal zoomorphic nature is seen in 
much cruder form on our p'ou (No. 1), and on many other bronzes, as 
well as on white pottery vessels. In bronzes, it is most often associated 
with shapes that seem derived from ceramic vessels, and such a deriva- 
tion is suggested here. A slightly larger hu in the Fogg Art Museum, 
similar in design but with upper surface bare and lacking flanges, would 
appear to be even closer to the presumed ceramic model. A ceramic 
parallel may be seen, at least in shape, in a reconstruction of a white 
pottery hu published by Umehara.^"^ 

The designs on the neck and lid, lacking any separation between the 
motifs proper and the usual ground of spiral fillings, are of a variety 
known from some of the earlier vessels of the An-yang period,i^ and 
presumably originated in a carving or engraving technique. They survive 
in a few later vessels such as this but disappear by late An-yang. The 
hooked flanges are not of the thicker and more regular kind, commonly 
found on Early Chou vessels (such as, the fang-i. No. 38) but are rather 
of the Shang dynasty variety seen also on a fang-i from Hsiao-t'un and a 
ting reportedly also from An-yang,!^ in which the hooks similarly 
alternate with simple rectangular projections in irregular spacing to 
produce a complex outline. That this pattern can evolve from the dis- 
solution of a human profile has been shown by Li Chi, in connection 
with a group of hairpin ornaments.^o It would be a mistake, however, to 
conclude that it is always to be interpreted so; here it is probably quite 
devoid of representational significance. 

Another covered hu of similar shape, but lacking flanges and with a 

15 Umehara, Kanan anyo . . . , PI. XII, XIII, XV, XXII. For a similar pattern of interlocked T's, see 
PI. XX, a rubbing of a shard. 

16 Umehara, lii-kyo, PI. 101, No. 2. 

1'' Op. cit., PI. 17, No. 5, Muta Collection. The reconstruction is based on the fragment published in 
Yeh-chimg p'ien-yii, III/B/24b, and Umehara, Kanan anyo . . . , PI. XVII. 

18 I.e. those of Loehr's "Second Style"; see Loehr, The bronze styles . . . , figs. 5-8. 

19 Li Chi, The beginnings . . . , PI. VI right, and Mizuno, In shu . . . , color PI. 6. 

20 "Examples of pattern dissolution . . . ," Fig. 3. 



42 



NUMBER FOUR 



design covering the entire surface instead of being divided into zones, is 
in the Von Lochow Collection.^i A small cylindrical covered vessel in the 
Metropolitan Museum is said to have come from the same tomb at An- 
yang as the present //w.^^ 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The three vertical mold marks midway between the flanges indicate the 
vessel was cast in a three-piece mold. There are no breaks at all in the 
pattern in the line of the flanges. An especially interesting feature of this 
vessel is that all the flanges are precast ; they appear to have been placed 
in the mold and the vessel cast to them. In the lid one of the flanges 
actually pierces the inner surface, with the lid metal partially covering it 
{fig. 6). The flanges themselves were apparently cast in two-piece molds 
with the join lines located at one side instead of along the center of the 




Figure 6 



Von Lochow vol. 11, Va-b, and Mizuno op. cit., PI. 25a. 
Lippe, "A gift . . . p. 97, illus., and p. 101. 



43 



NUMBER FOUR 



flange faces. The underside within the foot is plain. There is no evidence 
of chaplets in either vessel or Hd. 

The surface and the finely modeled sunken decor is uniformly covered 
with smooth gray-green tin-oxide patina. X-rays reveal (see also Vol. 2, 
Chapter VII) that an area on one side of the vessel has been severely 
damaged. Several fragments have been put in place and secured with soft 
solder. A portion of the wide decor band about the middle is lost but 
has been replaced with a lead insert carved and modeled to match quite 
perfectly the surrounding decor. Lead solder fills a crack that extends 
upwards into the neck just short of the rim. An upper section of one 
flange has been broken off" and reattached. All the repaired areas are 
concealed with a bluish-green paint difficult to remove with strong 
organic solvents. There are also touches of paint on the cover but no 
evidence of repairs. 

Composition : Sample taken from outside rim of cover. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 73.7% ; Sn 12.4; Pb 12. 1 ; Total 98.2. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.02%; 
Fe 0.02; Co < 0.001 ; Sb 0.005; Al < 0.001 ;Mg < 0.001 ; Si 0.03. 



44 



NUMBER FOUR 




NUMBER FIVE 



PLATE 5 



Hu 

Shang dynasty (middle An-yang, 12th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 38.3 cm. (15|in.) 

Width, 27.3 cm. (lOiin.) 

Weight, 10.01 kg. (22 lbs., 1 oz.) 

Accession number 48.1 



This hu is ovoid in section and the shape was standard from early 
times until the appearance of major changes in the type sometime in the 
latter part of the Chou dynasty. The decoration, cast in low relief, is 
arranged in six horizontal bands. Three of these, the top, the third, and 
the fifth, have bold t'ao-fieh masks with bulging eyes centered on low 
sharp flanges; but the pairs of confronted dragons that make up the 
fao-fiehs are different in each band, and each is backed up by a differ- 
ent beast : bottle-horned k'uei on top, crested bird with upturned tail on 
the third, and larger crested bird with downturned tail on the fifth. The 
second band has a continuous line of small proboscid dragons all facing to 
the left and interrupted by the two tube-shaped handles with bovine 
heads at the sides. The fourth band has four pairs of very elongated, 
confronted dragons forming four fao-t'iehs without flanges. A band of 
four monocular dragons moves to the left around the high foot. Much 
of the silvery gray metal shows through the corroded areas, and the 
casting is extremely fine. 



46 



PLATE 5 




NUMBER FIVE (48.1) 



NUMBER FIVE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This hu is one of several similar vessels, all said to have been found at 
An-yang.23 They differ in the forms of the fao-t'ieh and dragons that fill 
the various zones, but agree in basic design, except that the arrangement 
of the monoculi in the second zone from the top on our vessel, with all 
the creatures "facing" leftward, is not paralleled on the others, where they 
are paired or confronting throughout in the usual manner. In Loehr's 
theory of the development of bronze styles in the Shang period, all these 
Ini vessels would belong to his "Fourth Style" in which coherent t'ao- 
t'ieh and other motifs are clearly set off against backgrounds of spiral 
filling, but remain flush with the surface. 

A predecessor to these, distinguished from them by a less pronounced 
curve to its silhouette and a decor that fills the zones evenly with dense 
linear patterns, is in the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities in Stock- 
holm. Midway between this and the group to which ours belongs, in 
both shape and decor, is a hii formerly owned by Yamanaka and Co., 
Osaka. This whole series would be followed by hu with the typical 
designs in relief and prominent flanges of the late An-yang style, of 
which good examples are in the Portland Art Museum and the S. Kawai 
Collection, Kyoto. '•^ This convincing sequence, in which changes in the 
nature of the surface decor are accompanied by changes in shape, places 
this hu in the middle An-yang period, probably 12th century. 

The existence of a similar hu with a lid, formerly in the Asano Collec- 
tion, Osaka," ^ suggests that the others may originally have been fitted 
with lids as well. This example also differs from all the others cited above 
in bearing a two-character inscription. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

This vessel, which is cast in one piece, bears vestiges of mold marks in 

"3 For others see: Huang, Yeh-cluiiig . . . , III, A, 29 closest to this /;;/; and Watson, Ancient Chinese 
bronzes, PI. 7b, a vessel in the Academia Sinica, Taipei, with a more flaring top. 

24 Karlgren, New Studies ... , No. 628, PI. XLVHI, and Loehr, The bronze styles . . . , Fig. 10. 

25 Umehara, SKSU, 1/31. 

26 Mizuno, In shi't . . . , Pi. 68, and Umehara, op. cit., 1/28. 
2'^ Umehara, op. cit., 1/33. 



48 



NUMBER FIVE 



vertical lines along the ends with the vertical tubulated lug handles but 
only vestiges of a pattern division show along the sides. The upper part 
of the foot, directly below the bottom, is pierced by two rectangular 
holes in the line of the long axis. Otherwise the underside of the bottom 
is plain. The tubulated lug handles (or rope holders) are cast as part of 
the bronze. Under the body bulges on either side of the two squarish 
openings are vestiges of chaplets. One is a small block of lei-wen decor, 
very similar to the bit of lei-wen that serves as a chaplet in a p'an in the 
British Museum (No. 1953/5-1 1). 

The patina is uneven; a portion of the surface is covered with grayish 
green, tin oxide but other areas are encrusted with warty malachite and 
cuprite. The upper portion of the vessel inside is deeply encrusted, but 
the bottom is smooth and metallic looking. 

The vessel is not as intact as it appears to be; an old crack which 
extends from the rim to one of the lug handles has been filled with 
plaster and concealed with bright-green paint which contains Paris green 
pigment. The painted areas are easily revealed by their pinkish fluores- 
cence in ultraviolet light. 

Composition : Sample taken from rim of foot. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 76.4% ; Sn 1 8. 1 ; Pb 3.0 ; Total 97.5. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.02%; 
Fe 0.03; Co < 0.001 ; Ni 0.001 ; Sb 0.04. 



49 



NUMBER SIX 



PLATE 6 



Ku 

Shang dynasty (middle An-yang, 12th century B.C.) 
Inscribed with one character inside the foot 
Height, 30.8 cm. (124 in.) 
Width, 21.5 cm. (SJin.) 
Weight, 2.38 kg. (51bs.,4oz.) 
Accession number 07.34 



Somewhat thicker and heavier than the normal ku shape, this vessel is 
largely covered with rough green malachite encrustation. Where this has 
flaked off, an extremely smooth gray patination is revealed. The upper 
part is plain, and the central and lower sections are decorated with con- 
fronted k'uei dragons forming t'ao-fieh masks cast in low relief. Those 
on the center band have low rounded flanges down the middle, and the 
faulty casting has left an eccentric plain area on one side. 

Mr. Freer's original note reads: "Very beautiful and believed by 
Japanese experts, including Mr. Fujita, to be genuine Chou. Compare 
with S.I. 206" (our No. 7). Mr. Lodge in 1942 considered it probably 
more recent casting and catalogued it as "Chou dynasty type." 



50 



NUMBER SIX (07.34) 



NUMBER SIX 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

While the squat shape and simple design relate this ku to examples 
believed to date from the early An-yang period^^ it is set apart from 
these by several features: the widely flaring top; the silhouette broken by 
the bulging central section (foreshadowed in the Hui-hsien Qxa.mp\Q by a 
slight convexity in the same position), and a raised foot; and the pres- 
ence of two rudimentary flanges projecting slightly from the center sec- 
tion. These features of the shape, together with the more highly evolved 
character of the fao-t'ieh designs, indicate a date in the middle An-yang 
period. The shape, rather than marking any real affinity with the early 
types, is rather to be seen as a hybrid product, midway between a 
thicker-than-usual kW-^ and a thinner-than-usual tsun.^^ Vessels of more 
or less this shape occur in the An-yang finds. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast in one piece probably by direct casting in a two-piece 
(four-division) mold although no mold marks are visible. The flanges 
and certain details of sunken decor have a smoothed-down look. 

Like most vessels of this type, the bottom is set high on the inside just 
where the bulbous middle and the plain double-ribbed band meet. 
Partial removal of the patina on the underside of the bottom shows the 
existence of a dark spot at the center which seems to be the remains of a 
chaplet. The condition is quite similar to that found on the bottom of 
our ku fragment (No. 11). The double-ribbed band bears on opposite 
sides two sunken crosses which are common to vessels of this type, 
perhaps caused by some kind of spacer used to keep outer and inner 
mold sections properly separated. The arm of one cross is not completely 
filled in which leaves an irregular hole, apparently a casting flaw. 

28 See Li Chi, Yin-shang-shih-tai, Academia Siiiica Bulletin 34, PI. HI, No. 2, and PI. VI; also Hui- 
hsien fa-chiieh pao-kao, PI. 14, No. 4; Umehara, SKSjJ, IF, 175; and Loehr, The bronze styles of 
the Anyang Period, figs. 1 and 2. 

29 Jung keng, Shang-chou, no. 566. 

30 Op. cit., no. 509, or No. 12 (55.1), or Umehara, SKSIJ, 11/140, which is in fact quite similar in shape 
to 07.34 but is classified as a tsun. 

31 Li Chi, . . . the bronze ku . . . , plate XLIII, a crude and undecorated piece. 



52 



NUMBER SIX 



The single character inscription is cast-in and has comparatively high 
ridges on either side of the grooves; a relief line surrounds the character. 
Much of the surface, especially the upper portion, is thinly covered with 
a crust of pebbly malachite, and where the malachite is broken away, a 
fine tin-oxide patina shows. There is no evidence of breaks or repairs. 

Composition : Sample taken from lower edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 76.7%; Sn 15.2; Pb 4.9; Total 96.8. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

FeO.l ; Co 0.001 ; Ni 0.009; As 0.3; Sb0.03; Bi0.09; Al 0.002; Mg 

0.001; Mn < 0.001 ; Si 0.02. 

INSCRIPTION 

On the inside of the base a single cast-in graph, .9/7//? "recorder," "scribe" 
appears. It is surrounded by an irregularly shaped frame in rilievo. Our 
inscription was first published in the Yi-lin-kuan chi-chin fii-chih where- 
in was reproduced also a full-length rubbing depicting the vessel. 
Numerous other inscribed vessels containing the graph shih including a 
fully attested item are recorded elsewhere. 




53 



NUMBER SEVEN 



PLATE 7 



Ku 

Shang dynasty (middle An-yang, 12th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 26.6 cm. (lOJ in.) 

Width, 15.0 cm. (5 J in.) 

Weight, 1.05 kg. (21bs.,5oz.) 

Accession number 11.51 



The upper section of this slender, wide-mouthed ku is undecorated, 
and the central and lower sections are covered with confronted k'uei 
dragons forming tao-fieh masks. Both design areas are bordered with 
bands of small circles, and the center section has two low rounded 
flanges. The surface has evidently been waxed and is smooth, dark 
brown encrusted with areas of malachite. 

Mr. Freer believed this to be a genuine specimen of Chou bronze. Mr. 
Lodge catalogued it ''Ming dynasty or later." 



54 



PLATE 7 




NUMBER SEVEN (11.51) 



NUMBER SEVEN 



PLATE 7 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

In shape, this ku appears to be transitional between early forms, thicker 
and with simple concave curvilinear outlines, and the taller, narrower kii 
of later type, with silhouettes broken by flanges, different levels for suc- 
cessive zones, and raised decor. Such a sequence is suggested almost 
inevitably by the vessels themselves, and is borne out generally by Li 
Chi's studies of the An-yang material. 3- In the intermediate stage rep- 
resented by the present example, the barrel-shaped center section and the 
raised foot are the only interruptions in the otherwise smooth curve of 
the outline. Ku of similar shape were found at An-yang.-^'^ The surface 
patterns on these, although more dense and precise, have the same 
general character: all-over linear designs of curls and spirals, with no 
fao-fieh or other motifs emerging clearly. An example on which the two 
zones of decor are likewise bordered by bands of small circles was in the 
S. Kawai Collection, Kyoto another, which appears to match our 
vessel in crudeness as well, was owned by Chou Chin.-'^^ A disturbing 
feature is the shape of the eyes in the fao-tUeh masks, rectangular with 
rounded corners and slit pupils. Eyes of this type are usually associated 
with decor of the late An-yang period, and here seem anachronistic. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast in a single piece probably by direct casting in a two- 
piece (four-division) mold with true joins on the halves midway between 
the flanges. There are breaks in the lei-wen decor at the quarters. The 
two vestigial flanges lack mold marks. Plain ribbed bands appear above 
and below the bulbous middle, but there is no sign of the usual cruciform 
perforations. Inside of the foot three narrow bracket-like projections 
appear to support the high-set bottom. The underside of the bottom was 
scraped to bare metal, and no evidence of chaplets was found. There is, 



32 Li Chi, Yiii-shaiig shili-tai . . . , pp. 699-739. 

33 Li Chi, op. dr., PI. VH, no. 2, and PI. IX, no. 2. 

34 Umehara, SKSjJ, n/175. 

35 Shang Ch'eng-tso, Shih-erh-chia . . . , pp. 28-9. 



56 



NUMBER SEVEN 



however, near the center a small irregular brown patch much Hke that 
seen in the underside of the ku (No. 11). The quality of the casting 
register is poor and several areas of decor have a "smudged" look. In 
many respects the object is similar to Number 6. 

Much of the surface is covered with smooth enamel-like malachite, 
which appears to cover an under layer of whitish cerussite. The remain- 
der of the surface is glossy black. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 64.0% ; Sn 5.9 ; Pb 25.9 ; Total 95.8. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

Fe 0.3; Co 0.02; Ni 0.02; As 0.1; Sb 0.5; Bi 0.2; Zn <0.03; 

Al < 0.001; Mg < 0.001; Si 0.01. 
The alloy is notable for its high content of lead; it bears a small 
quantity of zinc, just enough to be detected by spectrometric methods. 



57 



NUMBER EIGHT 



PLATE 8 



Ku 

Shang dynasty (middle-late An-yang, 12th-l 1th century B.C.) 

Inscription of two characters 

Height, 28.6 cm. (Hi in.) 

Width, 15.9cm.(6iin.) 

Weight, 0.94 kg. (2 lbs., 1 oz.) 

Accession number 40.3 



This, the smallest and thinnest cast ku in the collection, is decorated 
with the usual fao-fieh and flanges on the lower and middle sections. 
The lower section is topped by two pairs of confronted cicadas; and on 
the upper section four rising blades are based on two pairs of confronted 
serpents. Finely cast lei-wen cover the two lower sections; and the 
surface shows considerable areas of unaltered metal, some smooth, 
greenish-gray patination and patches of malachite and cuprite. 



58 



NUMBER EIGHT (40.3) 



NUMBER EIGHT 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

While there is no positive evidence for determining the chronological 
order of the three ku vessels, Numbers 8, 9, and 10 (40.3, 43.9, and 
51.18), when they are seen in relation to the typological sequence we have 
outlined in the discussions of the preceding two, Numbers 6 and 7, it 
becomes clear that 40.3 should have priority among the three later 
examples. Its shape retains more of the original even curve, while the 
other two tend to take on the form of tall cylinders with flaring tops and 
bases. The foot is lower; the flanges are narrower and scarcely disrupt 
the continuity of the outline. The center section retains a slight bulge, 
although not so pronounced as the barrel-shaped mid-sections of ku of 
the preceding stage (such as No. 7); by the time of the stage represented 
in Numbers 9 and 10, this bulge has disappeared altogether. 

The decor, as on the other two, belongs to the type designated in 
Loehr's sequence as the (A) variety of his Fifth Style: both the t'ao-t'ieh 
components and the ground are covered evenly with fine spiral filling 
{lei-wen), but the former are raised slightly to produce a decor on two 
levels, which does not, however, have the plastic character of proper 
relief. Decor of this type is seen also on the chia (No. 22), and on several 
other vessels in the Freer Gallery. 

A ku of similar shape and closely related design was found at Hou- 
chia-chuang, An-yang.^*^ On this, as here, we see the following sequence 
of zones, reading upward from the foot: a broad zone with dispersed 
fao-fielv, a narrow zone with cicadas; a bare area with two raised "bow- 
strings'' and the common cross-shaped perforations; a slightly bulging 
mid-section with dispersed fao-fieh; a narrow band with serpents; and 
the flaring top, with "rising blades" extending nearly to the rim. While a 
correlation of ku types with stratigraphic evidence at Hsiao-t'un and 
Hou-chia-chuang yielded no clear-cut typological sequence, the addition 
of flanges appears to be a relatively late phenomenon, as is the presence 
of decor on all three sections of the body, including the top.^^ 

36 Li Chi, Yin-shang shih-tai . . . , PI. X. 

37 Li Chi, . . . the bronze ku . . . , pp. 126-128. 



60 



NUMBER EIGHT 



TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The object is cast directly in one piece apparently in a two-piece (four- 
division) mold, but it is so highly finished that only vestiges of mold 
marks show on the underside of the thin flanges. The two cruciform 
perforations in the lower section just below the high bottom are common 
to this type of vessel. Their purpose is unknown, but they may have been 
caused by spacers or devices used to separate the inner from the outer 
mold. Located slightly ofif center in the high-set bottom is a squarish 
chaplet made of bronze that is slightly redder than the surrounding 
metal. On the inside of the foot on the quadrants between the two cross- 
like perforations are two engaged long tapered brackets which seem to 
support the bottom. They are not unusual in vessels of this type. The 
two characters of the inscription are especially interesting because the 
edges of the deep cut lines are raised as if the character originally had 
been drawn in a plastic material with a stylus. 

Most of the surface is covered with pale green, tin-oxide patina dotted 
here and there with rough patches of cuprite and malachite. 

When the fine lei-wen pattern of the design in the bulbous part of the 
stem was examined microscopically, it was noted that the fossae in 
certain areas are filled with a light colored substance or paste which 
looks intentionally placed. In some places the fill is green stained. 
Analysis shows the whitish substance is chiefly fine grained angular 
quartz. Quartz is also the chief component of some of the artificial black 
inlay or fill in the design of other bronzes. There are no breaks or losses, 
no evidence of repair; the condition is excellent. 

Composition: Sample taken from edge of foot. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu ISXo ; Sn 1 9.0 ; Pb 4.8 ; Total 99.0. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.07%; 
Fe 0.06 ; Co 0.004 ; Ni 0.03 ; Cr 0.003 ; Mg 0.00 1 ; Mn < 0.00 1 ; Si 0.02. 

INSCRIPTION 

The cast inscription comprises the graph chimg ''middle" and the three 
elements, "double man," pei "cowrie" and yu "hand" which in com- 



61 



NUMBER EIGHT 



bination may be the character te "receive." This inscription has been 
reproduced in the old Freer catalogue and in Shuaug-chien (1.34). A lei 
with lid has the same combination of elements but without the char- 
acter chimg {Hsiao-chiao 4.69a) while a ting has only "cowrie" + "hand" 
{Shang-Chou, No. 26). Attention might also be drawn to a yu which has 
the "cowrie" + "hand" combination within a Ya-hsing followed by 
fu-kuei {Chia-pien 8.9). These seem to be all the relevant examples 
available in publication. 




62 



NUMBER EIGHT 




NUMBER NINE 



PLATE 9 



Ku 

Shang dynasty (middle-late An-yang, 12th-l 1th century B.C.) 

Inscription of two characters 

Height, 29.0 cm. (1 If in.) 

Width, 16.5 cm. (6i in.) 

Weight, 1 .30 kg. (2 lbs., 14 oz.) 

Accession number 43.9 



Though there are slight differences in detail, the form and decoration 
of this ku make it very similar to Number 8. This is slenderer in 
the waist and the sides are straight at that point. The metal of the vessel 
is thicker throughout. This ku also has a higher foot which accounts for 
the difference in overall height. Most striking perhaps is the difference in 
surface texture resulting from the handling of the lei-wen pattern. Al- 
though equally fine and precise in arrangement, the ridges and fossae 
here are somewhat rounded while on Number 8 they are exactly squared 
in section. A large amount of cuprite in the corrosion product gives this 
vessel large areas of reddish hue spreading over the otherwise uniform 
gray-green surface. 



64 




PLATE 9 




NUMBER NINE (43.9) 



NUMBER NINE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This vessel has much in common with Number 8 and many of the 
styHstic comments on that ku apply as well to this one. The succession of 
decor zones is the same, even to the bands of serpents above, and of 
cicadas just below, the mid-section. The appearance of the two motifs in 
these positions on a number of kifi^ suggests that they and the ideas they 
symbolized (perhaps having to do in both cases with rebirth after a period 
of dormancy) had some special association with the ritual function of 
the ku. 

The shape, a simple cylinder flaring at top and bottom, belongs to a 
late stage in the evolution of the ku type, as do the prominent flanges that 
interrupt the smooth contour and impart to the vessel a slightly harsher, 
more angular character. Approximately the same stage would seem to be 
represented by two ku found at Hou-chia-chuang, which Li Chi places 
in the latest of his three stages in the development of the ku form.^^ 
Another ku closely related in design, slightly thicker in the proportions 
but otherwise differing only in minor details of decor, was found in one 
of the graves at Ta-ssu-k'ung Ts'un near An-yang.'^" 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel was cast directly in one piece apparently in a two-piece 
(four-division) mold with true joins separating the opposing t'ao-fieh 
figures. Only vestiges of mold marks appear on the notched flanges. Like 
most vessels of this type, the bottom is high-set just above the double- 
ribbed band at the top of the lower section. The two opposing sunken 
crosses here are not perforate. Inside the base, just below the bottom and 
directly opposite the flanges, are four narrow ribs or brackets which 
seem to support the bottom. A single squarish chaplet, redder in color 
than the surrounding metal, is placed just off center in the bottom. 

There is very little crusty patina except low on the inside. In some areas 
the fossae of the design are filled nearly flush with cuprite and in the 

38 Cf., e.g., Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. 20; and Umehara, SKSjJ, 11, 158 and 160. 

39 Li Chi, Yin-shang shih-tai . . . , PI. 10; also . . . the bronze kii . . . , PI. XXXMI. 

40 Watson, Archaeology . . . , p. 22 and PI. 52. 



66 



NUMBER NINE 



notched flanges the cuprite is overlaid with earthy residues. The hnes of 
the inscription are also filled flush with cuprite and redeposited copper, 
which contrasts strongly with the surrounding pale green patina. In 
ultraviolet light a fairly large patch inside the rim fluoresces strongly; 
this and smaller fluorescing areas on the stem reveal touch-up paint. The 
paint probably conceals cuprite laid bare in a former cleaning oper- 
ation; otherwise, the vessel is in excellent condition. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 73.8"o ; Sn 1 7.5 ; Pb 7.0 ; Total 98.3. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.08%; 

Fe 0.06; Co 0.004; Ni 0.02; As 0.3; Sb 0.01 ; Bi 0.03; Cr 0.003; 

MgO.002; Mn < 0.001 ; Si 0.04. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription comprises a chariot together with a graph depicting 
"two feet astride a stream'' which is transcribed usually as she "to ford a 
stream"; in oracle bone script it is used in this sense and is written in 
two variant forms. 

Of special interest is the drawing of the chariot which contains details 
of its structure present also in several other inscription graphs. The 
significance of these has been particularly well confirmed in the Western 
Chou burial pit (No. 2) excavated recently at the Chang-chia-p'o site, 
Feng-hsi, Shensi {Feng-hsi fa-chueh pao-kao, 1962). Two chariots were 
found, one with a team of two horses and the other with four horses. The 
former illustrates such details in the normal archaic graph as; the 
carriage box (yii), wheels {lu/i), linch-pins {hsia), shaft {chou), cross- 
piece (heng) and yokes, while the four-horse chariot shows the two extra 
yokes as in our ideograph. Two semi-circles drawn at the apexes of the 
two center yokes represent the jingles {hian). 



NUMBER TEN 



PLATE 10 



Ku 

Shang dynasty (middle-late An-yang, 12th-l 1th century B.C.) 

Inscription of one character 

Height, 33.0 cm. (13 in.) 

Width, 19.0 cm. (7iin.) 

Weight, 1.50 kg. (3 lbs., 5 oz.) 

Accession number 51.18 



This largest and perhaps finest of the three ku in the collection differs 
from the others in some details. Most striking are the bold segmented 
flanges that rise from the bottom of the vessel to the top, with three 
interruptions, and protrude beyond the edge of the lip. The casting is 
exceptionally deep and fine all over, and the surface is covered with a 
uniform gray-green patina. 



68 



PLATE 10 




NUMBER TEN (51.18) 



NUMBER TEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Although it exhibits essentially the same style as the last two this kii 
differs from them in two features: the second band of decor from the 
bottom is occupied by trunked dragons in place of cicadas; the flanges 
bisecting the rudimentary t'ao-t'ieh in the narrow "rising blades" and 
projecting even beyond the rim, foreshadow the flanges on early Chou 
vessels, where the projections are more extreme, often bending or curling 
downward. 41 Each flange is here composed of four segments, correspond- 
ing to the four horizontal zones of the design. The effect of this augmenta- 
tion is to further emphasize the quadripartite division of the decor, which 
imposes the "corners" and "sides" of a square or rectangular vessel on 
one actually round in section; and to make the piece as a whole conform 
better to that late Shang taste for the architectonic and severe of which 
Loehr has written: "The ideal appearance of a vessel now requires a 
monumental heaviness, a strong accent on the vertical divisions, angular- 
ity, and a jagged silhouette." 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast directly in one piece in a two-piece (four-division) mold 
with two joins dividing the two opposing t'ao-fieh masks of the lower 
and middle sections. Mold marks show only faintly along each of the 
four flanges. As is usual in vessels of this type, the bottom is cast high, 
just above the double-ribbed band, which separates base from the vessel 
proper. There are no brackets in the inside foot. The two crosses which 
oppose each other in the double-ribbed band are noteworthy because one 
is imperforate like those in ku Number 9, but the other is partially 
perforate as if metal accidentally failed to flow into the thin space pro- 
vided in the mold {fig. 7). On the underside a single chaplet is visible in 
the high-set bottom. Around the inside of the flaring mouth are several 
small flaws in the original casting which have been filled in by the 
founder with metal repair plugs; they do not appear to be chaplets. Two 
smaller plugs extend clear through the vessel wall and are visible on the 
opposite side(y7g. 8). The patina of the repairs is generally lighter in tone, 

See, for example, the fang-tsiin. No. 18. 



71 



NUMBER TEN 




Outside 



Figure 8 



Inside 



NUMBER TEN 



indicating the plugs are different in composition from the surrounding 
metal. The uniform, thin tin oxide corrosion layer over most of the 
surface has already been pointed out as a distinguishing characteristic of 
this piece. There are a few scattered blisters which indicate formation of 
sub-surface mineral products. The bright blue patch of crystalline azurite 
about 5 cm. in diameter on the inside of the throat of the vessel is difficult 
to account for because this blue mineral is scarcely found elsewhere on 
the vessel. The fossae of the design are nearly free from cuprite and con- 
tain only scattered earthy residues. The single character inscription is 
interesting because edges are slightly raised giving the impression that 
the character was originally formed by drawing a blunt stylus or by 
pressing a stamp into a plastic substance. The character is cast in and is 
quite different in execution from characters seen on many later Chou 
bronzes, but is very similar in style to the character of the inscription on 
the inside foot of ku Number 8. 

Composition : Sample taken from under edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis ; Cu 72.4% ; Sn 1 3.3 ; Pb 1 1 .3 ; Total 97.0. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.09%; 

Fe 0.06; Co 0.01; Ni 0.01; Bi <0.03; Mn < 0.001; Cr 0.003; Mg 

0.001; Si 0.01. 

INSCRIPTION 

The graph comprises the elements ch'ih "crawl" and pu "walk" is cast- 
in under the base. There are several other clan names of similar structure ; 
and this particular inscription has been reproduced in Ch'ia-chai (21.6a), 
San-tai and the Hsil Yin-wen ts'un (B.40a). 




73 



NUMBER ELEVEN 



PLATE 11 



Fragment of a ku 

Shang dynasty (middle-late An-yang, 12th-l 1th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 14.6 cm. (5f in.) 

Width, 5.1 cm. (2 in.) 

Weight, 0.31 kg. (11 oz.) 

Accession number 17.202 



Evidently the remains of a broken ku, the vessel was cut off at the 
bottom of the plain band with raised ''bowstring" decoration that lies 
just below the center section. The usual t'ao-tUeh and flanges occupy that 
area; and above this is a band of serpents moving to the right. The 
customary rising-blade design is interrupted where the vessel was cut 
down. The workmanship, particularly on the lei-wen ground is excep- 
tionally fine; and the whole surface is covered with a smooth, olive- 
green patina showing small areas of corrosion. 



74 



PLATE 1 1 




NUMBER ELEVEN (17.202) 



NUMBER ELEVEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The original ku of which this fragment remains was very similar to the 
last three. Perhaps the closest parallel is Number 9 which has the 
straight-sided center section and flanges that are still relatively thin. The 
serpents just above this are noteworthy in that they all face to the right; 
whereas, on Number 8 and Number 10 they appear in confronted pairs; 
and on Number 9 they all face to the left. The significance, if any, of these 
various arrangements remains unknown. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Although incomplete, there is enough evidence to indicate that this 
vessel was made by direct casting in a two-piece (four-division) mold. 
The true mold joins follow the flanges that divide the two back-to-back 
fao-fiehs. The crosses that are often present in vessels of this type are 
lacking. Removal of corrosion crusts on the underside of the bottom has 
revealed a dark brown area, irregular in outline, which is filled with 
reddish cuprite. In some vessels of this type this is the location of 
chaplet; but if one was originally present, it has fallen out and has been 
replaced by corrosion product. 

The surface is uniformly covered with dark greenish and brown 
stained tin-oxide patina. It is a fine example of pseudomorphic replace- 
ment of copper in the original alloy by tin oxide. 

Composition : Sample taken from a flange. 

Wet chemical analysis (single sample): Cu 76.7%; Sn 19.7; Pb 1.6; 
Total 98.0. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.07%; 
Fe 0.03 ; Co 0.001 ; Ni 0.005 ; As 0.2 ; Sb 0.07 ; Mg 0.00 1 ; Si 0.05. 



76 



NUMBER ELEVEN 




NUMBER TWELVE 



PLATE 12 



Tsim 

Shang dynasty (middle An-yang, 1 2th century B.C.) 

Inscription of one character inside 

Height, 25.3 cm. (10 in.) 

Width, 20.6 cm. (8 J in.) 

Weight, 2.38 kg. (5 lbs., 4 oz.) 

Accession number 55.1 



The vessel is of typical tsun shape with the upper half completely un- 
decorated. On the central zone are fao-fieh masks on a ground of fine 
lei-wen with borders of small circles above and below. Around the foot 
is a band of much disintegrated dragon forms in intaglio. The surface is 
covered with a pale greenish-gray patina with minor areas of encrus- 
tation. 



78 



PLATE 12 




NUMBER TWELVE (55.1) 



NUMBER TWELVE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

If the evolution of tsun vessels of this type in the An-yang period 
followed the same general course as that of the closely related type ku, 
this vessel must be placed in a stage around the middle of that develop- 
ment. The profile, with a bulging mid-section breaking an otherwise 
continuous curve, resembles that of ku of the middle period, such as 
Number 7. This hypothesis is supported by the nature of the decor, 
which is flush with the surface except for the simple flanges and raised 
eyes of the fao-fieh masks, but in which the elements of the fao-fieh of 
the mid-section are clearly set off against a ground of lei-wen or spiral 
filling. The narrow bands of circles bordering this central zone are also 
common on ku of this style. The parallel development continues into the 
late An-yang period; tsun with the plastic relief decor and heavier 
flanges characteristic of that period exhibit the same change in shape as 
the later ku, with the body of the vessel cylindrical through much of its 
height, and only the foot and top flaring.42 

An interesting relative, although simpler in design, was in the collec- 
tion of Mrs. Christian Holmes. The mid-section is narrower, and there is 
no band of circles below; but the quasi-engraved, linear pattern on the 
foot and the overall shape are similar. The Holmes vessel is called a ku 
by Karlgren.'^^ 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast in one piece in a two-piece (four-division) mold. A 
mold join shows vertically on opposite sides, where the ends of the t'ao- 
fieh masks meet. The designs of the two masks are freely drawn and not 
identical {fig. 9). The poor register of the two halves of the design also 
shows in the encircling rings above the t'ao-tie/i masks and in the decor 
of the foot. On the underside, where the bottom joins the base, are four 
wedge-like brackets which are commonly seen on bronzes of this type. 
There are no criss-cross lines under the bottom. Chaplets do not appear 
to be present. The single-character inscription seems to be cast into the 

42 E.g., Umehara, SKSjJ, U/ 148-151, and SKSjE, 1/19-20. 

43 Karlgren, Yin ami Choii . . . , PI. XVHI, A 107. 



80 



NUMBER TWELVE 




Figure 9 



inside of the foot, where the wall is slightly thickened. The edges of the 
character are slightly raised as if the character had originally been 
incised in a plastic substance. Apparently the character has been worked 
mechanically, probably comparatively recently to remove corrosion 
products from the recesses. The pale, powdery patina, which is mostly 
tin oxide, tests strongly for lead; but this can be expected on the surface 
of an alloy with such high lead content. The presence of some lead 
carbonate may account for the chalky appearance of the bronze. The 
fossae of the design are filled with a black deposit made up mostly of the 
usual mixture of carbonaceous material and quartz. Some of this same 
carbonaceous material, however, over-lies tin oxide in undecorated 
areas. There are also scattered small patches of a harder and more glossy 
concretionary black substance which is chalcocite, or natural copper 



81 



NUMBER TWELVE 



sulphide. The appearance in ultraviolet light is normal, and there is no 
evidence of repair or touch-ups. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 71.5% ; Sn 6.5 ; Pb 1 9.5 ; Total 97.5. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.3%; 

Au < 0.01 ; Fe 0.3 ; Co 0.02 ; Ni 0.02 ; As 0.3 ; Sb 0.6 ; Bi 0.2 ; Cr 0.003 ; 

Mg < 0.001 ; Mn < 0.001 ; Si 0.01 . 

INSCRIPTION 

A single graph ko "Ko-dagger-axe" is cast-in on the inside of the base. 
The three-pronged r///-terminal at the base of the shaft may be noted. 




82 



NUMBER TWELVE 




NUMBER THIRTEEN 



PLATE 13 



Tsun 

Shang dynasty (late An-yang, 12th-l 1th century B.C.) 
Inscription of three characters inside bottom 
Height, 30.5 cm. (12 in.) 
Width, 23.2 cm. (9 J in.) 
Weight, 4.39 kg. (9 lbs., 11 oz.) 
Accession number 44.1 



The sturdy vessel with flaring lip is decorated in three main horizontal 
bands. At the top are rising blades centered on triangular ridges. The 
central and lower zones bear tao-tieh in relief separated by four flanges. 
The surface is covered with a pale, grayish-green patina with some areas 
of encrustation. 



84 



PLATE 13 




NUMBER THIRTEEN (44.1) 



NUMBER THIRTEEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

While there is nothing unusual in the shape or in the general nature and 
arrangement of the decor of this vessel, several puzzling features may be 
observed. On other tsim of this type, it is common for the flanges either 
to continue to the rim or to stop short at the mid-section, leaving the 
area above ornamented only with leaf designs or rising blades. Here a 
low ridge, triangular in section tapering toward the top and ending short 
of the rim, divides each of the leaf designs in place of a flange. This 
curious compromise is repeated on one other tswu a piece in the 
J. H. P. F. Menten Collection, Baden.44 On that, as here, the leaf-like 
forms are composed of bands with scale patterns and meanders, the 
latter enclosing the former, which flank the vertical ridges. On the 
sloping surfaces of these ridges, on both pieces, striated areas alternate 
with bare areas in a chevron-like design. Similar triangular flanges with 
the same simple ornamentation are found on a chih in the City Art 
Museum of St. Louis.^^ In the lower portions, the Menten tsim and ours 
agree in shape, in the profile of the flanges, and in the narrow bands 
above and below the center zone with thin patterns of alternating 
straight line and T-markings. This vessel, however, differs from the 
Menten bronze, and from most, if not all, other tsim, in that the flanges 
flank the fao-t'ieh masks instead of bisecting them. While free and 
integral t'ao-t'ieh, undivided by flanges, are common enough on other 
bronzes, e.g. the ting Number 30, they ordinarily occur on vessels 
which have no flanges; when flanges are present, the t'ao-t'ieh are 
normally centered on them. Even odder are the pairs of unornamented 
vertical bars between the sides of the t'ao-t'ieh masks and the flanges 
each bar pointed at the top and broken by two projections, a bulbous one 
at the base and a hooked one at the mid-point. Having no real connec- 
tion with the t'ao-t'ieh, these make no sense as motifs, and can be 
explained only by reference to the Menten bronze and others, where 
similar forms appear on either side of the flanges, representing the snout 
of the beast. Here they have not only been isolated from their proper 

44 Umehara, SKSjE, 1/15. 

45 Kidder, Early Chinese bronzes . . . , PI. IV, 215:50. 



86 



NUMBER THIRTEEN 



context but have been turned backwards as well, with the hooked pro- 
jections now pointing toward the flanges. The meaning of these curious 
abberations from the usual pattern is not clear; but the fabrication of 
the vessel and its physical condition, as recorded below, provide no 
grounds for suspicion. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

This is a direct casting with true joins indicated by the break in the 
narrow band of lei-wen decor at the bottom of the blade elements. Traces 
of mold marks exist on the tops and bottoms of the flanges. The bottom 
is cast just above the plain circular ring which divides bowl from base. 
The bottom underside is plain. Chaplets if present, have not been 
identified. 

The surface in many places, especially on the interior, is deeply 
corroded leaving a malachite-tinted whitish crust of tin oxide. The 
fossae of the design are filled with reddish cuprite. On the exterior about 
one-third of the way down from the rim a peculiar irregular groove 
nearly encircles the vessel ; but probing along the line, reveals no break 
or evidence of repair, it seems to be a casting flaw. Also, in this region 
about midway between each flange is an outward bulge, fairly pro- 




FlGURE 10 



87 



NUMBER THIRTEEN 



nounced in one case. Again this seems to be a vagary of fabrication. The 
thicker tin oxide crusts are crossed by hairhne cracks and small fissures. 
Vestiges of a weave pattern from early contact with fabric are retained in 
encrusted corrosion areas on the thick edge of the rim and also part way 
down the inside {fig. 10). In ultraviolet light bright fluorescent areas 
show around the inside of the rim and similar fluorescent areas show in 
the outside. Under the miscroscope, it is revealed that the fluorescence 
is caused by touch-up paint probably applied fairly recently. There are 
scattered earthy accretions and no signs of breaks or losses. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 78.4% ; Sn 1 7.2 ; Pb 0.2 ; Total 95.8. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.07%; 

Fe 0.4; Co 0.007; Ni 0.01; As 0.3; Sb 0.06; Cr 0.001; Mg 0.002; 

Mn 0.001; Si 0.01. 
This bronze is one of the few in the series which has almost negligible 
lead content. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription comprises a ya-hsing in which is placed vertically a 




88 



NUMBER THIRTEEN 



dog ( ?), above its head is the graph jih "day" and arranged around it are 
four ''grass'' elements. The dedicatory term Fu-ting (ht. "Father Four") 
appears below. In a slightly less complex form ya-hsing and contents 
was first recorded in the Sung catalogues. The more complex form as in 
this one was first reproduced in Hsi-clfiiig. It is associated with a group 
of inscribed vessels purported to have been unearthed at An-yang - 
three of these have recently been demonstrated to be spurious by main- 
land Chinese authorities. 



89 



NUMBER FOURTEEN 



PLATE 14 



Tsun 
Recent 

Inscription of one character inside base 
Height, 43.2 cm. (17 in.) 
Width,31.5cm.(12|in.) 
Weight, 5.30 kg. (11 lbs., 11 oz.) 
Accession number 09.279 



This vessel has the shape of a normal tswi when that term is used for a 
large ku with thick body. Rising blades surround the upper section of the 
flanges above a band of k'uei dragons. T'ao-t'ieh masks adorn the center 
section and the base. The entire thing is so poorly made and the decora- 
tion is such a crude and weak approximation of what it purports to 
imitate, the piece can hardly be dignified by the name "forgery." It is 
simply a copy of an early type made as a curio in relatively recent times. 

In his original note on this vessel Mr. Freer gave it no period attribu- 
tion but simply wrote, "Examine carefully. The lower part seems of 
different quality from that of the upper. In any case, the jar should not 
be publicly shown. It is for comparative use of students." 



90 



PLATE 14 




NUMBER FOURTEEN (09.279) 



NUMBER FOURTEEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The maker of this vessel evidently tried to reproduce a late Shang or 
early Chou tsim of fairly standard type. A weakly undulating profile has 
been substituted for the notches and hooks on the flanges of the period 
as seen on Number 18; and here too the ends of those flanges protrude 
beyond the lip. One curious feature is that the main t'ao-t'ieh of the 
decoration are set between the flanges as they are on Number 13 instead 
of being bisected by them in the more usual way. In the zone above the 
middle section and in the rising blades on the upper half of the vessel the 
dragon forms are so debased as to be hardly recognizable. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Much of the technical evidence indicates the object is relatively modern 
in manufacture. 

The vessel is cast in two main parts probably by the cire perdue method. 
There are no join traces. The flared top is one member and the middle 
portion and foot are another member; and the two are joined with soft 
lead-tin solder. The high-set bottom is a separate piece of sheet metal 
which is fitted into the stricture between foot and middle portion without 
benefit of solder. The flanges, however, are cast as part of the main 
vessel member. The oval eyes of the pseudo-/'<7o-r'/W2 masks are inset 
with rectangular bars of yellow brass, different in color and probably in 
composition from the body metal. The modelling of the sunken decor 
appears to be cast; the lines are not precisely drawn, but are wavy. The 
single character inscription appears to be incised; it crosses a mold 
mark, which is clearly shown in the rubbing. The surface is uneven in 
tone; some areas are gold metallic, but there is no evidence of gilding. 
There are scattered areas of greenish copper corrosion, but obviously the 
object was never buried. There are no chaplets. 

Composition : Sample taken from a flange. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 67.2"o ; Sn 8.0 ; Pb 22.0 ; Total 97.2. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 

Fe 0.2 ; Co 0.003 ; Ni 0.2 ; As 0.3 ; SbO.5 ; Bi 0.07 ; Zn 0. 1 ; Mg < 0.001 ; 

Si < 0.001. 

92 



NUMBER FOURTEEN 



The especially high lead content and the presence of zinc are to be 
noted. 

INSCRIPTION 

A single graph inscription, which seems to be cast-in, is located on the 
inside of the base. It is an imperfect yet obvious copy of block-print 
renderings in the Sung catalogues. Interestingly we may note propen- 
sities in the execution of the calligraphy of this, an honest facsimile, 
which are likewise characteristic of forgery. 




93 



NUMBER FIFTEEN 



PLATE 15 



Fragment of a tsun 

Early Chou dynasty (late 1 1th century B.C.) 
Inscription of eight characters inside base 
Height, 12.0 cm. (4i in.) 
Width, 14.0 cm. (51 in.) 
Weight, 1.33 kg. (2 lbs., 15oz.) 
Accession number 16.142 



This appears to be the central section of a large tsun. Two bold fao- 
fieh masks are flanked by crested birds on a ground of lei-wen. The 
smooth, brownish patina shows areas of malachite and azurite encrus- 
tations, and there are remains of heavy earthy accretion underneath. 
Both top and bottom of the vessel have been neatly cut off. 



94 



PLATE 15 




NUMBER FIFTEEN (16.142) 



NUMBER FIFTEEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The form of the original vessel is suggested by a closely related complete 
example in the Sumitomo Collection.^^ The style of the fao-t'ieh, and of 
the birds, indicates a date at the very end of Shang or the beginning of 
Chou. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

This center piece of a tsun shows evidence that the whole vessel was 
cast in a two-piece, four-division mold with true joins separating the 
large tao-t'ieh. There is evidence of three chaplets in the bottom near 
the inscription. The underside of the bottom is ridged with metal fins 
formed in fissures of the mold at the time of pouring; a higher ridge in 
the center may be the stump of a sprue. The foot ring inside is partially 
hidden with original core residues. The inscription is a little peculiar. 
The relief areas between some of the strokes are lost; the edges of the 
characters are wavy and undercut, which all suggest that the inscription 
may be etched. 

The surface is well covered with a thin layer of warty malachite, 
especially in the recesses; but on the ridges this has worn away to reveal 
reddish cuprite. There are scattered areas of powdery green copper 
chloride salts. Smooth tin oxide patina covers the inside bottom. There 
are scattered earthy residues; but it is probable that the object has been 
above ground for a long time. 

Composition: Sample taken from under a thick portion of the decor. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 79.4% ; Sn 1 3.0 ; Pb 5.0 ; Total 97.4. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

Fe 0.07; Co 0.001; Ni 0.01; As 0.2; Sb 0.03; Bi 0.09; Mg < 0.001 ; 

Si 0.01. 

INSCRIPTION 

A cast-in inscription is located in the bottom interior of the vessel; it 

46 Senoku seisho, no. 19. 



96 



NUMBER FIFTEEN 



comprises eight characters which read: 

1 . Tan-i made (for) Fu-kuei 

2. (this) valuable and honoured sacrificial vessel. 

Our inscription was first reproduced in the Yiin-clf ing . . . (5.7b). Tan-i 
is the name of the vessel-maker who had the vessel cast in honour of his 
deceased forebear. The combination Fu-kuei, "father" plus one of the 
ten fien-kan ''Heavenly stems," is a characteristic form of posthumous 
appellation employed in the bronze texts. 




97 



NUMBER SIXTEEN 



PLATE 16 



Tsun 

Shang dynasty (middle-late An-yang, 12th-l 1th century B.C.) 

Inscription of one character 

Height, 36.8 cm. (141 in.) 

Width, 37.2 cm. (14|in.) 

Weight, 13.15 kg. (29 lbs.) 

Accession number 51.19 



This large vessel of imposing proportions has a wide flaring neck, a 
short body with a narrow shoulder and a high conical base with straight 
sides. Vertically it is divided into six panels separated by segmented 
flanges. On the two lower zones each pair of panels combines to form a 
t'ao-t'ieh flanked in each case by vertical dragons, heads down. Above 
each of the body t'ao-t'ieh is a row of six birds arranged so that each 
three face the central flange. On the shoulder, three monster masks in 
high relief, with rams horns and upturned snouts, top the centers of the 
t'ao-tiehs with dragons stretched out between. Just above at the base of 
the neck is another row of horizontal dragons, one in each panel, and 
above each dragon stand two rising blades. The relief is almost uniform 
in height and is backed in all cases by a ground of lei-wen cast with 
exceptional fineness. The vessel shows some areas of unaltered metal 
unevenly patinated with malachite and cuprite. 



98 



PLATE 16 




NUMBER SIXTEEN (51.19) 



NUMBER SIXTEEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

There are a number of tsim of this distinctive shape. ^ All differ from the 
tswi type that seems merely a thicker form of the ku (e.g. Nos. 12 and 13) 
by being clearly articulated into three sections, with sharp breaks in the 
outline at the junctures of these and at the base of the sloping shoulder 
that surmounts the mid-section. Also, in their fully developed form they 
normally are divided vertically by six flanges, with high-relief heads of 
rams or other horned animals replacing every other flange segment on 
the shoulder. Tsun of the other type, with smooth silhouette, have only 
four flanges. 

An example of what is probably an earlier form of the type was found 
at Hsiao-t'un.^'s Squatter in shape, with only three flanges (midway 
between each pair of animal heads) and flush decor in which motif and 
ground are barely distinguished, it appears to belong to the middle 
An-yang period. A tsun formerly owned by Yamanaka & Co. in Kyoto, 
published by Umehara,^^ would seem to date from around the same time 
or a little later. Transitional between these and ours are tsun still with 
flush decor, but with the additional flanges below the animal heads, all 
six flanges now being heavier and notched; examples are in the Pillsbury 
Collection, Minneapolis, and the British Museum,^^ the latter with the 
taller, narrower proportions which bring it very close to ours. The decor 
is of the two-level variety, with elements of the t'ao-t'ieh and other 
motifs raised above a ground of fine spirals and ornamented with linear 
patterns (cf. notes on the ku. No. 8). It is characteristic of a late stage in 
Shang bronze ornament, but not the latest, which features instead decor 
of a more plastic order in true relief. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel apparently was cast directly in a three-piece mold with true 

47 E.g. Mizuno, In shu . . . , PI. 58, also Huang, Yeh-chung . . . , H/A/IO. Others in Umehara SKSIJ, 
n/l22ff. 

48 Li Chi, The beginnings . . . , PI. XXXIII, and "Yin-shang shih-tai . . . , PI. VII, upper right, no. 242. 

49 SKSjJ, 11/131. 

Karlgren, . . . Pillsbury . . . , No. 28, and Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, Pi. 9a. 



100 



NUMBER SIXTEEN 



joins in vertical line with the three rectangular openings high up on the 
foot. The vessel walls, unusually thick, are 10 mm. at the rim and 
about 6 mm. at edge of the foot. Mold marks show faintly at tops and 
bottoms of some flanges, but not elsewhere. The inside walls of the base 




Figure 11 



101 



NUMBER SIXTEEN 



are marked on one side by four unevenly spaced, diagonal, narrow 
ridges or ribs whose significance is not known. The three animal heads on 
the shoulder are cast separately. In the crevice between the heads and the 
vessel, it is possible in places to insert a wafer-type razor blade to a 
depth of 0-5 cm. X-rays show that the heads are hollow cast and appar- 
ently core filled. Each one is centered over a low elongated boss or lug 
which projects from the vessel shoulder. In the X-ray one can see that 
surrounding each boss is a halo which may be hard solder that secures 
the head to the boss. On one side of each animal head is a low projection 
which may be remnants of a sprue {fig. 11). The fine lei-wen design of the 
shoulder continues under the edges of the heads. The inside of the vessel 
opposite the heads is smooth and gives no evidence of the method of 
attachment. The vessel was carefully examined but no chaplets were 
found. A ridge of metal on the inside bottom is probably caused by 
metal filling a crack in the core. 

The metal is not deeply corroded. Much of the surface is covered with 
mottled, smooth, gray-green patina interrupted by patches of malachite 
and scattered areas of crystalline azurite. In places, small rosettes of 
crystalline malachite occur. The interior walls are fairly rough with 
patches of cuprite and other copper minerals. An imprint of fabric with 
plain weave shows in the mineralized surface of the interior. There are 
no breaks or losses or signs of ancient repairs. When the bronze was first 
received in 1951, certain areas were covered with vari-colored artificial 
patina made from a sort of paste in which the modern pigments, 
emerald green (Paris green), Prussian blue, barite, and the binding 
mediums starch and shellac were identified. These were intended to give 
the vessel more color and to conceal dull areas of cuprite; and they first 
showed up as a reddish flourescence in ultraviolet light but were diffi- 
cult to distinguish in natural light. Most of the falsifications were 
removed by solvents and by mechanical methods. Some earthy accre- 
tions were removed at the same time. 

Composition : Sample taken from lower edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 77.9% ; Sn 17.2; Pb 2.4; Total 97.5. 



102 



NUMBER SIXTEEN 



Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.07%; 
Fe 0.2; Co 0.004; Ni 0.004; Cr 0.002; Mg 0.001; Mn < 0.001; 
Si 0.01. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription which is cast-in is located on the inside of the base. It 
comprises a graph which is generally taken to be equivalent to tzu 
"son," "a title" but is not necessarily tzu although it obviously depicts a 
child and an S-shaped dragon with horns. The latter is usually tran- 
scribed as kung ''respectful." The combination is probably a person's 
name. 




103 



NUMBER SEVENTEEN 



PLATE 17 



Fang-tsun 

Early Chou dynasty (late 1 1th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 35.3 cm. (13| in.) 

Width, 27.6cm.(10Jin.) 

Weight, 7.40 kg. (1 6 lbs., 5 oz.) 

Accession number 25.2 



The square vessel has a widely flaring lip on top of an angular body; 
the whole set on a high, slightly flaring base with squared foot. Flanges 
at the corners and in the center of each side segment the decoration 
vertically from top to bottom. On the upper part are rising blades above 
confronted pairs of k'liei dragons, while crested birds, again in con- 
fronted pairs, form the principal decoration of the shoulder and the 
belly. A bovine head, almost in the round, lies in the center of each 
shoulder. Confronted pairs of crested dragons surround the foot. A 
glossy olive-brown patina covers the whole vessel and is covered in large 
areas by malachite incrustation. 



104 



PLATE 17 




NUMBER SEVENTEEN (25.2) 



NUMBER SEVENTEEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

In its heaviness and angularity of form, and in the vertical emphasis 
imposed by the eight flanges running the entire height of the vessel, this 
farig-tsun reflects the architectonic taste of the Late Shang dynasty. With- 
in this framework, however, the motifs and their role in the overall 
design reveal elements of the early Chou style, as we know it from 
bronzes with datable inscriptions. In place of the close integration of 
decor and shape characteristic of Shang (as seen e.g. in No. 16), the 
surface is now divided into sharply circumscribed areas, like panels, 
into which bird and dragon forms are fitted neatly, like cut-outs applied 
to a textured ground. The animals are composed principally of flat 
bands, divided by median lines or, in the cases of the dragons, filled with 
rows of curls. The bands tend to end in hooks, often bifurcated, and 
smaller hooks project from them at intervals. All this represents the 
beginnings of a mode that was to culminate in the abstract band decor of 
the Middle Chou style. The long-tailed birds on the sloping shoulder 
have their closest relatives on vessels of early Chou date such as the hu 
Number 75, the yu Number 50. From these derive the more schematized 
varieties seen, e.g., on the later kuei Number 70 or the ting Number 33 
in which the tail often separates from the body of the bird. Watson 
notes that this form of the bird motif is absent from An-yang vessels. 
The k'uei that occupy the rising blades on the flaring top, placed in 
profile with heads downward, occur in variant form on other vessels 
of the period, such as Number 18, replacing the attenuated t'ao-fieh 
and dissolved cicada designs more common in this position on Shang 
examples. 

The most prominent element of the decor, appearing in the center 
section, are the pairs of confronting birds, a motif which evidently 
gained popularity from the beginning of Chou; its evolution can be 
traced through a series of permutations down to the ninth century.^^ 
This is one of its early occurrences, and the earliest in this collection. 

51 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, p. 53. 

52 Cf. the discussions of the yu No. 58; the kuei No. 70; and tsun No. 74; and the hu No. 76. 



106 



NUMBER SEVENTEEN 



TECHNICAL OBSHRVATIONS 

This vessel was apparently cast directly in a four-piece mold with true 
joins at the corners. Around each of the relief animal heads on the 
shoulder above the middle sections one can trace a seam which indicates 
the heads were separately cast and joined on, but there are no signs of 
hard solder or other evidence of how the heads were fixed in place. Two 
of the heads on adjacent sides are deeply encrusted with pale green tin- 
oxide corrosion product which is soft and tends to chip easily. This is 
further indication that the heads were cast separately. The underside is 
plain. The center of each face of the base is pierced by a squarish hole in 
the usual place just below the bottom. Two chaplets occur on each side 
in the plain band under the shoulder and one below the body bulge of 
the vessel. It is noteworthy that the surface of each chaplet has been 
eaten away by corrosion, leaving a pale green powdery residue, mostly 
tin oxide. 




Figure 12 

107 



NUMBER SEVENTEEN 



The sharpness of the modeling and crispness of the casting of this 
vessel is extraordinary (/z^. 12). Most of the surface is uniformly covered 
with dark olive-green tin-oxide patina which has penetrated deeply into 
the metal, like that often seen on bronze mirrors. There are scattered 
patches of malachite; and earthy residues cling to the interior, to the 
inside of the foot, and in the fossae of the decor. A crack about 5 cm. 
long runs diagonally down one face from the rim edge. Someone has 
crudely scratched a ten-character inscription in modern Chinese into the 
patina inside of the vessel top. There is also a wantonly scratched area 
on another part of the inside surface. 

Composition : Sample taken below edge under animal heads. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 79.7% ; Sn 1 3.6 ; Pb 2.0 ; Total 95.3. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 
Fe 1 .0 ; Co 0.03 ; Ni 0.009 ; As 0. 1 ; Mn 0.001 ; Si 0.02. 



108 



NUMBER SEVENTEEN 




Detail of animal head on shelf 



109 



NUMBER EIGHTEEN 



PLATE 18 



Faug-tsun 

Early Chou dynasty (1 1th century B.C.) 
Inscription of 12 characters inside bottom 
Height, 27.0 cm. (lOf in.) 
Width, 28.9 cm. (11 fin.) 
Weight, 5.67 kg. (12 lbs., 7 oz.) 
Accession number 50.18 



The central band of decoration is composed of bold fao-fieh masks 
centered on flanges. Above and below this are zones of confronted birds. 
At the top are rising blades consisting of vertical dragons in pairs centered 
on the corners. All four angles of the vessel are marked with exception- 
ally heavily notched and segmented flanges emphasized by protruding 
lugs at the top. The surface is covered with a dark greenish-gray patina 
and has some areas of heavy malachite and cuprite encrustation. 



110 



PLATE 18 




NUMBER EIGHTEEN (50.18) 



I 



NUMBER EIGHTEEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The stylistic affinity of this vessel with the Nieh-lingfang-i, Number 38, 
is sufficient to assign it to date near the beginning of the Chou period, 
probably in the reign of King Ch'eng (1024-1005) and the fang-tswi of 
the Nieh-ling set now in the Palace Museum Collection, Taichung,-^^ \^ 
fact very similar. Apart from such details of decor as t'ao-t'ieh masks 
instead of confronting birds in the lowest zone of the Palace Museum 
piece, the two correspond closely. 

In shape and design, the vessel follows the late Shang mode, as we 
have attempted to define it in foregoing discussions of the ku and tsim 
types. The perforation of the flanges, transforming them into rows of 
hooks and imparting a more ornate and fanciful character to the 
silhouette, reflects a new, less sober taste, as does the formation of the 
tao-tieh masks, in which organic power is sacrificed to an exuberant 
linear play. 

A similar fang-tswu in which, however, the openwork of the flanges 
on our vessel is represented only by shallow sunken designs on their 
surfaces, is in the Hakutsuru Museum, Ashiya.^^ belongs to a set of 
seven vessels related by their inscriptions,^^ a set that like the nieh-ling 
series also includes fang-i and huo vessels. Another closely related fang- 
tsun is in the Brundage Collection (B. 60b. 1022). 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast in one piece from high-tin, low-lead bronze alloy, 
and the eight vertical mold marks on the notched flanges indicate that a 
four-piece (eight-division) mold was used. The true joins are located 
at the corners where they are clearly visible on the inside of the hooks 
of the flanges. On each face one can see vestiges of chaplets symmetric- 
ally placed, one between each pair of the rising blades on the neck and 
one located near either end of the plain band below. There are also two 
chaplets on the interior bottom opposite two corners of the inscription. 

53 See, Ku-kimgtUmg-ch'i . . . , 11/209. 

54 Mizuno, In shu . . . , Color PI. XI. 

55 Mizuno, "In-sho . . . hennen . . . ," p. 129 and PI. 12. 



113 



NUMBER EIGHTEEN 



The underside of the bottom does not show criss-cross marks but has 
four wedge-Hke brackets in the middle of each side where foot and 
bottom join. Corrosion is quite deep as indicated by the scattered heavy 
patches of cuprite, especially on the inside, and also by the low total for 
the principal elements shown in the chemical analysis. Pale green color 
of other areas also indicates extensive formation of tin oxide. 

Composition: Samples taken from under edge of rim of foot. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 75.8% ; Sn 19. 1 ; Pb 0.8 ; Total 95.7. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 

Au <0.01; Fe 0.7; Co 0.005; Ni 0.01; As 0.3; Sb 0.3; Bi 0.2; Cr 

0.002; Mg < 0.001 ; Mn < 0.001 ; Si 0.04. 

INSCRIPTION 

A cast-in inscription of 1 2 characters in the inside bottom of this vessel 
reads : 

1 . Shu-wei was awarded cowries 

2. by Wang-ssu. Therefore 

3. made (this) precious and honored sacrificial vessel. 

An attempt has been made to identify the title-name Wang-ssu in 
another inscription with Pao-ssu, the Consort of Yu Wang of Chou, but 
the argument lacks foundation. Our inscription has not hitherto been 
reproduced in publication. 




114 



NUMBER EIGHTEEN 




NUMBER NINETEEN 



PLATE 19 



Lei 

Recent 

No inscription 
Height, 54.6 cm. (21^ in.) 
Width, 39.7 cm. (15| in.) 
Weight, 19.9 kg. (43 lbs., 13 oz.) 
Accession number 09.257 



The rectangular vessel with broad shoulder, high neck and lid is 
divided into six horizontal zones of decoration segmented vertically by 
heavy flanges at the four corners and in the middle of each side. Two 
large loop handles topped with monster heads are attached at the sides 
at the shoulder. On the lid, shoulder, and base are pairs of confronted 
birds on grounds of lei-wen. The upper zone on the body has a fao-fieh 
on each side and below these are hanging blades with plain areas 
between. Many of the decorated areas are inlaid with silver and gold, 
and the surface is covered with an even brown patina with scattered areas 
of malachite and cuprite. In general form the piece follows the style of 
the early Chou dynasty, but it is evidently a fabrication of Sung or 
later times. 

When he bought this piece from Riu Cheng Chai [sic] in Peking, Mr. 
Freer wrote: "A copy of a late T'ang design which, I believe, was pro- 
duced in the Sung period." 



116 



PLATE 19 




NUMBER NINETEEN (09.257) 



NUMBER NINETEEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The ancient prototype of this /e'/ appeared in Shang times and continued 
on into Chou. There is a fine example of the Shang version in the 
Buckingham Collection at the Art Institute of Chicago and a Chou 
piece belongs to the City Art Museum in St. Louis.^'^ The latter is clearly 
in the style the copyist had in mind when he made ours. Of course bronze 
vessels were not inlaid with precious metal until centuries later, and the 
use of gold and silver on this piece is anachronistic. The way in which the 
main design elements are raised above the surface on heavy slab-like 
areas and then inlaid with sheets of silver and smaller bits of gold recalls 
the work on a ting tripod that has been assigned to the Ming dynasty 
(ca.l600).^^ Our lei differs from that piece in that the lei-wen spirals are 
in relief instead of inlay, and the whole vessel is more crudely and 
strongly made, but it may well date from about the same time. The fact 
that it closely follows its archaic prototype in silhouette and overall design 
although not in the materials and the character of the relief, may perhaps 
indicate that the copyist's knowledge of old bronzes was based on wood- 
cut pictures in antiquarian catalogues rather than on actual antiques. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

There are no signs of mold marks, hence it is probable that the vessel 
was not cast in a piece mold. The vessel is a single casting, and the three 
handles are cast solid and joined to the vessel with soft solder. In the 
interior opposite the upper join of each handle are projections extending 
through the vessel wall, which in addition to solder, apparently permit 
some sort of mechanical lock for attachment of the handles. The foot 
including the bottom is a separate member joined to the lower edges of 
the vessel with soft solder. Underneath the bottom are two pairs of 
parallel ridges which connect the corners to form a criss-cross. 

The outer surface of both vessel and lid including flanges is lavishly 
inlaid with silver foil, and the eyes of the beasts and birds are inlaid with 

Kelley and Ch'en, Buckingham . . . , p. 28. 
5'' Kidder, Early Chinese bronzes . . . , plate XVUI. 
Jenyns and Watson, Chinese art, pp. 110-111. 



118 



NUMBER NINETEEN 



gold. The lei-wen decor which fills in the background between the animal 
forms is rather crudely executed. 

The vessel apparently has never been buried, and the patchy green 
which dots the surface is artificial patina made from coarse granules of 
ground mineral malachite held in place with an adhesive. It is quite 
similar to that on our huo (No. Ill) and these two vessels may well at 
one time have passed through the same workshop. 

Composition: Sample taken from edge of foot. 
Wet chemical analysis: Cu 74.5%; Sn 5.2; Pb 15.0; Zn 3.7; Total 98.4. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 
Au 0.0 1 ; Fe 0.2 ; Co 0.003 ; Ni 0.2 ; As 0.2 ; Sb 0.5 ; Bi 0.03 ; Si < 0.001 . 



119 



NUMBER TWENTY 



PLATE 20 



Chia 

Shang dynasty (middle An-yang, 12th century B.C.) 
Inscription of one character inside bottom 
Height, 53.0 cm. (20Jin.) 
Width, 30.5 cm. (12 in.) 
Weight, 7.60 kg. (16 lbs., 12 oz.) 
Accession number 23.1 



The broad deep bowl with elegantly flaring rim and convex bottom is 
supported on three slightly curving triangular legs. On one side is a strap 
handle, and the lip is surmounted by two rectangular uprights with tall 
round caps flaring outward at their bases. The decoration is cast in flat 
relief in two main registers divided into six vertical sections by five small 
notched flanges with the handle in the place of the sixth. Both registers 
are decorated with finely drawn, confronted dragons which form t'ao- 
fieh masks where they meet; short rising blades adorn the flaring upper 
third of the bowl; and a long pendent blade covers the outer surface of 
each leg. Each upright cap has four short rising blades around the sides 
and a whorl circle on the top. All decorated areas have an over-all lei- 
wen background of exceptional fineness which is enhanced by the 
polished flat surface of the dark green patina. 



120 



PLATE 20 




NUMBER TWENTY (23.1) 



NUMBER TWENTY 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Two closely related pieces are known. One, taller and with legs pro- 
portionately long, is in the Nezu Museum, Tokyo the other in the 
Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm.^" Both are reported to 
have been found at An-yang. Of the three, our chia would appear to be 
the earliest in style. The simple strap handle and the flat decor mark it as 
more archaic than the Nezu vessel, which, with its fully developed and 
raised fao-t'ieh design, is correctly placed by Mizuno in the late An-yang 
period. The fao-t'ieh on the Stockholm chia, while still flush with the 
surface, is rendered with greater coherence, and approaches more 
closely the late Shang form of this motif. In the system of An-yang 
bronze styles proposed by Loehr, ours belongs to the Fourth Style, but 
with some elements surviving from the Third, notably the characteristic 
"quills" rising from the backs of the dragons forming the t'ao-t'ieh. Two 
chia vessels which should precede all of these are in the Van Heusden 
Collection*^^ and the St. Louis Museum. Both feature similar strap 
handles and more primitive forms of the same type of fao-t'ieh, not set 
off by spiral fillings. In view of its position in this series, we can assign 
our chia a date in the middle An-yang period, perhaps in the twelfth 
century. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The entire vessel, including handle, legs, and knobs, is cast in one piece 
apparently in a three-piece (six-division) mold with true joins in vertical 
fine with the centers of the legs. Mold marks show clearly inside and out- 
side the handle {fig. 13) and on all five flanges; that on the lower part of 
the handle is out of line with that on the short flange below. Each of the 
three legs is cast about a clay core which is revealed as a reddish brick- 
like substance where the tip of one leg has broken off' {fig. 14). This core 
does not open up into the bottom of the vessel nor are there openings on 

Mizuno, In shCi . . . , PI. 35. 

60 Karlgren, "New Studies . . . No. 1 189, PI. XXV. 

61 Heusden, Ancient Chinese bronzes . . . , PI. I and II. 

62 Kidder, Early Chinese bronzes . . . , PI. XII, No. 224:50. 



122 



NUMBER TWENTY 




Figure 13 Figure 14 



the insides of the legs through which it may be seen. Similar core 
material is inside the rectangular uprights and the round caps that top 
them. There is no evidence of a join where the legs meet the vessel or 
where the caps meet the uprights; under one cap a faint mold mark runs 
parallel to the outer side of the upright. No chaplets were observed. 

The surface in general is smooth and dark green in color, but breaks 
and bhster-like formations on the wide rim indicate that corrosion of the 
interior metal is fairly extensive. There are scattered patches of malachite. 

Earthy residues are lodged inside the bottom. In ultraviolet light red- 
dish fluorescent areas appear on the outside below the rim and about the 
legs; further examination shows these are caused by scattered touches of 



123 



NUMBER TWENTY 



modern paint applied apparently for no good reason except to liven up 
the object with color. Except for the broken leg, the object is sound in 
structure and stable. 

Composition: Sample taken from broken leg. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 80.0% ; Sn 14.3 ; Pb 4.7 ; Total 99.0. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.07%; 

Fe 0.03; Co 0.004; Ni 0.005; Bi 0.08; Cr 0.002; Mg 0.001; Mn 

< 0.001; Si 0.02. 

INSCRIPTION 

A single graph ww, fifth of the t'ien-kan Heavenly Stems, is cast-in on the 
inside bottom. It is actually a mirror-reversed rendering. An example of 
the latter is to be seen in the famous Ssu-mu Wu fang-ting excavated at 
An-yang in 1946, the largest bronze casting datable prior to the first 
millennium from China or elsewhere in the ancient world. 




124 



NUMBER TWENTY 




NUMBER TWENTY-ONE 



PLATE 21 



Chi a 

Shang dynasty (middle An-yang, 12th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 41.9 cm. (16| in.) 

Width, 22.5 cm. (8| in.) 

Weight, 3.69 kg. (8 lbs., 2 oz.) 

Accession number 07.37 



The customary chia shape has the two uprights on the rim surmounted 
by crested birds with sharply pointed, straight beaks. The handle at the 
back is topped by a broad bovine head with a thin segmented flange 
running down the center. Similar flanges divide the two bands of body 
ornament into six vertical sections with the handle taking the place of the 
sixth flange. The decorative bands consist of tightly drawn lei-wen form- 
ing t'ao-tUeh patterns with only the horns and eyes in high relief. An 
over-all coating of brownish-green patina covers the surface, and there 
are areas of repair on the legs. Evidently the two uprights on the rim 
have also been restored. Mr. Freer noted this as a beautiful, rare, and 
genuine specimen of Han or Chou when he got it in 1907. 



126 



PLATE 21 




NUMBER TWENTY-ONE (07.37) 



NUMBER TWENTY-ONE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The proportions of this chia are Hke those of the preceding example; 
and the main t'ao-t'ieh designs and the distinctive outline of the flanges all 
strengthen the impression that the piece belongs in the middle An-yang 
style. Another feature, the rounded eyes with no indentations for the 
pupils is also typical of that stage. 

The high relief mask of a horned beast at the top of the strap handle, 
with a short flange between the horns, is of a type commonly found on 
the shoulders of p'ou and tsun vessels. jtg presence on a handle is un- 
usual, but not unknown in other bronzes. jj^g presence of crested 
birds surmounting the two posts, in place of the customary nipple- or 
bottle-shaped caps, is even more unusual, although again not without 
parallel. For example, a chia of late Shang or early Chou date, with more 
elaborately crested birds as terminals, is in the Sumitomo Collection. 
Bird caps are also known on An-yang vessels, although they are simpler 
in form.*^*^ A vessel lid in the Musee Guimet, Paris, reportedly found at 
Ch'ang-sha in Hunan Province, is surmounted by a single bird that 
bears a general resemblance to these, although it is more complete with 
drooping tail, legs, and claws. This lid also has flanges like those. 
These points of similarity suggest the possibility of a southern proven- 
ance for the present chia. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast but some aspects of fabrication are puzzling. Mold 
marks along the flanges indicate that it was cast in a three-piece mold. 
Two of the divided flanges are cast as one with the vessel, but the other 
three apparently are precast and the vessel is cast to them. When the 
lower end of the pre-cast flanges are scraped and laid bare, the seams can 

63 See, in particular, a tsun in the Sumitomo Collection, Sumitomo (1921-26) 31, judged there to be a 
Han or later vessel; or a p'ou in the Shanghai Museum, Mizuno, In-shCi . . . plate 19D, a vessel that 
agrees with ours also in the design of the flanges. 

64 See, Huang Chiin, Yeli-chung, UI/A, a chia; or No. 22. 

65 Sumitomo, Sen-oku . . . , No. 88. 

66 Umehara, Kanan anyo . . . , PI. XXXIV and LII. 
6' Speiser, The art of China: . . . , p. 47. 



128 



NUMBER TWENTY-ONE 



be seen; but along the sides of the flanges where they join the vessel the 
seams are hard to follow. The joins are flush, and in only two or three 
places is there any spill-over of metal from vessel to the flange. On the 
inside, directly opposite each floating flange, is a vertical low ridge or 
thickening as if to provide proper anchorage for the flanges. Mold marks 
show plainly along the inside of the hooks of both types of flanges, but 
not at all on the outer flange edges. The alloy of the precast flanges is 
yellower than the body metal, which is reddish. No chaplets were seen. 

Unlike the flanges, the handle was cast on to the vessel after the latter 
was finished because at the joins the handle metal plainly laps over on to 
the vessel metal. The two decorated bosses on the inside opposite the 
upper handle join and the irregular patch of metal opposite the lower 




Figure 15 



129 



NUMBER TWENTY-ONE 



handle join indicate the handles were cast through prepared holes in the 
vessel side and locked in when the metal solidified (fig. 15). The handle is 
channeled inside and still holds remnants of the original clay core. The 
handle and its flange are cast integrally. 

Two of the triangular legs which are cored with hard clay are cast as 
an integral part of the vessel. Inside the vessel bottom are two triangular 
openings leading directly into the leg cores. One leg (to the right facing 
the handle) has been repaired with a solid cast-on tip, apparently to 
correct a faulty casting. Composition of the alloy of the cast-on tip is: 
Cu 93.6%; Sn 3.3; Pb zero; Total 96.9. The melting point of the metal 
used for the repair, because of its low tin content, is much higher than 
that of body metal. The third leg, the one to the left facing the handle, 
shows evidence of a seam where it joins the vessel. The X-ray reveals a 
pecuhar and complicated structure here. There is a sort of metal core at 




NUMBER TWENTY-ONE 



the top of the leg which was confirmed by probing the triangular opening 
on the inside of the vessel. This leg was probably added by the founder 
to complete another fault in the casting (see Vol. II, ch. IV). 

The posts, which are solid, are cast as one with the vessel; but the bird 
finials are precast and joined on. The seam is not directly at the top of 
the post; but the post metal forms the flat underside of each bird, and 
the seam is around the lower edge of the bird's body. Running longi- 
tudinally under each bird is a prominent mold mark curved in the same 
degree of arc as that of the rim of the vessel {fig. 16). The feature may 
indicate, first that the posts served as pouring gates for the metal and 
secondly that the body core extended upwards and somewhat above the 
level of the stem openings. Each bird is cored with clay which is dark 
gray in tone like the clay contained in the two legs. Side view X-rays 
show that the two posts are capped with hemispherical domes much like 
the caps on chileh and other chia and that the birds seem to sit on the 
domes. X-rays also show many blow holes and imperfections at the top 
of the posts which is further indication that the posts served as sprues. 

The general all-over tone of the surface is dark greenish brown, like 
tarnished copper, but close examination shows extensive thin layers of 
genuine malachite and cuprite and some evidence of deep corrosion. 
Both of the bird-capped posts have at one time been broken off, each 
taking with it a wedge-shaped piece from the rim. These breaks as 
revealed by X-rays and partial cleaning have been repaired with soft 
solder and a pin, and the repairs concealed with paint and plaster. Where 
the joins are laid bare, the break seems to be clean and the birds truly 
belong to the vessel. The forward leg to the left facing the handle has been 
broken off and mended but not with soft solder. There is a note in the 
gallery records on this piece; "repaired by S. Mikami in 1929(?)." 

Composition: Sample taken from underside of bottom. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 82.3% ; Sn 1 2.2 ; Pb 1 .0 ; Total 95.5. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry; Ag 0-01%; 

Fe 0.01; Co 0.001; Ni 0.001; Al 0.007; Mg 0.001; Mn < 0.001; 

Si 0.07. 



131 



NUMBER TWENTY-TWO 



PLATE 22 



Chi a 

Shang dynasty (middle-late An-yang, 12th-llth century B.C.) 

Inscription of one character 

Height,41.0cm.(16J in.) 

Width, 25.1 cm. (95 in.) 

Weight, 9.10 kg. (20 lbs.) 

Accession number 35.12 



The main design of this strongly conceived rectangular vessel is a large 
t'ao-tieh on each side. Above are pairs of confronted k'uei dragons, and 
these in turn are topped by rising blades with cicadas. Thin segmented 
flanges mark the four corners and three sides. On the fourth side, the 
center is occupied by the handle topped by a monster head with rams' 
horns. The two outer sides of each leg combine to form a hanging blade 
with t'ao-tieh composed of two confronted dragons standing on their 
tails. The top is bordered with masks in intaglio alternating with triple 
chevron bands in relief; and two large fao-t'ieh back to back, both 
flanked by vertical dragons, decorate the cover. Most of the decorated 
area is covered with a fine lei-wen pattern both on the relief elements and 
the background. Serving as handle to the lid is a bird cast in the round 
and covered with scale-like feathers. The two uprights have elaborate 
caps, rectangular in section with constricted sides and "roof" tops. Each 
has miniature segmented flanges at the corners; and the sides are 
decorated with spiral bands and rising blades; two inverted t'ao-fieh are 
on top of each. Much of the surface is lustrous, and there are some areas 
of malachite encrustation and traces of cuprite and azurite. 



132 



PLATE 22 




NUMBER TWENTY-TWO (35.12) 



NUMBER TWENTY-TWO 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The square chia is a relatively uncommon type. An example lacking a 
lid, with the fao-t'ieh and other decor elements flush with the vessel 
surface, and decorated only sparsely with meanders so as to stand out 
against a denser ground of spiral filling, is in the Minneapolis Institute of 
Arts.^^ This piece and ours, the latter with its raised decor filled with fine 
spirals, set off from the texturally identical ground only by a difference in 
level, are good examples of what Loehr terms the Fourth Style and the 
"A" variety of the Fifth Style in the system of classification he proposes 
for the decor of An-yang bronzes. According to this system, the 
Minneapolis piece would be somewhat the older of the two, a relation- 
ship indicated also by the increased emphasis on vertical flanges and 
other features of the Freer vessel. 

Another square chia, in the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art 
in Kansas City, was reportedly found at An-yang.^" This also has 
a bird-shaped handle on a lid that is perfectly flat. The decor, far more 
plastic and in higher relief, suggests a date close to the end of the Shang 
period, while our piece is distinguished by the restraint and ideal pro- 
portions of what one might term the "classic phase" of Shang art. It is, 
as Umehara remarks, one of the very finest of the An-yang bronzes. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATFONS 

The vessel proper, the legs, the handle, and the two capped columns are 
cast together in a piece mold. The principal mold divisions are along the 
vertical corner flanges, but there is also evidence of horizontal parting 
lines along the edge of the decorated rim and along the bottom edge of 
the body where the legs join the vessel. A mold mark shows prominently 
on the underside of each cap in line with the center flanges. The four 
legs are clay cored. Located about half way up-the inside of each leg is 
an irregular hole which is filled solidly with crusty corrosion. It is 

68 Karlgren, . . . Pillsbury . . . , No. 12, PI. 15. 

69 Loehr, "The bronze styles . . . ," pp. 47-48. 

Huang, Yeh-dmng . . . , II/A/19-20, and Jung, Shang chou . . . , No. 460. 
'^1 Umehara, Kanan anyo iho, p. 51. 



134 



NUMBER TWENTY-TWO 



possible that these holes were made at time of fabrication to provide a 
connection between leg core and the inter-leg mold section. The caps and 
the square columns also have clay cores. The handle, channelled on the 
inside and partially filled with original clay core, emerges from the body 
without trace of a join or interference with the design. The lid is cast in 
two pieces; the small bird form handle is apparently fixed on by casting 
through two holes which coincide with the bird's feet and tail and are 
locked in place by decorated bosses on the underside (figs. 77 and 7^). A 
large chaplet of reddish alloy was found on the inside bottom nearly 
opposite the center of a leg. There is evidence that similar chaplets exist 
in the other corners. The casting is of very high quality with perfect 
register of the fine decor as well as the broad elements of the design. 




Figure 18 



135 



NUMBER TWENTY-TWO 



The area of the inscription is sHghtly elevated and is framed with 
shallow grooves which may indicate that the mold for the character was 
a separate block set into the mold {fig. 19). 

The gray-green color of the smooth patina reflects the high lead and 
tin content of the bronze. Under the microscope ghosts of the dendritic 
crystalline structure of the cast metal show on the broad rim. Thin 
patches of malachite and some azurite are scattered all over the surface 
and some clay residues mixed with cuprite are lodged in the finer grooves 
of the design. In ultraviolet light much of the surface, especially on the 
side with the handle, shows mottled patches of greenish fluorescence 
which are areas that have been touched up with light green paint. This 
paint was added presumably while the object was in the trade to make 
the coloring more uniform. Microscopic examination shows that the 
paint contains particles of the modern pigments Paris green and syn- 
thetic ultramarine, and it is blended so perfectly into the natural corro- 
sion products that it is quite impossible to detect visually even with aid 




Figure 19 



136 



NUMBER TWENTY-TWO 



of the binocular microscope. There is a fissure part way across one leg, 
otherwise the vessel is in good condition. 

Composition: Sample taken from underside of handle. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 75. 1 "<, ; Sn 1 5.6 ; Pb 9.5 ; Total 100.2. 

Sample from capped column : Cu 76.8% ; Sn 14.3 ; Pb 8.8 ; Total 99.9. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 

Fe 0.04; Co 0.004; Ni 0.03; Bi <0.03; Cr 0.002; Mg <0.001 ; Mn 

< 0.001 ; Si 0.01. 

Sample from capped column : Ag 0.08% ; Fe 0.05 ; Co 0.003 ; Ni 0.05 ; 
AsO.l ;Sb0.01 ;Cr < 0.001 ; Al 0.003; Mg < 0.001 ; Si 0.02. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription located on the inside bottom of the vessel is cast-in. It 
comprises two kneeling men facing one another with their arms extended 
and touching the upper section of an object. The object appears to be a 
representation of a fang-i. Below is a drawing which is probably a 
representation of a shield. There are a number of vessels inscribed with 
this particular clan sign. 




137 



NUMBER TWENTY-THREE 



PLATE 23 



Chiieh 

Shang dynasty (middle An-yang, 1 2th century B.C.) 

Inscription of one character 

Height, 19.7 cm. (7| in.) 

Width, 16.8 cm. (6f in.) 

Weight, 0.74 kg. (1 lb., 10 oz.) 

Accession number 56.19 



Two fao-t'ieh with fine lei-wen filling make up the main decorative 
band cast in very flat relief except for the boldly protruding eyes. Three 
thin segmented flanges divide the zone into quarters with the inscribed 
panel under the handle serving as the fourth. Above this area are seven 
rising blades of varying heights conforming to the curve of the lip and 
length of the spout. 

The uprights have cone-shaped caps with spiral whorls cast in 
intaglio. A smooth, gray-green patina covers the whole surface; and the 
fossae of the design are filled with a reddish substance; some areas of 
malachite encrustation remain. 



138 



PLATE 23 




NUMBER TWENTY-THREE (56.19) 



NUMBER TWENTY-THREE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Examples of chiieh found at An-yang exhibit a wide range of shapes and 
decor types; and the only attempt made so far to correlate these vari- 
ations with stratigraphic evidence, since it dealt with a special group of 
vessels, casts little Hght on the problem of chronological relationships 
among existing examples of the chiieh form.'^^ j^e earliest types can be 
identified with some assurance (see notes on No. 27) as can a few early 
Chou examples; it is the development through the later part of the 
Shang dynasty that is unclear. The shape of the present chueh is enough 
like that of pieces from Hsiao-t'un to permit us to assign it to the An- 
yang period ;^=^ the flush fao-fieh with simple raised bumps for eyes, and 
the relatively subdued flanges, all point to a date around the middle part 
of that period, thus agreeing with Mizuno's typology for the chiieh 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Like others of this type, the vessel is cast in one piece in a piece mold; 
mold marks show faintly along the flanges, under the capped columns; 
and they form, with the handle, a sort of rectangular cartouche for the 
inscription (^.v.). The surface within the inscription rectangle is rough 
cast, but the adjacent decor areas are highly polished. The channel of the 
thin-walled handle is filled with reddish brick-like mold core material. A 
tiny metal post or pin, about 1 mm. in diameter and 2 mm. long, projects 
from inside the handle. As in the inscriptions on some of the other Shang 
bronzes, the edges of the characters are raised, indicating they were 
formed by pressing an instrument or die into a plastic substance. One 
side of the leg under the handle near where it joins the body has a small 
oval depression about 1 cm. long, as if metal had shrunk locally on 
cooling. Much of the surface is smooth, but corrosion is deep and the all- 
over layer of tin oxide is fairly thick. The uniform layer of dark green 

'^2 Li Chi, "Yin-shang shih-tai . . . P. XV and XVI. Li Chi treats only the chiieh on which orna- 
mentation ishmitedto the simplest raised-hne "bowstrings," and although hearranges a group of twelve 
of these into four chronological stages, no clear pattern of development in shape emerges in his findings. 

73 Li Chi, The beginnings . . . , PI. XLVUI, left. 

'74 Mizuno, In shU . . . , Typological Chart, under "Middle An-yang Period," the drawing is evidently 
based on his PI. 36A, where, however, it is dated to the late An-yang period. The piece bears an inscrip- 
tion related to ours by the presence of an inverted human figure; see op. cit., fig. 70J. 



140 



NUMBER TWENTY-THREE 



malachite in the interior walls is crossed with a mesh pattern of cracks, 
which suggests that the green was in a gel state before it hardened. 
Fossae of the design are partially filled with fine sandy earth, and this is 
covered locally with copper mineral products and black carbonaceous 
film. There is no evidence of ancient repairs or of modern paint or 
touch up. 

Composition: Sample taken from underside of bowl. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 80.8%; Sn 13.7; Pb 3.5; Total 98.0. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.05%; 

Fe 0.07; Co 0.01 ; Ni 0.01 ; Sb 0.01 ; Bi 0.06; Cr 0.002; Mg 0.002; 

Mn < 0.001; Si 0.03. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription cast-in on the handle core-extension surface comprises a 
"foot," a "decapitated man" and a graph which is the opposite of ch'ih 
"crawl" (cf. No. 10). It was inverted probably in error during the process 
of mold assembly prior to the casting of the vessel. 




141 



NUMBER TWENTY-FOUR 



PLATE 24 



Chileh 

Shang dynasty (middle-late An-yang, 12th-l 1th century B.C.) 

Inscription of three ( ?) characters 

Height, 23.2 cm. (9| in.) 

Width, 18.7 cm. (7| in.) 

Weight, 0.96 kg. (2 lbs., 2 oz.) 

Accession number 54.15 



Two very bold tao-t'ieh masks make up the main band of decoration; 
they are separated by flanges, and the central flange on the off side is 
balanced by the handle opposite. The usual rising blades of varying 
heights top this zone; and there are small bands of lei-wen around each 
cap. Some areas of plain metal show through the smooth gray-green 
patina, and there are considerable areas of cuprite and malachite en- 
crustation. 



142 



PLATE 24 




NUMBER TWENTY-FOUR (54.15) 



NUMBER TWENTY-FOUR 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

A chueh virtually identical in design, except for narrower flanges and 
nipple-shaped instead of "bottle-shaped" caps topping the posts, has 
been published by Umehara.'^ The shape, as Umehara remarks, is 
standard; the t'ao-t'ieh, rendered plastically with broad, unornamented 
surfaces and raised above a lei-wen ground, all suggest the date to which 
we have assigned the vessel. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast in one piece by direct casting in a piece mold with the 
main join running vertically through the spout and pointed lip. Mold 
marks show plainly under each capped post in the line with the exterior 
flat side of the post {fig. 20). Small irregular depressions at tops of the 




Figure 20 Figure 2 1 



legs where they join the body may indicate location of horizontal mold 
joins sometimes found on vessels of this type. Mold marks show also on 
tops of the flanges and faintly on the left side of the handle. The cicadas 
under both spout and lip lack symmetry because of poor register of the 

75 Umehara, SKSIJ, III/219; in "a Private Collection." 



144 



NUMBER TWENTY-FOUR 



mold segments. Residues of the clay mold still fill the channel of the 
handle. The edges of the characters are slightly raised as if the characters 
had been pressed into the mold {fig. 21) while the clay was in the plastic 
state. 

Much of the surface is covered with smooth, green-stained, tin-oxide 
patina, in which dentritic crystalline structure of the bronze metal shows 
plainly at x 30 magnification. Other areas are deeply corroded and 
covered with erruptive patches of cuprite and crystalline atacamite. The 
intaglio is partially filled with earthy residues, cuprite, and a black sub- 
stance which seems to be corrosion product, not inlay. A metal insert 
which looks more like an ancient repair than a chaplet shows low inside 
the spout. There is no evidence of modern repair. 

Composition: Sample taken from bottom of flange opposite handle. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 82.5% ; Sn 1 5.4 ; Pb 0.9 ; Total 98.8. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 

Fe 0.2 ; Co 0.02 ; Ni 0.03 ; AsO.3 ; Sb 0.2 ; Bi 0.05 ; Cr 0.003 ; MgO.OOl ; 

Mn <0.001;Si0.03. 
The tin content of the alloy is in the middle range, but the lead is low. 

INSCRIPTION 

Three characters are cast-in on the handle core-extension surface : tso 
"made," fu-hsiu "Fu-hsin - posthumous appellation," and a ya-hsing 
containing what appears to be the character t'ien "Heaven." The latter 
graph is a clan sign and no doubt represents the subject omitted before 
the verb "made." An identical vessel with the same inscription is in the 
Seattle Art Museum (ch.6.77). 




145 



NUMBER TWENTY-FIVE 



PLATE 25 



Chiieh 

Shang dynasty (late An-yang, 1 1th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 25.1 cm. (9^ in.) 

Width, 22.5 cm. (8 J in.) 

Weight, 1.11 kg. (2 lbs., 7 oz.) 

Accession number 25.3 



The relatively large, deep bowl and short legs of this chiieh make for a 
heavier look than is usual in vessels of this class; but this is compensated 
by the somewhat higher angle of the spout which saves the over-all 
effect from dullness. A band of lei-wen with two t'ao-fieh masks make 
up the main design, and rising blades set all around below the rim in 
varying heights conform to the curve of the lip. Small but strong flanges 
with deeply scored segmentation are placed vertically on three sides; and 
the space under the handle where the inscription is usually placed is left 
blank. A smooth, olive-green patina with some bluish areas covers the 
whole vessel. 



146 



PLATE 25 




NUMBER TWENTY-FIVE (25.3) 



NUMBER TWENTY-FIVE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The t'ao-t'ieh mask on this chiieh has the same essential character as 
those on the chia Number 22, the ku Number 8, and a number of other 
vessels in the collection. That this style was current in the An-yang period 
is evident from its occurrence on a number of the bronzes excavated 
there that it appeared late in the period is indicated by its association 
with typologically Late Shang vessels; such as the ku cited above. The 
cup-shaped bottom of the present example also points to a Late Shang 
date, as do the prominent flanges extending along the underside of the 
spout and the pointed extension of the lip opposite it. The shallow 
grooves on the two inner faces of each leg may be seen also on chiieh 
excavated at An-yang; in some examples the grooves are much deeper, 
producing legs T-shaped in section. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast in one piece probably by direct casting in a two-piece 
mold. The surface is so highly finished that only vestiges of mold marks 
show along the main axes. The legs, which are cast solid, are grooved on 
either side, the grooves being deeper where they join the body, presum- 
ably because of shrinkage in the metal. The handle is cast as one with the 
vessel; it is channeled on the inside, but little core clay remains in the 
channel. There is a distinct join trace between the ears of the animal 
head atop the handle, but this join line does not continue through the 
leaf-blade decor above it. Both posts are indented below the knobs 
which is also probably caused by shrinkage of metal after casting. A 
repair patch with sprue ridge on the outside fills a casting flaw in the 
vessel bottom. There is another old repair in the sidewall opposite the 
handle. No chaplets are visible. 

The vessel is covered all over with a fine, olive-green, copper-stained, 
tin-oxide patina. The corrosion is quite deep which has caused some of 
the sharp edges to crumble and to look eroded. There is little eruptive 
corrosion. 

76 Li Chi, . . . the bronze ku . . . , PI. XXIX-XXXIII ; also The beginnings . . . , PI. VI, afang-i. 

77 Li Chi, "Yin-shang shih-tai . . . ," Part I, PI. XIV and fig. 4, p. 39. 



148 



NUMBER TWENTY-FIVE 



In addition to ancient repairs, there are modern repairs at the ends of 
two of the legs where corrosion has caused tips to break off. The repairs 
here have been made with gypsum plaster, and the replacements are 
painted to match the natural patina. The repairs are easily visible in 
ultraviolet light. 

Composition: Sample taken from under handle. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 80.5"o; Sn 12.7; Pb 5.0; Total 98.2. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 

Fe 0.02; Co 0.008; Ni 0.09; As 0.2; Bi < 0.03; Cr 0.002; Mg 0.001 ; 

Mn < 0.001; Si 0.06. 



149 



NUMBER TWENTY-SIX 



PLATE 26 



Chio 

Shang dynasty (late An-yang, 1 Ith century B.C.) 

Inscription under handle 

Height, 22.5 cm. (8| in.) 

Width, 15.5 cm. (6 J in.) 

Weight, 1.22 kg. (2 lbs., 11 oz.) 

Accession number 53.83 



This libation vessel may be termed a chio by virtue of the fact that the 
sides are symmetrical; the typical chiieh has a pointed lip on one end and 
a pouring spout on the other. Both lid and vessel are covered with tao- 
fieJi dragon patterns and lei-wen in deep, bold intaglio. Three small seg- 
mented flanges divide the vessel into four parts with the handle and its 
bovine head forming the fourth divider. 



150 



PLATE 26 




NUMBER TWENTY-SIX (53.83) 



NUMBER TWENTY-SIX 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The symmetrically shaped chio exists in several variant shapes; but these 
do not appear to have any significance in dating. The example belonging 
to the Pao-chi (or "Tuan-Fang Altar") set now in the Metropolitan 
Museum, New York, associated with vessels generally dated to the early 
Chou dynasty, has a bulbous body that one might take to be character- 
istic of the period;^® but so has the well-known piece in the Holmes Col- 
lection, its lid rendered as a bird with outstretched wings, a vessel which 
both in decor and inscription would appear to belong to the Shang 
period.'^ Closer in shape to ours are the c/z/o in the Sumitomo Collections^ 
and the Mount Trust, England, along with another of which a drawing 
is reproduced without identification by Mizuno.^' j^g ^^si and third of 
these are dated to the early Chou period by Umehara and Mizuno, res- 
pectively, while the second is labeled ''12th-llth cent. B.C., Shang 
dynasty" by Watson. The flanges on our piece, unbroken but with 
straight lines and L-shaped markings alternating on their surfaces, along 
with the style of the t'ao-t'ieh mask, indicate a date in the Shang dynasty, 
which agrees with the character of the inscription. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel and handle are cast together apparently in a piece mold with 
principal joins along the major axis. One of the legs shows a shrinkage 
depression, not in the usual position where it joins the body, but part 
way down the leg face. The handle is channeled and filled with reddish 
core residue. Two of the legs are affixed with soft solder, apparently 
recent repairs, which are confirmed by X-rays (see Vol. II, ch. X). The 
soldered join is well concealed with paint which closely imitates the 
color and texture of blue and green copper corrosion products. The 
repair area is revealed by a pinkish fluorescence when the object is seen 
in ultraviolet light. The paint contains ground malachite mineral and 

78 Umehara, Henkin . . . , PI. XVII, No. 2. 

79 Karlgren, "Yin and Chou . . . ," PI. X, No. A170. 
Sumitomo, Sen-okii . . . , 86. 

81 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. lib. 

82 Mizuno, /// s/iii . . . , Typological Chart, under "Early Western Chou." 



152 



NUMBER TWENTY-SIX 



synthetic ultramarine. The loop on top is cast as one with the hd. There 
are no signs of chaplets on either vessel or lid. Much of the surface has a 
leaden color which is mottled here and there with malachite. There are 
also scattered patches of azurite, cuprite, and earthy residues. 

Composition: Sample taken from underside of bowl. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 76.3% ; Sn 1 5.3 ; Pb 6.9 ; Total 98.5. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag O.!".,; 

Fe 0.5 ; Co 0.0 1 ; Ni 0.03 ; As 0.3 ; Sb 0. 1 ; Bi 0.06 ; Cr 0.002 ; MgO.003 ; 

Mn 0.002; Si 0.03. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription text may be translated as follows: 

1. (On the day) ping-shen (the 33rd day of the cycle), the King 
awarded the Fu-ya officer, Fu Hsi 

2. cowries (i.e. cowries from Hsi) at A. Therefore (Fu) made (for) 
Fu-kuei (this) sacrificial vessel. 

Several of the characters are close in structure to Shang oracle bone 
forms. 




Cover Vessel 



153 



NUMBER TWENTY-SEVEN 



PLATE 27 



Chiieh with cover and carved wood stand 
Recent 

Inscription of 13 characters 
Height, 20.0 cm. (7| in.) 
Width, 17.2 cm. (6J in.) 
Weight, 0.99 kg. (2 lbs., 3 oz.) 
Accession number 1 1.39 



The main zone of decoration has the usual two fao-fieh masks in 
relief here without dividing flanges. Above this are two more tao-tieh 
m intaglio lines and a scroll pattern under the spout. On the outer sur- 
face of the legs are mask designs and hanging blades. The cover has an 
elaborate horned tao-fieh facing the back and a serpent on the part over 
the spout. This vessel belongs to the class with flat bases; it lacks the up- 
rights on the rim and the monster mask atop the handle. Most of the 
surface is a reddish cuprite with some areas of malachite encrustation and 
the whole thing has evidently been polished or waxed by Chinese owners 
in the past. 

The original attribution was "Chinese, Shang''; and Mr. Freer's note 
at the time read, "Very beautiful and extremely rare. One of the most 
important pieces of the tripod form known to exist." 



154 



PLATE 27 




NUMBER TWENTY-SEVEN (11.39) 



NUMBER TWENTY-SEVEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This vessel presents a number of puzzling features. While most of these 
are not truly unique, they do not occur in quite the same combination on 
any other known piece. 

The shape, first of all, is of fairly early origin. The earliest form of the 
chileh is probably the squat, flat-bottomed, straight-legged variety of 
which two examples were found at Hui-hsien.^^ Chiieh of the stage that 
follows this have much in common with ours: the bottom still flat, the 
body generally cylindrical but broader in its lower half, legs tapered and 
flaring slightly outwards. They do not, however, have lids; and the 
presence of posts at the juncture of spout and rim suggest they may 
never have had them. Also, the decor on these is more primitive, being 
of the type associated with early An-yang or pre-An-yang bronzes. 

Two chiieh with decor of a later character offer closer parallels with 
our piece and suggest that this early shape persisted down to the Late 
Shang period. One, of similar shape and with a similar lid but with tao- 
t'ieh composed of densely packed spirals, has linear designs on the faces 
of the legs practically identical to those on ours.^^ The other, formerly 
owned by M. Shiohara, Tokyo, is even more intimately related. The 
cover is identical in form, and is decorated with the same relief design, 
consisting of a bottle-horned fao-t'ieh on the main area and a bovine 
mask at the opposite end, from which a serpent's body extends down the 
narrow portion above the spout. Both vessels have high-relief t'ao-tieh 
on their bodies; but they differ in important respects. For example, the 
upper lip of that on the Shiohara piece does not continue below the 
handle. Finally, the inscription on the Shiohara bronze (judging from 
an unclear reproduction) is identical in its text, and similar in script 
style, to ours.^^ 

83 "Hui-hsien fa-chiieh pao-kao," PI. XUI, Nos. 1 and 4; also Stephen, "Early Chinese bronzes . . . ," 
fig. 1, and pp. 1-2. 

^'^ "Hui-hsien fa-chiieh pao-kao," PI. XIII, No. 6, and Stephen, op. cit., fig. 3. 

8^ Karlgren, "New Studies . . . ," No. 1179, PI. LIV right, taken from Tsiin-kii-cluii . . . , IV, 1. For an- 
other example of a flat-bottomed chiieh with a design on its legs, see Mizuno, //; shii . . . , Color PI. 3. 

86 Umehara, SKSjJ, 111/230. Another closely related chiieh in the Hellstrom Collection, Karlgren, 
". . . Hellstrom . . . ," PI. 7. 



156 



NUMBER TWENTY-SEVEN 



It is diflPicuIt to know what conclusions to draw from these inter- 
relationships, but the most likely one is that we have here a fabrication, 
for which the forger drew elements of form and decor from such pieces 
as those cited above. Doubt is thrown on it by a crudeness and heaviness 
in the casting, and by several mistakes and inconsistences in the design: 
the failure of the legs to correspond properly with handle and mold 
joins; the extension of the upper lip of the fao:t'ieh below the handle; 
and a miscalculation in the size of the tao-t'ieh on the handle side, 
necessitating the omission of a minor element at the far right, near the 
point of junction with the left edge of the other t'ao-tieli. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The body of the vessel appears to be cast from a two-piece mold 
assembly; mold marks show faintly downward from the tip of the spout 
and on the opposite side; and they show also on either side of the 
handle joins. The channeled handle is cast in one piece with the vessel, 
and remnants of the original clay core remain in the channel. The lid with 
its loop handle is cast in one piece, but there are no evidences of mold 
marks. There are no chaplets. The inscriptions are cast in. Where the 
fao-t'ieh meet along the long axes of the vessel elements of decor that 
are present on one side are missing on the other. The faces of the legs are 
decorated, which is unusual in vessels of this type. 

The patina is made up mostly of hard and compact malachite and 
cuprite, but tin oxide is little in evidence. The area of the inside cover, 
which bears the inscriptions, is solid cuprite; this indicates that mala- 
chite, which originally encrusted the area, has been scraped away to 
reveal the inscription. The rim at the edge of the spout has two deep 
fissures and one leg is cracked near the join to the body. There is no 
evidence of paint or repairs. 

Composition: Samples taken from edge of bottom. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 83.5%; Sn 13.4; Total 96.9. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Pb 0.03%; 



157 



NUMBER TWENTY-SEVEN 



Ag0.09; Fe 0.3; Co 0.001 ; Ni 0.02; As < 0.07; Bi 0.03; Mg< 0.001; 
Si 0.005. 

This is one of the few vessels in which lead is present only in a trace 
amount. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription which is cast both in the vessel and in the lid has been 
reproduced in various catalogues since 1854. It reads: 

1. Fu-shih made (for her) 

2. accomplished Aunt, Jih-kuei, 

3. (this) honoured sacrificial vessel. Clan sign. 

In a number of later appearing inscribed vessels this inscription text has 
been slavishly copied. 




158 



NUMBER TWENTY-SEVEN 




NUMBER TWENTY-EIGHT 



PLATE 28 



Ting 

Shang dynasty (middle An-yang, 1 2th century B.C.) 

Inscription of two characters inside 

Height, 24.8 cm. (9f in.) 

Width, 20.3 cm. (8 in.) 

Weight, 3.40 kg. (71bs.,8oz.) 

Accession number 60.18 



The almost hemispherical bowl rests on three straight legs that spread 
outward slightly from the vertical; and the two handles thicken slightly 
as they rise from the rim. Six vertical flanges surround the body altern- 
ately separating and splitting the three bold monster masks that com- 
prise the main decoration. Gaps in the zoomorphic elements of the 
design are filled with lei-wen, and three pendent triangles with scrolls 
inside decorate each leg. On the body most of the intaglio lines are filled 
with corrosion products that show red against the smooth, gray-green 
patina. The casting is fine in quality; and, except for the flanges and the 
eyes, the surface is very smooth and flat. 



160 



PLATE 28 




NUMBER TWENTY-EIGHT (60.18) 



NUMBER TWENTY-EIGHT 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This vessel typifies in every respect the An-yang style, and could be said 
to represent a classic stage of Shang art, when an ideal balance reigned 
in both shape and decor. The t'ao-fieh, sober and coherent in design and 
with only the round eyes in relief, belongs to Loehr's "Fourth Style" in 
the An-yang sequence, and is in essential agreement with those on the hu 
excavated at An-yang, which he reproduces to illustrate that style. The 
characteristic markings on the flanges, for instance, with straight lines 
and T's in alternation, appear also the outer edge of the horns of the 
fao-fieh on both vessels. The following stage, in which the t'ao-fieh is 
rendered in relief, may be seen in several ting that differ chiefly in this 
feature, being otherwise quite similar, even to the hanging blade patterns 
on the legs.^^ A very similar ting is reproduced among the vessels 
reportedly found at An-yang.^^ 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel was cast directly in one piece in a three-piece mold with main 
joins in vertical line with the legs. A mold mark shows plainly on the 
outside of one leg, but vestiges of other mold marks are seen also on the 
other legs and on the six flanges. The legs are cast with clay core and 
each leg shows half way up on the inside an irregular metal plug or 
patch which seals the opening into the core. On the vessel bottom there 
are areas of parallel scratches caused apparently by a rough finishing 
operation. Two chaplets are visible in the inter-leg area underside. 

Smooth tin-oxide patina covers much of the surface of the legs and 
handles, but on the bowl much of it is abraded away to lay bare con- 
siderable areas of tarnished metal. Probably when first disinterred, the 
surface bore some fairly heavy crusts of copper minerals which were 
cleaned off. There are scattered small bright green, powdery patches of 
copper chloride minerals which, in addition to the heavy deposits of 

8'^ Loehr, "The bronze styles . . . Fig. 13. 

^8 Loehr, op. cit., fig. 17, used to illustrate his "Fifth Style"; Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. 15a, 

formerly Burnett Collection; Mizuno, In shii . . . , PI. 67, Art Institute of Chicago. 
89 Huang, Yeh-chimg . . . , ni/A/7. 



162 



NUMBER TWENTY-EIGHT 



cuprite, are evidence of bronze disease. Most of the lines of the intagho 
design are filled with dull-red, crystalline cuprite. The level of the cuprite 
is below that of the metal, probably because it was less resistant to 
abrasion employed in the cleaning operation. Some of the fossae are 
entirely filled with earthy accretions. The grooves made by the single 
character inscription are also filled with cuprite, and the area around it 
has been so abraded for the purpose of uncovering the character that it is 
impossible to tell how it was formed. There are no breaks, losses or 
evidence of repairs. 

Composition: Sample taken from a flange. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 82.9% ; Sn 1 3.6 ; Pb 2.8 ; Total 99.3. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.07%; 

Au <0.01; Fe 0.1; Co 0.005; Ni 0.01 ; As 0.2; SbO.Ol; Cr < 0.001; 

Al 0.001 ;Mg < 0.001 ;Mn < 0.001 ; Si 0.001. 

INSCRIPTION 

The single cast-in graph has not hitherto been reproduced in publication. 
It is probably to be equated with the modern graph fou "a large mound." 




163 



NUMBER TWENTY-NINE 



PLATE 29 



Ting 

Shang dynasty (middle An-yang, 12th century B.C.) 

Inscription of four characters 

Height, 20.7 cm. (8i in.) 

Width, 16.3 cm. (6| in.) 

Weight, 1.87 kg. (4lbs.,2oz.) 

Accession number 59.15 



The body of the vessel is covered with a network of rectangles in each 
of which an irregular arrangement of elongated lei-wen surrounds a 
stud. Above this, just below the thickened rim, lies a band of k'uei 
dragons arranged in double confronting pairs, each pair set off by a 
short segmented flange. The legs are plain. An even grayish-green patina 
covers the whole vessel ; the fossae of the design are filled with black and 
some earthy encrustation remains. 



164 



PLATE 29 




NUMBER TWENTY-NINE (59.15) 



NUMBER TWENTY-NINE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The pattern that covers the main surface of the bowl may be seen on a 
large number of Shang vessels, at least one of them excavated at An- 
yang. A ting of similar shape with this pattern, but with simple flush 
circles in place of the studs, was also reportedly found at An-yang;^! 
another, more closely related to ours, is in the British Museum.^- The 
shape, with cylindrical legs and simple, rounded bowl, is standard for 
tifig of this period, as are the dragons in the band just below the rim. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The casting is done in one piece in a three-piece mold, with main joins 
running vertically in line with its legs. Poor register caused by mold 
section slippage is plainly visible (fig. 22). The three legs are hollow and 
filled with pale gray, finely grained clay core. There is no evidence of 
seam or join at juncture of legs to vessel. The underside is smooth and 
plain. Unlike many tripod vessels of this type, only one leg shows a faint 
trace of mold mark; the other legs are smooth. On the middle of the 
inside of each leg, however, there is a small depression which may be the 
location of an opening from the interior clay core. No chaplets are 
visible. The inscription appears to have been etched {fig. 23). The 
grooves have U-shaped cross-sections and ends, and the edges of the 
grooves are wavy and undercut. In the bottoms of the grooves the 
dendritic structure characteristic of etched metal can be seen. A light 
green material similar in appearance to tin oxide fills the grooves of the 
inscription, but rubbing with a wet swab removes this material easily, 
leaving shiny bronze dendrites. The inscription shows but faintly in a 
radiograph; this confirms the hypothesis that it was partly cut into the 
corrosion crust. In fact, the tin-oxide patina around the inscription 
extends out over the grooves slightly at a few points, also indicating 
that it was etched into the bronze after excavation. 

90 Li Chi, Yin-shang shih-tai . . . , Part I, PI. IX, No. 325, a ting with bulbous body; Mizuno, In shil 
. . . , PI. 25, a kuei, and PI. 19D, a p'cw in the Shanghai Museum. 

91 Huang, Yeh-chung .... Ul/A/ll. 

92 Watson, Archaeology . . . , PI. 56. 



166 



NUMBER TWENTY-NINE 



Although there are scattered areas of tin-oxide patina, most of the 
patina is not distinguished. Microscopic examination shows that some of 
the blue is artificial; it is made of powdered azurite mineral applied as 
paint. The lines of the intaglio design are mostly filled with dark earthy 




Figure 22 



167 



NUMBER TWENTY-NINE 




material ; but on the surface, these hnes have been reinforced with black 
paint or ink. Under low magnification, the brushed-in character of the 
surface black is easily seen. Interesting features are the ghosts of a 
fabric pattern that can be seen on two of the nipples. In burial the vessel 
perhaps was wrapped in silk or came in contact with silk fabric. There 
are no breaks, losses or repairs, except the small amount of paint touch- 
up already noted. 

168 



NUMBER TWENTY-NINE 



Composition: Sample taken from underside of leg. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 82. 1 % ; Sn 1 2.0 ; Pb 6. 1 ; Total 100.2. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 

Fe 0.3; Co O.Ol ; Ni 0.03; As 0.2; Sb 0.02; Bi 0.03; Cr 0.003; Mg 

< 0.001 ;Mn < 0.001 ; Si 0.1. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription is incised and obviously spurious. It comprises a graph 
functioning as a clan-sign and the posthumous appellation Fu-wu. The 
latter is, however, not only written in reverse as Wu-fu, but the char- 
acters in both cases are erratically executed. 




169 



NUMBER THIRTY 



PLATE 30 



Ting 

Shang dynasty (middle-late An-yang, 12th-l 1th century B.C.) 

Inscription of one character inside 

Height, 35.6 cm. (14 in.) 

Width, 28.5 cm. (Hi in.) 

Weight, 10.21 kg. (22 lbs., 8 oz.) 

Accession number 46.31 



The large, strongly shaped bowl has two powerful handles rising from 
the hp. The principal decoration consists of a band of t'ao-t'ieh on a 
lei-wen ground. Beneath each t'ao-fieh and also beneath each interven- 
ing space is a pendent blade with a cicada in relief on a lei-wen ground. 
Around the sturdy legs are narrow scroll bands from which hang rows 
of pendent blades all executed in intaglio. The surface is covered with a 
light gray-green patina which has some areas of encrustation. 



170 



PLATE 30 




NUMBER THIRTY (46.31) 



NUMBER THIRTY 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

No close parallel to this monumental vessel is known among surviving 
bronzes. The shape is one of those standard for ting in the An-yang 
period, and the hanging-blade patterns on the legs also occur frequently. 
The design of raised fao-fieh masks in the broad band below the rim, 
however, appears to be unique. T'ao-t'ieh not bisected by vertical 
flanges are rare on bronze vessels, although they are rather the rule in 
other media of Shang art;^^ ^md in the few cases in which they occur in 
this position on bronze ting tripods, they are found in combination with 
other motifs. On a ting in the Nara Museum; for example, they alternate 
with "whorl circles" in the case of a ting in the Sackler Collection, 
New York (S.89), there are only two large relief masks, set off by flanges 
on opposite sides of the vessel, with elephantine dragons occupying the 
other two quadrants. Both these vessels share with ours the hanging 
blades with cicadas in relief on the main area of the body, a relatively 
common motif on Shang tripods. The arrangement here, with one 
hanging blade directly below each mask and another midway between 
each pair, contributes to the impression of stability, order, and strength. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast in one piece from an alloy relatively low in tin and 
much below average in lead for this class of bronze. It was made 
apparently in a three-piece mold with the main joins running vertically 
through the center lines of the legs. Mold marks of the legs continue 
vertically up through the design on the bowl and divide the nine t'ao-t'ieh 
masks into groups of three. At the point where the join bisects a cicada, 
one of these marks is especially prominent because of poor register 
{fig. 24). Each mask and cicada varies in size and detail, giving evidence 
that the design is entirely hand worked. The lei-wen pattern which fills 
in the background between the t'ao-t'ieh masks is uneven in width and 

93 For examples in bone carving, see Umehara, Kanan anyo iho, PI. LXXHI, LXXVU, LXXIX; in marble, 
op. cit., PI. LXVI, and Kanan anyo . . . , PI. XXIX; for jade, op. cit., PI. XXIII and XXV; for white 
pottery, op. cit., XVH. 

94 Umehara, SKSjJ, ni/177. Another ting with this feature is in the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts 
Richmond, Virginia (57.45.9). 



172 



NUMBER THIRTY 




Figure 24 



also varies in detail. The handles are solid and are cast integrally with the 
vessel. The legs are clay cored, and the inside surface of each leg bears an 
irregularly shaped metal patch or plug, which appears to be a contem- 
porary repair to conceal a hole or vent leading into the clay core (fig. 25). 

173 



NUMBER THIRTY 




NUMBER THIRTY 



These holes may also indicate the location of connecting members of 
mold that were set between leg cores and the central core. The hanging- 
blade decor of the legs is continued over the patches. One of the legs has 
a ridge on the bottom which may be the stump of a pouring sprue. There 
is evidence of chaplets in the inter-leg area underside; but they are 
nearly fused and partially concealed by corrosion. 

The bowl surface inside is covered with a thin crusty patina of mixed 
azurite, malachite, and cuprite. On the exterior much of this crust has 
been chipped off to expose the more or less uniform tin-oxide patina 
beneath {fig. 26). Earthy residues partially fill some of the fossae. 

Composition: Sample taken from bottom of leg centered between two 
handles. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 86.0% ; Sn 9.7 ; Pb 0.4 ; Total 96. 1 . 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 

Fe 0.5 ; Co 0.008 ;Ni 0.02 ;Sb 0.01; Bi <0.03; Cr 0.002; Mg 0.001; 

Mn < 0.001; Si 0.04. 

INSCRIPTION 

The single graph inscription which is cast is published here for the first 
time. It cannot be identified. 




175 



NUMBER THIRTY-ONE 



PLATE 31 



Ting 

Shang dynasty (late An-yang, 1 1th century B.C.) 

Inscription of one character inside 

Height, 21.9 cm. (8| in.) 

Width, 18.1 cm. (7 J in.) 

Weight, 2.64 kg. (5 lbs., 13 oz.) 

Accession number 47.11 



The bowl of the vessel is tri-lobed to a moderate degree which might 
justify a classification of li-ting. The main design consists of three bold 
t'ao-t'ieh centered on segmented flanges which lie above the legs. Above 
this are three pairs of confronted dragons centered on small flanges lying 
between the legs. Both zones are heavily covered with lei-wen. The legs 
are decorated as in the previous vessel. The pale green-gray patina shows 
some areas of encrustation. 



176 



PLATE 31 




NUMBER 



THIRTY-ONE (47.11) 



NUMBER THIRTY-ONE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The strong, fully integrated t'ao-t'ieh masks in relief, and the promi- 
nent flanges, are elements of the late Shang style. Aside from their plastic 
treatment, the fao-t'ieh are very similar to those on the ting Number 28, 
but have been compressed to accommodate the band of dragons above; 
the horns of the masks are thus forced into a horizontal position. The 
designs on the legs of the two vessels are also similar. 

Several examples of the li-ting tripod were reportedly found at An- 
yang,95 but they were simpler in design and lacked flanges. Li-ting with 
flanges are less common; other examples include those in the Heinrich 
Hardt Collection, Berlin, ^Yiq Oeder Collection, and the Nelson 
Gallery (35.250). 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The object was made in a single piece by direct casting in a three-piece 
six-division mold with true joins in vertical hne with the legs. There are 
no traces of mold marks except vertically along the legs where the two 
halves of the design register poorly, and by the uneven dentils along 
opposite sides of the flanges. The legs are cast hollow with brick-like core. 
Each leg shows on the inside an irregularly shaped metal plug used to 
conceal openings into the clay core that were caused presumably by 
spacers to keep the inter-leg core in position. Three chaplets are sym- 
metrically located in the bottom. There is no evidence that the inscrip- 
tion was incised in the cold bronze; but in this case the possibility 
remains that it may have been etched with acid. The surface of the metal 
in the grooves of the characters is metallic and only faintly tarnished - 
not heavily encrusted. The corrosion layer is not continuous down into 
and across the fossae but appears to terminate abruptly at the edge of the 
stroke suggesting that at this point the original natural corrosion layer 
has been interrupted. 

Most of the outside surface is covered with smooth, gray-green, tin- 

95 Huang, Yeh-chiing I, A, 1 1 and 12; HI, A, 9. 

96 Umehara, SKSjE, 11/90. 

97 Karlgren, "New Studies . . . PI. X, No. 254. See also No. 248, same plate. 



178 



NUMBER THIRTY-ONE 



oxide patina, but the thin and even encrustation of malachite on the 
underside and on the inside indicate that much of the surface of the 
vessel was originally covered by this green mineral. The adherent green 
can be flaked off with a blunt chisel to reveal the smooth surface 
beneath. The black filling in the fossae of the design appears to be inten- 
tionally put into the grooves as a sort of inlay. It is soft and fine-grained, 
and is made up chiefly of finely divided quartz particles mixed with 
cuprite and some dark carbonaceous material. There is no evidence of 
repair, old or new, and no breaks or losses. 

Composition: Sample taken from underside of one leg. 
Wet chemical analysis: Cu 79.6%; Sn 13.8; Pb 3.1; Total 96.5. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 
Fe 0.10; Co 0.002; Ni 0.01; Bi 0.03; Cr 0.002; Mg 0.001; Si 0.02. 

INSCRIPTION 

Although there are a few published inscriptions with the combination 
of ko (dagger axe) and erh (ear), our particular example appears here 
for the first time. It is incised (or etched?) on the yiu side of the vessel. 
It is a forgery. 




179 



NUMBER THIRTY-TWO 



PLATE 32 



Ting 
Recent 

Inscription of three characters in one side 
Height, 22.9 cm. (9 in.) 
Width, 16.8 cm. (6| in.) 
Weight, 2.32 kg. (5 lbs., 2 oz.) 
Accession number 11.41 



The vessel is executed in the customary ting style with three slightly 
swelling areas above the legs placing it in a class sometimes known as 
li-ting. The monster masks above the legs and the incised pattern on the 
surface are all extremely poor in quality. The brownish-gray metallic 
surface has areas of green encrustation. Mr. Freer noted that the piece 
had an unusual color and was imperfect but added that it was "said to 
be an ancient specimen." It came from Li Chiao San of Shanghai. 



180 



PLATE 32 




NUMBER THIRTY-TWO (11.41) 



NUMBER THIRTY-TWO 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

In its shape and the placement of the t'ao-t'ieh masks, this tripod is 
based on vessels of the classical An-yang style. The rendering of the 
decor, however, shows such a complete lack of understanding of early 
bronze style as to suggest that the copyist depended on crude woodcut 
pictures rather than on any knowledge of early bronzes. Designs of the 
kind he may have copied are to be seen in later editions of the Sung 
catalogues, such as the Po-ku tu-lu^^ and the K'ao-ku tu.^^ 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel, including the handles and legs, is cast in a single piece. The 
legs are hollow and filled with a blackish earthy material. There are no 
visible mold marks. The main features of the decor are cast, but the 
shallow, sunken line decor has a peculiar appearance as if it were traced 
or etched into the surface. Many of the finer lines are not continuous but 
are interrupted as if mechanically worked (fig. 27). In some areas the 
decor is thin, almost vanishing. A shallow Y-shaped groove on the 
underside, which connects the three legs, seems to simulate the ridges 
often found on other vessels of the type. The evidence in general indi- 
cates the vessel was cast by the cire-perdue method. The characters of the 
inscription have ragged edges suggesting they may have been chiseled or 
pecked into the surface. 

The patina is mostly false. It is made of a sort of thick paint which 
contains coarse particles of ground malachite. The paint easily chips 
away from the surface. 

A series of radiographs of the entire vessel was taken which confirm 
the hollowness of the legs, show details of the decor in great contrast, 
and reveal the presence of several casting flaws. One radiograph shows 
very well the contact between the core of one leg and the vessel wall. 

Composition: Sample taken from rim near one handle. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 72.7% ; Sn 1 7.9 ; Pb 9.4 ; Total 1 00.0. 

98 Edition of 1752, ch. I, p. 41 or 48. 
89 Ch. I, p. 17. 



182 



NUMBER THIRTY-TWO 




Figure 27 



Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.09%; 
Fe 0.03 ; Co 0.02 ; Ni 0.03 ; As 0. 1 ; Sb 0.03 ; Bi 0.03 ; Zn 0.05 ; Mg 
< 0.001; Si 0.005. 
The presence of a detectable amount of zinc is noted. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription comprises a clan sign consisting of a ko (dagger axe) 
from the blade of which two objects are hanging, and the posthumous 
appellation fu-kuei. Details of the calligraphy indicate that this inscrip- 
tion was copied from the earlier editions of one of the Sung catalogues. 




183 



NUMBER THIRTY-THREE 



PLATE 33 



Ting 

Early Chou dynasty, (late 1 1th - early 10th century B.C.) 

Inscription of three characters inside 

Height, 16.5 cm. (6 J in.) 

Width, 15.0 cm. (5 J in.) 

Weight, 1.19 kg. (2 lbs., 10 oz.) 

Accession number 46.4 



The rather squat appearance of this ting is accounted for by the fact 
that the bowl is wider near the bottom than it is at the top. The only 
decoration is a single band of three pairs of confronted long-tailed birds 
facing flanged escutcheons in the center of each side between the legs. 
The whole thing is covered with a smooth, grayish-green patina with 
minor areas of encrustation. 



184 



PLATE 33 




NUMBER THIRTY-THREE (46.4) 



NUMBER THIRTY-THREE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

In the typological series for ting tripods prepared by Mizuno/oo a draw- 
ing of a similar ting is used to represent the "middle Western Chou" 
period, i.e., the late tenth or early ninth century. He gives no reasons for 
his dating, nor does he identify the piece, but it would appear to be the 
ting,^^^ a vessel closely related to ours in both form and decor. 
Karlgren places it in a group of bronzes datable only generally by their 
inscriptions to the early part (i.e., the first 175 years) of the Chou 
dynasty,! "2 but Kuo Mo-jo dates it, from evidence in the inscription, in 
the reign of King Mu (947-928), and although Kuo's criteria are not as 
firm as one might wish, his dating seems to agree with the style of the 
vessel. In shape, it appears to precede the stage represented by a ting in 
the British Museum^^^ on which the curved outer profile of the legs is 
transitional towards the cabriole legs of Middle Chou and later vessels, 
and the long-tailed birds of the decor band have turned into the S- 
shaped "dragons" also characteristic of a later style. This ting is dated by 
Watson to the mid-tenth century, but might be somewhat later. The 
cylindrical legs on ours, by contrast, still retain the Shangform, and the 
treatment of the birds is an outgrowth of the more naturalistic, coherent 
rendering of the same motif on vessels of the early Chou period. 

The closest parallels to these birds are on vessels that seem typo- 
logically to belong to the tenth century, such as a yu in the Sumitomo 
Collection^ '^^ and a kuei in the British Museum, on which the heads of 
the birds are turned back. Another kuei, the Fu-shih-li kuei^^^ has a band 
of birds matching ours even more closely. This is dated by Kuo Mo-jo, 
on the basis of its long inscription, to the reign of King Li (857-828). 

Mizuno, In shi4 . . . , pp. 19-21. 

101 Lo Chen-yii, Meng-wei . . . , hsii 6. 

102 Karlgren, "Yin and Chou B 49, PI. IV and p. 37. 

103 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, 46b. Another ting of this stage is in the Sackler Collection, New 
York (S.4). It bears an inscription similar in script style to that on 46.4, but reading simply tso poo- 
ling. 

104 E.g. the fong-i No. 38 lowest band; the yu No. 50 and No. 53; the fang-tsiin No. 17. 

105 Sumitomo, Sen-oku . . . , No. 63; for the dating, cf. No. 58. 

106 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, Alb, dated by him "late 1 Ith-early 10th century B.C." For a discus- 
sion of the dating of a kuei of similar shape, see No. 69. 

107 K'ao-ku hsiieh-pao, 1958, No. 2, PI. I; also rubbing in PI. II. 



186 



NUMBER THIRTY-THREE 



Kuo's dating, however, is based on an historical identification that is 
open to doubt, and neither the shape nor the decor fit comfortably into 
such a late period when the typical style has become very different (cf. 
the discussions of Nos. 76 and 78). 

Another piece of evidence for an earlier dating is provided by the 
Shih-chin a shallower tripod with proportionately longer legs, 

but closely related in its band of decor, with similar long-tailed birds 
separated by escutcheons. The distinctive features of this vessel, the 
unusual shape and the curious "trunks" that replace the birds' beaks, 
do not seem chronologically significant, and it might well be roughly 
contemporary. According to Loehr, the inscription indicates that it was 
made late in the reign of King Ch'eng or under King K'ang, i.e., at the 
very end of the eleventh or first part of the tenth century.^ 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

This small ting is cast in one piece in what appears to be a three-piece, 
six-division mold. The legs which are an integral part of the vessel have 
clay cores, and on the underside they are connected by cast-in ribs in low 
relief which form a Y or star-shaped design. The pattern resembles that 
on the underside of the square ting Number 34, and the legs of both 
vessels have two vertical mold marks between which is a rough un- 
modeled area that does not line up well with the corresponding rib. The 
inner sides of the legs do not seem to have holes or vents leading into the 
clay core. On the outside of the bowl are a number of chaplets on the 
body bulge and underneath there is a chaplet flanking both sides of each 
leg. The inscription may be etched. The grooves are undercut with steep 
edges and ends, the corrosion in the grooves is thin, and the dendritic 
structure of the metal may be seen in the grooves after cleaning with 
water. No tool-marks are evident. 

In spite of the smooth, tin-oxide patina on the outside, the bronze is 
quite deeply corroded. The small patches of bright green on the inside 

Jung, Shang chou . . . , No. 51. 
109 Loehr, Bronzentexte . . . , II, p. 248ff. 



187 



NUMBER THIRTY-THREE 



test strongly for the chloride ion and give a paratacamite X-ray diffrac- 
tion pattern which shows the vessel is afflicted in a minor way with 
"bronze disease." As in many other bronzes of this series, a black 
deposit which is the usual mixture of quartz, cuprite and carbonaceous 
material is lodged in the fossae of the design. The surface underneath 
shows many parallel abrasions which may be evidence of post-cast 
tooling. There is no evidence of modern repairs or touching up with 
paint. 

Composition: Sample taken from underside of leg centered between 
handles. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 76.0% ; Sn 16.0; Pb 6.0; Total 98.0. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.09%; 

FeO.4 ; Co 0.02 ; Ni 0.03 ; As 0.3 ; Sb 0. 1 ; Bi 0.06 ; Cr 0.002 ; MgO.003 ; 

Mn < 0.001; Si 0.06. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription, which is spuriously incised, comprises the three char- 
acters "Po made (this) vessel." Po "Count," "eldest brother," is 
usually employed in the sense of a title. This particular inscription has 
not previously been reproduced, but a similar text is recorded in Chen- 
sung (hsii-pien 1.16b). A rubbing of the latter is in Kosai takuhon (8.13). 




188 



NUMBER THIRTY-THREE 



A large number of vessels recorded from the 18th century onwards 
contain the similar text : "Po made (this) i." There are seven examples in 
the early Ch'ing catalogues and about twice this number in late Ch'ing 
and recent catalogues. A fully attested example cast in a hsien was 
excavated at Chun-hsien in 1932 {Chun-hsien yi-ch'i 7b). 



189 



NUMBER THIRTY-FOUR 



PLATE 34 



Fang-ting 

Early Chou dynasty (late 1 1th - early 10th century B.C.) 

Inscription of 40 characters in one side 

Height, 26.7 cm. (lOJ in.) 

Width, 19.7 cm. (7iin.) 

Weight, 3.77 kg. (8 lbs., 5 oz.) 

Accession number 50.7 



The rectangular vessel has two handles rising from the rim at the 
narrow ends, and the corners carry segmented flanges. At the top of each 
side is a serpentine band of the "split-skin type" on a lei-wen ground; 
that is to say, a single mask in the center serves as a head for two bodies. 
Below this is a perfectly plain cartouche framed at the bottom and on 
both sides by three rows of nipples. T'ao-t'ieh with flanges in relief 
appear at the tops of the four legs. The pale gray-green patina shows 
areas of cuprite and malachite encrustation. 

This vessel is one of a set discussed below in connection with the 
inscription. 



190 



PLATE 34 




NUMBER THIRTY-FOUR (50.7) 



NUMBER THIRTY-FOUR 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

A fairly sound basis for dating this piece is provided by the inscription ; 
and the early Chou date thus suggested is in no way contradicted by the 
style of the decoration. The all-over pattern of round bosses has ante- 
cedents in the Shang dynasty (cf. the ting No. 29); but in vessels of the 
early Chou period, the pattern undergoes several mutations. The bosses 
may project farther from the surface;"" the linear patterns surrounding 
them may disappear ;"i or the diaper pattern may disappear also, 
leaving the bosses thicker-set and in even rows, as here. All these 
developments are combined in a most striking fashion in our kuei 
Number 66. The addition of animal masks to the cylindrical legs is most 
characteristic of early Chou, although it may have begun in the late 
Shang.ii- serpent motif occupying the band below the rim, with two 
bodies (or two halves of a split body?) extending sideward from a single 
head, also has its closest parallels in vessels of early Chou date, such as, 
the fang-i Number 38. The alternating straight-line and T pattern is a 
survival from Shang, but the profile of the flanges, with two blunt- 
ended projections on each, is chiefly an early Chou feature, probably 
coexisting with the hooked flanges, since it appears, for example, on the 
kuang Number 44, a vessel closely related in decor style to the fang-i. 

A fang-ting more flamboyant in style but interestingly related to this is 
in the Nelson Gallery; it bears a brief inscription mentioning King 
Ch'eng, and has been dated to his reign, although Ch'en Meng-chia 
argues that the inscription indicates that it was made as a sacrifice to 
King Ch'eng, and was, therefore, made after his death, during the reign 
of King K'ang.ii3 The slight concavity in the outline of the legs is like 
that on our vessel, as are the handles, with a double line following the 

E.g. on two similar kuei vessels in the Hakutsuru Museum, Mizuno, In shu . . . , PI. 95, and the Moore 
Collection, Umehara, SKSjE, n/105. 

111 E.g. on a kuei in the Menten Collection, Umehara, SKSjE, n/106, and a similar piece formerly in the 
Wannieck Collection, Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. 41b. 

112 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, p. 46 and PI. 9b; here, a slight curve appears in the profile of the 
legs, foreshadowing, perhaps, the pronounced curves to be seen in the legs of later ting tripods. (The 
rectangular ting disappears soon after the beginning of Chou.) 

113 Mizuno, In shu . . . , PI. 92; Plumer and Menzies, Loo, An exhibition . . . , No. 30, PI. XVIII; Ch'en, 
Yin-tai-tUing-ch'i, r. 47. 



192 



NUMBER THIRTY-FOUR 



shape on their outer surfaces. Otherwise, however, the Nelson Gallery 
vessel is an expression of the extreme taste for multiple projections and 
irregular profile that represents one aspect of early Chou bronze style; 
the flanges are complex in outline, the animal masks on the legs have long 
curling horns, the bosses are longer and pointed, and two of k'uei 
dragons with bottle-shaped horns are attached to each of the handles. 
The difference in effect between this and the sober, self-contained Freer 
vessel probably has no chronological significance, but rather reflects 
some difference in function, or locale, or simply the varying tastes of the 
makers and users of the bronzes. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel body appears to have been cast in a four-piece mold 
assembly. Three of the legs are solid and are cast as one with the vessel, 
but the fourth leg which is clay cored is a contemporary repair. A radio- 
graph of the piece shows that the core is tilted and off center, as if it were 
carelessly placed in the mold. The inside of each of the three original legs 
has a roughly cast and undecorated vertical panel sharply delineated, but 
the fourth has a thick vertical mold mark in the same position. Where 
this leg joins the body a thin shelf of metal spills over onto the vessel 
bottom; and after this was scraped and cleaned, a seam was clearly 
visible. Radiography confirms the presence of a core in the fourth leg but 
gives no clue to the reason for the repair. Perhaps in the original casting 
this leg failed to fill out so that a replacement was necessary. No seams 
can be found where the three solid legs join the vessel (Vol. II, ch. VII). 

Mold marks show along the flanges, especially at each corner under 
the shelf-like rim. The underside of the bottom is criss-crossed by double, 
parallel, straight ridges which connect the legs. These ridges and the 
rough-cast surfaces on the inside of the legs may have something to do 
with the inter-leg core assembly. 

In the rectangular undecorated area on each face is a chaplet. One of 
these is located midway between two characters in the inscription. This 
chaplet is made of metal more transparent to X-rays than the metal of 
the vessel. There are also three large chaplets in the bottom. Another 



193 



NUMBER THIRTY-FOUR 



striking feature of this bronze is the black filhng in the sunken decor, 
which contrasts pleasingly with the smooth, gray-green patina. Analysis 
shows this is chiefly a mixture of carbonaceous material and fine 
quartz. There are also residues of a black layer over some of the un- 
decorated surface, which seems to be ordinary carbon. Brownish 
deposits on the legs are a mixture of cuprite and carbon, not iron rust 
as first glance suggests. These carbon deposits may give support to the 
widely held view that this type of vessel was a cooking pot. A low 
density area in the vessel bottom, revealed as a black spot in the X-rays, 
corresponds to a local area of deep corrosion. 

Composition: Sample taken from underside of a corner flange. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 77.7% ; Sn 1 4.9 ; Pb 5.5 ; Total 98. 1 . 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 

Fe0.3;Co0.02;Ni0.04;As0.3;Sb0.3;Bi < 0.03 ;Cr 0.002 ; Mg 0.004; 

Mn < 0.001; Si 0.04. 

INSCRIPTION 

There are four fang-ting bearing this inscription. Two are lodged in the 
Palace Museum, Taiwan, and one of these is considered by Ch'en 
Meng-chia to be spurious. A further vessel is known only by the rubbing 
published by Ch'en."'* 

As an historical document the inscription has attained a considerable 
measure of importance, and to us, it may be especially significant as the 
investee, Ta-Pao may in some way be connected with Ming-pao in the 
Nieh Ling / inscription (No. 38). The inscription reads: 

1 . (When) the Duke came and cast (in honor of) Wu Wang (and) 

2. Ch'eng Wang the i-ting; in the 4th 

3. month, the second quarter of the month, on the day chi- 

4. ch'ou (the 26th day of the cycle), the Duke awarded the Tso-ch'e 
(The Recorder) 

A. G. Wenley, The appearance . . . , points out that the fourth ting of the set is in the Hermitage 
Foundation, Norfolk, Virginia. He also notes that the scribe of this text had the same name as the 
scribe who wrote the text in our fang-i No. 38 and may have been the same man or else his son or 
nephew. (J. A. P.) 



194 



NUMBER THIRTY-FOUR 



Ta a white horse. Ta extolled 
the August Heavenly Governor Ta-pao's 
grace. Therefore made (for) Tsu-ting 
(this) valuable and honored /. Clan-sign. 




195 



NUMBER THIRTY-FIVE 



PLATE 35 



Fang- ting 
Recent 

Inscription of tliree characters in one side 
Height, 24. 1 cm. (9 J in.) 
Width, 19.0 cm. (VJin.) 
Weight, 3.77 kg. (81bs.,5oz.) 
Accession number 09.261 



In shape and decoration this ting is almost a duplicate of Number 34; 
the two vessels weigh exactly the same, and their chemical compositions 
are nearly identical. The workmanship is inferior, and the whole surface 
lacks the fine sharpness of casting that distinguishes the original. A dull- 
brown, metallic patina shows occasional areas of malachite encrustation. 

When this was purchased from Riu Cheng Chai in Shanghai in 1909, 
Mr. Freer made the following note: "Very fine specimen of casting and 
probably a genuine product of the Chou dynasty - late (?)." Mr. Lodge 
in 1942 considered it a "doubtful specimen." 



196 



PLATE 35 




NUMBER THIRTY-FIVE (09.261) 



NUMBER THIRTY-FIVE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This is an imitation of the fang-ting vessel type of the early Chou period, 
of which a number of examples of genuine antiquity survive, including 
our Number 34 described above. The variation of the "whorl-circle" 
motif seen above and below the split serpents, with the whorls reduced 
to simple bumps, occurs also on the p'ou N umber 2. The fang-ting was 
evidently one of those vessel types favored by the forgers, since many 
technically crude and stylistically unconvincing pieces exist. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel appears to be cast in one piece, and no mold marks or parting 
lines can be seen along the flanges or on the inside of the legs which are 
solid. On the underside connecting the four legs is a peculiar and crudely 
made cross which appears to simulate a feature found in some other 




Figure 28 

115 E.g. Jung, Shan^ chou . . . , Nos. 124, 127, 128, 129 (the last similar to 09.261), or Ku-kung tUmg- 
ch'i . . . , n, p. 25. 



198 



NUMBER THIRTY-FIVE 



vessels of this type (fig. 28). Chaplets do not appear to be present. The 
inscription is cast into the vessel side. The evidence suggests that the 
vessel was cast by the cire-perdiw method as a copy or imitation of an 
early piece. 

The patina is natural, and the earthy residues look genuine. There are 
repairs; an area of loss at one end just below the handle has been filled 
in with a plaster composition and concealed with a pigment mixture in 
which Paris green, smalt, and ground azurite were recognized. This area 
fluoresces in ultraviolet light. 

Composition: Sample taken from one of the flanges. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 78.7% ; Sn 1 3.9 ; Pb 4.7 ; Total 97.3. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0-2%; 

Fe 0.3; Co 0.005; Ni 0.03; As 0.3; Sb 0.07; Bi 0.07; Zn <0.03; 

Mg < 0.001 ; Si 0.02. (Sample taken from a leg.) 

INSCRIPTION 

The clan sign has not yet been identified. There are a number of almost 
identical inscriptions containing the same clan sign but with the "tail" 
written upwards. The remainder of our inscription comprises the 
combination fu-ting "Father Ting." 




199 



NUMBER THTRTY-SIX 



PLATE 36 



Fang-i 

Shang dynasty (middle-late An-yang, 1 2th - 11th century B.C.) 

Inscription of one character 

Height, 19.3 cm. (7| in.) 

Width, 10.8 cm. (4i in.) 

Weight, 1.25 kg. (2 lbs., 12 oz.) 

Accession number 54.13 



The rectangular, covered vessel is cast unusually thin, and each side 
carries three main bands of decoration below the lid. Facing pairs of 
small bottle-horned dragons on the sides of the upper band are united 
on the shorter ends to form a split body and mask topped by a single 
horn. In the main zone on each side is a single powerful t'ao-tieh, and 
below this are two small scaly dragons with straight, pointed tails and 
ears. These face outward, one on each side of a central arching aperture 
in the foot rim. The large main fao-t'iehs are repeated in inverted sense 
on the lid. All backgrounds are filled with lei-wen, and the whole vessel 
is covered with a uniform, smooth, gray-green patina inside and out. 



200 



PLATE 36 




NUMBER THTRTY-SIX 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Two fang-i of related design, and the lower part of a third, were found at 
An-yang.ii6 The two complete vessels exhibit the style seen also on, for 
example, the chia Number 22 with t'ao-t'ieh masks made up of dispersed 
elements rendered in two-level relief, and covered with fine spirals. The 
two complete vessels have less in common with this fang-i than with 
Number 37, which they match closely in shape, in the character of the 
decor, and in the prominence of the flanges, with an extra one located 
medially on each side. The topless vessel agrees better with this one; 
there are no flanges (it lacks even the notch marks along the vertical 
edges), and large, integral fao-fieh occupy the main areas. A fang-i 
even more similar to this, on which the corners are likewise treated as 
flanges without actually projecting, is in the collection of R. E. Luff, 
England still another is in the Brundage Collection (B.60.B.997). 
Two other closely related fang-i were reputedly found at An-yang.^^^ The 
fact that the two are virtually identical, except that one has raised and 
the other flush decor, throws into question the assumption that these two 
modes of decoration can be clearly distinguished chronologically, since 
it would be hard to beheve that those two, and ours can be far separated 
in time. 

Li Chi believes that the fang-ting, like other bronze types of square or 
rectangular shape, originated in vessels made of wood, and that the 
survival of a wood-carving tradition accounts for the fact that examples 
are practically always completely covered with decoration, while vessels 
round in section, deriving from a pottery tradition, frequently have large 
portions of their surfaces left bare.^'"" 



116 Li Chi, Chi hsiao-t'un . . . , Part 1, PI. XIX, Nos. 1 and 2 (the former, the incomplete vessel, also in 
The beginnings . . . , PI. XXXVII); and The /beginnings . . . , PI. VI left, from Hou-chia-chuang. 

11'' For references to other examples of iinbisected t'ao-fieh on Shang bronzes and other objects, see the 
discussion of the ting No. 30. 

118 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. 17. 

119 Huang, Yeh-chung II/A/12 and III/A/21. 

120 Li Chi, Chi hsiao-t'un . . . , Part I, p. 61, and The beginnings . . . , p. 32. 



202 



NUMBER THIRTY-SIX 



TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Both vessel and lid were cast apparently from four-piece molds with 
main joins along the corners where there is lack of apposition of the two 
horizontal narrow plain bands above and below the main tao-tieh 
masks. Other evidences of piece-mold casting are the thin fins along the 
edges of the four cut-out arches of the foot. There is no evidence of the 
use of chaplets, but there is a peculiar metal insert just below the t'ao- 
t'ieh on the left side of one face of the vessel which may be an old repair. 
The insert is striated on the outside perhaps done in a crude attempt to 
make the insert merge with the decor. One of the cross striations is 
thicker, and it may be a sprue remnant. There is general blurring of the 
decor in this corner of the vessel. The bottom underside is plain. The 
knob and stem of the lid are cast on, apparently through a perforation in 
the peak of the lid and locked by overflow of metal to the underside. The 
main elements of the decor are nearly identical, but not the lei-wen. 




Figure 29 



203 



NUMBER THIRTY-SIX 



The turquoise-toned patina is quite uniform all over and is soft, 
almost powdery. It consists mostly of tin oxide, but contains also some 
lead carbonate. Ghosts of the dendritic structure of the original cast 
alloy can be seen microscopically in several places in the corroded 
surface. Inside of the cover the patina shows a sort of water mark which 
is rimmed with azurite and cuprite. In small areas on the outside the 
fossae of the design are partially filled with a dark substance which 
looks like a kind of inlay ( fig. 29). Some of the filling is black, but most 
of it is reddish brown, and X-ray diffraction analysis shows it is a mixture 
of cuprite and metallic copper. The filling seems to lie in the grooves on 
top of the pale green, copper-stained tin oxide which covers most of the 
surface. In other areas the fossae hold only earthy residues. 

Composition: Sample taken from under edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 78. 1 ; Sn 1 2.9 ; Pb 7. 1 ; Total 98. 1 . 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.09%; 

Fe 0.08; Co 0.004; Ni 0.003; AsO.l ; Bi<0.03; Cr 0.003; Mg 0.001 ; 

Mn < 0.001; Si 0.02. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription which is cast-in comprises the one graph "eye" and is the 
sole example of the kind. Single eyes appear in several other inscrip- 
tions, but only in combination with other graphs, e.g., Yin-wen B.19a; 
double eyes are similarly found. 




204 



NUMBER THIRTY-SIX 




NUMBER THIRTY-SEVEN 



PLATE 37 



Fang-i 

Shang dynasty (middle-late An-yang, 12th- 11th century B.C.) 
Inscription of two characters on both vessel and cover 
Height, 22.2 cm. (8| in.) 
Width, 15.2 cm. (6 in.) 
Weight, 2.52 kg. (5 lbs., 9 oz.) 
Accession number 15.136 



This vessel has the usual fang-i decoration of t'ao-fieh in the main 
areas, and inverted on the lid, with small k''uei dragons in the upper and 
lower borders of the vessel. The casting is of indifferent quality, and the 
surface is largely encrusted with malachite and some areas of cuprite and 
azurite all highly polished from handling. 

Mr. Freer's note when he bought this vessel from Tonying and Co in 
1915 was, ''Beautiful - I believe this specimen genuine Chou, but feel that 
some of the coloring was done by brush - especially the blue tones on 
the body. Seal on inner cover in relief." 



206 



PLATE 37 




NUMBER THIRTY-SEVEN (15.136) 



NUMBER THIRTY-SEVEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

As was noted in the discussion of Number 36, several related vessels were 
found at An-yang, establishing this shape firmly as a product of the 
latter part of the Shang dynasty. Another of the same group, reportedly 
found at An-yang, is now in the Metropolitan Museum. ^'-^ The present 
fang-i differs from these An-yang examples only in minor features of 
design, such as the projections at the tops of each segment of the flanges. 
An even closer relative, virtually identical in even minor features, is in 
the National Palace Museum, Taiwan. The inscription is also the 
same on the two examples, although the formation of the character 
within the Ya-hsing differs slightly. It has been suggested that the 
correspondence between the two, even to the identity of the inscriptions, 
may be grounds for suspecting the authenticity of our piece; and 
Barnard notes below the peculiar fact that the inscription occurs both in 
relief and intaglio. Until something more conclusive comes to light, 
however, we give the piece the benefit of the doubt. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast apparently in a four-piece (eight-division) mold with 
true mold joins at the corners. The bottom bears an irregular mesh 
pattern in low relief and eight small brackets disposed one on either side 
of each corner {fig. 30). In the vessel bottom are three chaplets; one has 
apparently fallen out and has been replaced by a repair patch with a 
small sprue ridge. 

The lid is proportionately heavier than the vessel. Wet analysis of the 
lid shows Cu 67.7%; Sn 7.3; Pb 22.2; Total 97.2 which is essentially the 
same composition as the metal of the vessel proper (sample taken from 
the rim edge). The pyramidal knob, which seems to be cast integrally, is 
crude and misshapen. The knob stem is perforated from front to back 
with a hole about 3 mm. in diameter. Another hole is found on the lid 
inside the center flange of an end panel. In the under surface of the lid 
are four chaplets symmetrically placed astride the apex. 

121 Huang, Yeh-chung I/A/15, and Lippe, "A gift . . . ," p. 102. 

122 Ku-kimgt'ung-ch'i .... II, 108, No. Al 18. 



208 



NUMBER THIRTY-SEVEN 




Figure 30. Base 

The vessel is distinguished by having nearly all over a bright green, 
enamel-like malachite patina with scattered patches of azurite. In places 
warty malachite has been ground fiat and polished to reveal small 
spherulites of crystalline malachite. In one inside corner of the foot a 
considerable deposit of pure azurite is lodged. Only traces of earthy 
residues remain. 

Pieces of corroded metal have been lost from the edge of the foot, and 
there are indications of old repairs. A part of one side was formerly 
repaired with a piece of scrap metal from another bronze shaped to fit 
the area of loss, and secured in place with soft solder which was well 
concealed with artificial patina. This repair has been removed. 

The inscription is peculiar in that it is cast in relief on the inside of the 
cover, but is cast in intaglio in the inside bottom. The fossae of the 



209 



NUMBER THIRTY-SEVEN 



intaglio character reveal extensive corrosion products including tin 
oxide, azurite, and malachite which seem to cover the normal strokes. 

Composition: Sample taken from edge of rim. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 67.8% ; Sn 7. 1 ; Pb 2 1 .9 ; Total 96.8. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.3%; 

Fe 0.7 ; Co 0.02 ; Ni 0.02 ; As 1 .0 ; Sb 0.2 ; Bi 0.06 ; Zn 0.07 ; Cr 0.00 1 ; 

Al 0.004; Mg < 0.001; Mn < 0.001 ; Si 0.001. 

INSCRIPTION 

The vessel inscription is in intaglio while the lid inscription is in rilievo. 
Rubbings of both are in the Kosai Takuhoiu Kyoto, but erroneously 
scattered as though from separate vessels (4.22, 17.23); they have not 
been published. A similar combination of vessel and lid inscriptions of 
this same graph appears in a lei {Shang-Chou 208.1, 2). 

Although rilievo inscriptions are fairly rare amongst both unattested 
and properly attested bronzes of Shang and Western Chou date, the 
examples available generally seem to indicate that the practice was to 




210 



NUMBER THIRTY-SEVEN 



execute the inscriptions in either one form or the other in inscribed 
vessel-hd sets. 

More than a hundred examples of the Ya-hsing graph with libation 
pourer inside have been recorded since the 18th century. The motif 
manifests a number of minor changes in detail which, when studied 
systematically and extensively, may offer clues as to the authenticity of 
many of these items. The graph has been most popular with forgers and 
our>'w Number 51 is certainly not the sole example of forgery. 



211 



NUMBER THIRTY-EIGHT 



PLATE 38 



Fang-i 

Early Chou dynasty (late 1 1th - early 10th century B.C.) 
Inscription of 187 characters in the lid and 188 in the bottom 
Height, 35.6 cm. (14 in.) 
Width, 24.7 cm. (9| in.) 
Weight, 9.92 kg. (21 lbs., 14 oz.) 
Accession number 30.54 



Heavy segmented flanges run down the corners and down the center 
of each side of this bold rectangular vessel and its roof-shaped lid. A 
miniature roof shape with proportionate flanges forms the finial atop a 
stem in the center. On the lid are the usual upside-down tao-t'ieh be- 
neath confronted birds; and the uppermost band of the vessel itself has a 
central tiger mask on each side joining two scaly serpentine bodies. Bold 
t'ao-fieh masks form the center design on each side, and on the foot are 
double pairs of confronted birds. A mixture of malachite and cuprite 
patination gives an overall effect of pale grayish-green mottled here and 
there with red. There is a certain amount of rough corrosion. The cast- 
ing in low and high relief is uniformly fine. 



212 



PLATE 38 




NUMBER THIRTY-EIGHT (30.54) 



NUMBER THIRTY-EIGHT 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Of several related fang-i, the most interesting is the one in the Nezu 
Museum, Tokyo. Like ours, it is part of a set related by their inscrip- 
tions, which in that case indicate a date in the reign of King K'ang, in the 
first half of the tenth century. It might, then, be a few decades later than 
ours, although on purely stylistic grounds, the unpierced flanges, less 
thoroughly flattened fao-t'ieh, it might otherwise be considered a bit 
earlier. This set, like the Nieh-ling set to which our piece and the huo 
Number 41 belong, was reportedly found at Lo-yang. Comparison of the 
fang-i, fang-tsun , and huo vessels in it with the equivalent pieces in the 
Nieh-ling set indicate that the latter are generally finer in workmanship 
and more elaborate in design; the other may well represent a later, 
slightly declining stage in a local tradition. 

In form, the early Chou fang-i is an outgrowth of the Shang type seen 
in Number 36; but the severely rectilinear house-shape has been softened 
into a bulging outline, acquiring in the process, as Mizuno notes, more 
of the character of a vessel or container. A piece that appears to repre- 
sent a late Shang form of the fang-i, already curvilinear in outline, is in 
the Brundage Collection. ^'-^ A fang-i in the Nelson Gallery would seem 
to belong to the same stage as the Nezu vessel ;i25 ^ later stage, with a 
quieter silhouette and decor in the broad bands characteristic of the 
middle Chou style, is in the Metropolitan Museum, New York (43.24.5). 

All features of the decor on our piece bear out the early Chou date 
indicated by the inscription. The motif occupying the band just below 
the lid, a beast's head with the split body of a serpent extending to each 
side, was seen also on the fang-ting Number 34, which is likewise datable 
to early Chou period through its inscription. The birds in the lowest 
band are typical of this period, although not unknown earlier. The 
pierced hooked flanges, in particular, carry to a further point the late 
Shang tendency toward disrupting the outline of the vessel with multiple 
projections and so violating the self-enclosed quality of vessels of the 

123 Mizuno, In shu . . . , PI. 105-107; discussion p. 49; also Indai . . . , PI. XII. 

124 Karlgren, Some characteristics . . . , PI. 22b. 

125 Karlgren, op. rit., PI. 21a. 



214 



NUMBER THIRTY-EIGHT 



"classic" An-yang phase. The flamboyant fao-fieh designs, rendered in 
a vocabulary of broad ornamented bands ending in hooks, with more 
hooks projecting along their sides, are in the same way totally at odds 
with the Shang repertory of styles, and represent in fact the earliest stage 
in a stylistic progression that was to culminate in the Middle Chou mode, 
with such pieces as the //// Number 76 providing the intervening links. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel and lid apparently were each made bydirect castingina piece 
mold made of four main sections. ' The principal mold marks of each 
member run vertically along the corner flanges [ fig. 31). Mold joins also 
show along the center flanges and even between the ears and under the 
chins of the free animal heads of the vessel proper. There is a vertical 
mold mark on each side of the stem supporting the cupola-like knob of 
the lid and on the underside of the three remaining flanges of the knob. 
Traces of mold marks also occur on each corner of the overhang of the 
lid. The square post of the knob handle and the knob itself are both 
hollow cast around clay cores which show clearly in the radiographs 
(Vol. II, Ch. VII). 

A number of well-concealed chaplets are symmetrically placed in the 
sides of both vessel and lid. On the vessel four chaplets are found on 
each face located in or near the plain bands that encircle the body. 
There are two on each side of the lid in the plain band just above the 
edge. Chaplets are also visible in the inscription areas of both vessel and 
lid, but they are carefully placed between the columns of characters. 
For example, chaplets can be seen between the fourth characters in 
columns ten and eleven and the fifth characters in columns five and six 
in the rubbing of the inscription inside the vessel. A repair patch appears 

Noel Barnard has made an extensive study of this particular vessel, and he has used it as an example 
to illustrate the use of sectional molds in bronze casting. In Chapter 5 of his book he employs several 
line drawings (figs. 37 and 38) in an attempt to reconstruct the mold assembly he feels might have been 
employed in its casting. It is a complicated mold, with as many as six sub-units employed to make up 
the assembly for one side of each member, vessel, and lid. This kind of assembly would produce hori- 
zontal as well as vertical joins. In recent conversations on the basis of direct examination of the vessel 
at the Freer Gallery of Art, Barnard has modified his original views as expressed in his book; and he 
thinks a less complicated assembly than that originally envisioned was employed. To cast the high 
relief animal heads, he believes that inset molds were employed. This is perhaps the most challenging 
piece in the entire collection in respect to the mode of fabrication. 



215 



NUMBER THIRTY-EIGHT 




Figure 31 

under the body bulge of the vessel; this patch flows over part of the last 
two characters in columns four and five, and is corroded enough to be 
roughly contemporary with the casting of the vessel. An indistinct line 
appears around the inscription area in the rim suggesting that the nega- 
tive of the inscription might have been made in a separate piece and 
incorporated into the vessel mold (see Vol. II, Ch. VI). 

The characters of the inscription have sharp edges and are cast with 
precision. It is to be noted that the lines of the inscription hug the edges 
and crowd the areas in which they are placed. 

216 



NUMBER THIRTY-EIGHT 



The underside of the bottom is crossed by two wide bands in low 
reHef {fig. 32). This cross is probably not decorative, but has something 
to do with the mold core of the foot. There are eight small brackets - 
two on each side - in the angle where bottom and foot meet. The same 
illustration shows that each of the four sides of the foot or base flange is 
perforated in the middle by a pair of square holes, one above the other; 
and on the inside, in a fixed relationship to each pair of holes are four 
sockets, which indicate possibly that this / was originally provided with 
a separable bronze base. The holes seem to be functional rather than 
decorative. 

Most of the outer surface is covered with smooth tin oxide stained pale 
green with copper compounds, but there are numerous scattered small 
patches of dull-red cuprite which tend to fill the fossae of the design. 
Scattered here and there are patches of bright, powdery green, which 




Figure 32 



217 



NUMBER THIRTY-EIGHT 



give X-ray diffraction patterns corresponding to the basic copper 
chloride, paratacamite which is the end product of the corrosion 
process sometimes called "bronze disease,'' and also "recurrent cor- 
rosion''; it was caused by traces of chloride salts in the corroding 
environment. There is no evidence that these areas of corrosion are now 
active in its present dry environment. Recent comparison with large 
detail photographs of the same affected areas taken in 1954 show no 
increase in size of the bright green patches. 

On the interior the corrosion products are different and indicate that 
the lid was kept in place during the burial period. The area of the 
inscription in the lid is rather uniformly covered with a thin layer of 
dark blue, finely crystalline azurite. For some unknown reason, the 
interior of the two gable ends and the blank area below the blue en- 
crusted inscription are uniformly covered with a thin layer of malachite. 
The distinct and straight line of demarcation between the azurite cover- 
ing the inscription and the malachite covering the blank area below 
suggests at first glance that the blue of the inscription was originally 
covered with malachite which has been removed mechanically in order 
better to reveal the inscription; but microscopic examination shows that 
this is not the case. In fact, the blue tends to be formed over the green. 

On the interior of the vessel proper, a rust-colored band runs around 
the inside lip and corresponds in width to the inner flange of the lid. 
Below this the side walls are covered thinly with malachite. The metal 
surface of the bottom inscription has a grayish metallic appearance 
caused presumably by incipient tin oxide formation. There is no indica- 
tion of chloride corrosion here. Obviously the corroding environment of 
the interior of the vessel was different from that of the exterior. 

Some loess-like earthy accretions are lodged in recesses especially on 
the inside of the foot where they are mixed with blue and green copper 
corrosion products. 

Composition: Sample taken from rim of vessel. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 77.7%; Sn 21.5; Pb 1.2; Total 100.4. 

Sample from under edge of lid : Cu 77.9% ; Sn 20.3 ; PbO.9 ; Total 99. 1 . 



218 



NUMBER THIRTY-EIGHT 



Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 
Fe 0.09; Co 0.005; Ni 0.03; As 0.2; Sb 0.2; Bi 0.04; Cr 0.004; 
Mg < 0.001; Si 0.01. 
The metal has the highest tin content of any of the vessels sampled in 
this series. The composition is close to that of speculum metal which was 
so widely used in the bronze mirrors of the Han dynasty. Freshly cut 
metal on the inside of a boring is pale yellow. 

INSCRIPTION 

The best known of the inscribed vessels in our collection, this fang-i has 
received considerable attention from most of the major Chinese and 
Japanese epigraphers and even today new studies continue to make their 
appearance. As an historical document from the early decades of the 
establishment of Chou it may take pride of place amongst the slowly but 
steadily increasing numbers of inscribed bronzes excavated from Western 
Chou sites. However, we must leave detailed discussion on such aspects 
for later presentation and here merely give a translation of the inscrip- 
tion : 

1. In the eighth month, the r/zV/z-phenomenon (occurring) on the day 
chia-shen: the King commanded Ming Pao, the son of the Duke of 
Chou, 

2. to superintend the San-shih and the Ssu-fang, and to take charge of 
the Ch'ing-shih-liao. On the day ting-hai: [Ming Pao] commanded 
Nieh to announce [the honour] 

3. in the Chou Kung Palace. The Duke [Ming Pao] ordered the 
assembly of the Ch'ing-shih liao. In the tenth 

4. month, the first quarter, on the day kuei-wei: Ming Kung [Ming 
Pao] held audience. Arriving in Ch'eng-Chou [he] sent out orders 
to put into effect 

5. the decrees of the San-shih concerning the Ch'ing-shih-liao, the 
Chu-yin, the Li- 

6. chi'm and the Pai-kung; and as to the Chu-hou [namely: — ] the Hon, 
Tien, and Nan, [they were] to put into effect the decrees of the Ssu- 
fang. Having 



219 



NUMBER THIRTY-EIGHT 



7. [carried out] completely the [Royal] commands, on the day chia- 
shen, Ming Kung sacrificed a victim in the Ching Palace. On the 
day i-yu [he] 

8. sacrificed a victim in the K'ang Palace. All this accomplished; and 
having sacrificed a victim [in the presence of] the King, Ming Kung 
returned from 

9. the King. Ming Kung awarded K'ang Shih aromatic spirits, a chin 
and an ox ; saying : ' Use these in the x-sacrifices.' [He] awarded Ling 
[i.e. Nieh] aromatic spirits, 

10. a chin and an ox; saying: 'Use these in the x-sacrifice.' Then [he] 
gave orders saying: 'Now I command you two men, K'ang and 

11. Nieh, ... to [give] aid and support to your colleagues [liao= 
Ch'ing-shih-liao] by means of your friendly services.' The Tso-ts'e 
Ling 

12. presumes to extol the beneficence of Ming Kung, the Manager of 
Men. Therefore, has made for [his deceased father] Fu-Ting [this] 
precious and honoured 

13. Yi-vessel. [He] presumes to reflect upon Ming Kung's bestowal [of 
honour] upon [his deceased father] Fu-Ting, thus glorifying Fu- 
Ting. 



220 



NUMBER THIRTY-EIGHT 




NUMBER THIRTY-NINE 



PLATE 39 



Hiio 

Shang dynasty (middle An-yang, 12th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 18.5 cm. (7i in.) 

Width, 21.0 cm. (Si in.) 

Weight, 2.78 kg. (6 lbs., 2 oz.) 

Accession number 42.1 



The squat, heavy-set vessel with lid takes on an anthropomorphic 
character with the human face on top and the bent arms on the sides. 
The creature has a serpentine body beginning behind the head and 
making one complete spiral turn around the vessel; concentric rectangles 
bordered by a scale band above and a different band below cover the 
body. A ground of lei-wen covers the rest of the vessel ; two k'uei dragons 
in rehef in different positions flank the body at the back, and two bottle- 
horned dragons surround the spout with their gaping jaws. On the upper 
arms are monster-mask lugs which must have secured a bail handle (or 
rope?) which passed through the perforated ears on the lid; and two 
more k'uei dragons are cast in intaglio between the bottle horns of the 
lid. The surface is covered with a smooth, gray-green patina with small 
areas of malachite encrustation. 



222 



PLATE 39 




NUMBER THIRTY-NINE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This is one of the few truly unique vessels among extant Chinese 
bronzes. It is called a huo by way of classification, but actually has little 
in common with other pouring vessels of the Shang period. The shape of 
the body agrees most closely with p'oii of Shang date, and the geometric 
pattern covering most of the lower part, while in this context it is to be 
understood as representing the pattern of a serpent's body, strengthens 
the resemblance. In its ingenious adaptation of a functional shape to 
what is in effect quasi-representational sculpture, it is matched only by a 
few others, such as the kuang Number 43 and the famous yu in the 
Sumitomo and Cernuschi Collections. ^'^^ The demon or deity it repre- 
sents, human-headed but with bottle-shaped horns, arms ending in 
claws, and a serpent's body, may well be the same that appears on the 
rear legs of the kuang Number 45 although there are minor differences. 
Similar arms and claws also appear on the famous Sumitomo drum and 
on a white pottery lei from An-yang.^'^^ 

The plastic rendering of the mask, as Sickman has remarked, 
unusual in Shang bronze art, and suggests modelling in some soft 
material - presumably clay, however, rather than wax, as he suggests. 
While the clay model for the body was probably formed by throwing on 
a wheel, in the usual way, with detail carved or applied afterwards, the 
model for the lid may well have been molded directly, in a freer manner, 
with its base pared down to fit the mouth of the body. 

An interesting comparison can be made with the large human masks 
rendered in relief on a bronze fang-ting discovered at Ch'ang-sha, 
Hunan Province, in 1959.^30 On these, the eyes are represented in a less 
stylized manner, not in the form typical of Late Shang style, as on the 
huo\ the cheeks are more naturalistically modelled, the nose and mouth 
less flattened. The difference is probably due to the same variations in 



12V The former in Mizuno, /// shu . . . , PI. 69. 

128 Sumitomo, Sen-oku . . . , pt. 1, pi. 130; and Umehara, Kaiuin anyu . . . , pis. 9-16. Munsterberg, An 
antlu opomoiphic Deity . . . , attempts an iconographic interpretation of our vessel. 

129 Sickman, The art . . . , pp. 6-7. 

130 \ good reproduction in Sekai bijutsit taikei, Tokyo, Kodansha, 1963, vol. I, p. 49, PI. 45. 



224 



NUMBER THIRTY-NINE 



local styles that can be observed in later Chou art when relatively real- 
istic styles in the south contrast with the more formal art of the tradi- 
tional center, the valley of the Yellow River. In keeping with this 
observation, the human faces on the handles of the huge fang-ting vessel 
excavated in 1939 at An-yang^^i are closer to the mask on this huo in the 
shape of the face and ears as well as in the treatment of the eyes, nose, 
and mouth. 




Figure 33 



131 Op. cit., p. 36, PI. 9. 



225 



NUMBER THIRTY-NINE 



TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast in a three-piece mold but because of the high finish, the 
mold marks are difficult to see. The mold assembly comprises one seg- 
ment at the rear of nearly 180° extent and two smaller segments at the 
front of approximately 90' each. The spout is located astride one of 
the mold joins. The mold joins do not pass through the lug handles or 
rope holders but just behind them (fig. 33). These handles appear to be 
cast as a unit with the vessel. Horizontal mold joins appear on the vessel 
surface just above and below each lug. Indentations on the inside surface 
of the vessel walls correspond with some of the prominent relief ele- 
ments of the decor. The spout is tubulated, and the opening into the vessel 
is full round. There is faint evidence of chaplets in the plain band under 
the body bulge and others in the vessel bottom. The underside of the 
bottom is plain, but the foot ring is pierced with three symmetrically 
placed squarish holes in line of the mold marks. The lid shows no 
vestiges of mold joins except lengthwise on both sides of each horn and 
along the edge of one ear. The two horns are hollow nearly to their ends. 
The eyes, nose, and lips are indented on the inside. 

The surface outside and much of the inside is covered with smooth, 
pale-green, tin-oxide patina. Small patches of malachite and azurite are 
found on the inside cover. The condition is excellent. 

Composition: Sample taken from base. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 78.4% ; Sn 1 3.6 ; Pb 3. 1 ; Total 95. 1 . 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.03%; 
FeO.Ol ; Co < 0.00 1 ; Ni 0.001 ; Sb 0.02 ; Al 0.004; Mg < 0.001 ; Si 0.07. 



226 



NUMBER THIRTY-NINE 




NUMBER FORTY 



PLATE 40 



Huo 

Shang dynasty (late An-yang, 12th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 17.5 cm. (6 J in.) 

Width, 21.3 cm. (8| in.) 

Weight, 1.30 kg. (2 lbs., 14 oz.) 

Accession number 36.6 



The vessel takes the shape of an elephant executed in the round. On 
the lid is the same elephant repeated in miniature, and around the feet of 
the latter are four small scaly dragons. The main body of the animal is 
covered with a network of lei-wen pattern on which are bold k'uei 
dragons at the top, a large eye surrounded by four crescents in the center 
of each side, and somewhat deteriorated or disintegrated fao-t'ieh mem- 
bers on the front and back legs. All over the surface is a coating of light 
green patina with only minor areas of encrustation. 



228 



PLATE 40 




NUMBER FORTY (36.6) 



NUMBER FORTY 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Among early Chinese bronze vessels in elephant form, this one is rela- 
tively naturalistic, more so by far than the elephants in the former Oeder 
Collectioni32 and the Musee Guimet, Paris. ^^^^ Whether distinctions of 
period or locale are involved here is impossible to say; it may be that the 
bronze artisan was simply allowed more freedom in natural forms un- 
restrained by the dictates of conventional vessel shape, and used his 
freedom to practice greater individuality. 

Such realism and departure from stereotype is limited, however, to the 
shape of the piece; the surface ornament belongs to the standard Shang 
repertory. Two kinds of surface treatment are especially associated with 
animal or bird vessels: striation, sometimes limited to eyebrows but in 
other cases applied to the bodies of smaller dragons on the surfaces; and 
a scale pattern, either covering broad surfaces or segmenting a band- 
shaped area with broken-arc lines, as on the trunk of the elephant. These 
are likely to be present whether the creature represented is a bird,i34 ^ 
water buffalo, or an elephant. 

The water buffalo in the Fujita Museum, Osaka, is similar enough in 
style to suggest that the two may be products of the same period and 
environment. jj^g horns display the same pattern as the elephant's 
trunk ; the striation is there applied to a k'uei dragon which, along with a 
bird, surmounts the lid as the small elephant does on the huo\ and on 
both, shallow-cast lei-wen set off the widely spaced components of 
loosely organized designs. The color and the manner of corrosion of the 
two pieces suggest also some common features in the composition of the 
metal, or else similar conditions of burial. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The two members, the elephant and the lid bearing the baby elephant, 
are cast as single pieces. There are no mold or separation marks except 



132 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. 30b. 

133 Umehara, SKSIE, I, 36. 

E.g. the owl in the Pillsbury Collection, Karlgren, . . . Pillsbury . . . , PI. 59. 
Mizuno, In shu . . . , PI. 74. 



230 



NUMBER FORTY 



along the median line, notably in the line of the tail ridge, spine, and 
trunk. The base of each foot is hollow and filled with baked clay core. A 
drilling made on the inside of the right hind leg shows that clay core 
extends the full length of the leg but not through into the body cavity. 
Radiographic examination shows that the trunk is tubulated. Both ends 
are open but the middle section is filled with earth. The hollow cast 
elephant's child lid fits loosely into the top. There are four small pierced 
holes in the front rim of the lid and two in the back, but their purpose is 
unknown. No chaplets are visible in either body or lid. 

The surface of the vessel, which appears originally to have been finely 
finished, is uniformly covered with a smooth, yellow-green patina of tin 
oxide which is 1 to 2 mm. thick. Corrosion has penetrated so deeply 
that sharp edges of the decor are crumbly and fragile. It has been 
necessary to fix friable areas with a molten wax-resin mixture. There are 
earthy residues in the fossae of the design and on the exterior. No losses 
or replacements have been noted. In spite of the delicate surface, the 
figure is in exceptionally good condition. 

Composition : Sample taken from body under left leg. 
Because of deep corrosion no sample suitable for wet analysis was 
available. 

Elements estimated by emission spectrometry :Cu principal; Sn > 1.0%; 
Pb > 1 .0 ; Ag 0. 1 ; Fe 0.03 ; Co < 0.001 ; Ni 0.003 ; Sb 0.02 ; Si 0.0 1 . 



231 



NUMBER FORTY-ONE 



PLATE 41 



Huo 

Early Chou dynasty (late 1 1th- early 10th century B.C.) 
Inscription of 50 characters inside the lid with the last four 

repeated under the handle 
Height, 22.6 cm. (8 1 in.) 
Width, 21.0 cm. (8iin.) 
Weight, 2.35 kg. (5 lbs., 3 oz.) 
Accession number 33.2 



The covered vessel stands on four slightly tapered cylindrical legs with 
a spout protruding at one side and opposite this a handle surmounted by 
a buffalo head; the latter is attached to the lid by a linking member. On 
top is a small loop finial, and the lid and neck and main body of the 
vessel are covered with low relief casting. Four t'ao-t'ieh masks form the 
slightly bulbous corners above the legs; and except for the eyes and 
horns, the overall effect is that of an intricate and elaborately worked out 
ground of lei-wen. A smooth, gray-green patina covers the whole vessel 
and is interrupted here and there by only slight areas of malachite 
encrustation. 



232 



PLATE 41 




NUMBER FORTY-ONE (33.2) 



NUMBER FORTY-ONE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This huo is one of the famous Ch'en-ch'en set and thus is datable by its 
inscription ; but it is instructive, nevertheless, to see how its typological 
position and decoration confirm the epigraphic evidence. 

Two huo of roughly the same shape are known, one in the Fujii 
Yiarinkan, Kyoto, the other pubhshed by Watson. The former has a 
typical Shang inscription featuring Xhtya-hsing and Fw-///zg elements, but 
is dated by Umehara to the Shang-Chou transitional period; the in- 
scription in the latter also appears to be Shang in character and is dis- 
cussed as such by Watson,^^' who, however, likewise labels the piece 
"Late llth-early 10th cent. B.C., Transitional Style." The main designs 
on the bodies of these two huo are very similar, both consisting of t'ao- 
fieh masks with dispersed elements rendered in narrow, unornamented 
bands on a ground of fine spiral filling. There is considerable evidence 
connecting this decor style with the early Chou period (cf. the discussion 
of the yu Number 54). The datings proposed by Umehara and Watson 
would seem, therefore, to be sound; and we can take this form of the huo 
as characteristic of the end of Shang and beginning of Chou. Four- 
legged huo of a somewhat later stage, featuring bands with bird images 
belonging to the early and middle Chou transition, are in the Metro- 
pohtan Museum (46.55.1) and the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto 
(926.21.23); a still later stage, on which these birds have been trans- 
formed into the familiar S-shaped dragons, is seen on a three-legged 
example datable by its inscription to the reign of King Mu (947-928). 

Like the latter, the huo belonging to the Pao-chi altar set in the 
Metropolitan Museum is the three-legged variety of which the lower 
portion resembles the // tripod; but in several details it matches closely 
the corresponding parts of ours: the bovine mask surmounting the 
handle, the mode of attachment of the lid, the spout ornamented with a 
"rising blade" design. 

For the chronological position of the decor, we would note only the 

136 Umehara, SKSjJ, HI, 252, and Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. 35a. 

137 Op. cit., fig. 6, No. 6, and p. 71. 

138 Watson, op. cit., PI. 35b; translation of the inscription, p. 77. 



234 



NUMBER FORTY-ONE 



similarity of the "animal triple band'' motif in the zone around the neck 
to that on the kuei Number 65 which we date also, for reasons stated in 
the discussion of that vessel, to the early decades of the Chou dynasty. 

This huo was reportedly found at Lo-yang in the winter of 1929, along 
with a group of other vessels, including a tsun and two yu bearing 
identical inscriptions. These other vessels are in typically early Chou 
style, featuring hooked openwork flanges, animals composed of narrow 
bands and hooks, and other motifs characteristic of this period. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel including the handle, legs, and spout are cast in one piece 
apparently in a four-piece, eight-division mold with true mold joins 
located vertically at the corners. There is no evidence of mechanical 
joins or welds where the lid grip and the loops for the linking member 
between lid and vessel are joined; hence, they too appear to be cast as 
one with their bases. Mold marks running along the edge of the hnking 
member indicates it was cast in place. The legs, which are cast solid, are 
well finished but show slight evidence of vertical mold marks on their 
inside faces. The handle is channeled and filled with hard clay core. In 
the vessel there is a chaplet on either side of each true join located in the 
decor just below each t'ao-t'ieh eye. An inscription of 50 characters is 
cast inside the lid, and four chaplets are discernible around that area 
both inside and out. The spout is hollow, and the opening into the vessel 
is full round. 

The patina is thin and fairly even ; patches of malachite are scattered 
over a smooth, dull gray-green surface. There is some adherent clay, and 
the inside of the vessel is thinly caked with earthy residues mixed with 
copper corrosion products. No paint or repairs were observed. 

The fossae of the design, especially those on the spout are partially or 
completely filled with a black substance which seems to have been placed 
there intentionally. X-ray diffraction pattern of a sample of the black 
shows quartz as the main component. When microscopic specimens of 

Umehara, Rakyud hakken .... fig. 1, p. 367. 



235 



NUMBER FORTY-ONE 



the black are warmed with concentrated nitric acid, a brownish gummy 
residue is produced which indicates the presence of an organic binder 
which may have been lacquer. 

Composition: Sample taken from leg under and to proper right of 
pouring spout. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 7 1 . 1 % ; Sn 1 5.7 ; Pb 1 2.3 ; Total 99. 1 . 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.07%; 

Fe 0.2; Co 0.004; Ni 0.01; As 0.3; Sb 0.03; Bi 0.03; Cr 0.002; 

Mg < 0.001 ; Mn < 0.001 ; Si 0.04. 

INSCRIPTION 

An inscription of 44 characters is located on the inside of the cover 
while under the handle is a grouping of four graphs functioning as the 
clan name. Some variations attending the translation of the major text 
are discussed at length in Vol. Ill, these should be consulted alongside 
the following rendering: 

1. In the year that the King (conducted) the Ta-yiieh ceremony in 
Tsung-chou (and) proceeded to 

2. banquet (in) P'ang-ching, in the fifth month, 

3. the third quarter of the month, (on the day) hsin-yii (58), the King 
commanded the Shih- 

4. shang-officer together with the Shih-yin officer to convene (a meet- 
ing) at Ch'eng-chou, and to . . . 

5. the swine (of ? to ?) the gentry. (Both?) were awarded a Yu-flask, 
aromatic wine, and cowries. Therefore 

6. made for Fu-kuei (this) precious and honoured /. Ch'en-ch'en-ts'e- 
ts'e-? 



236 



NUMBER FORTY-ONE 




237 



NUMBER FORTY-TWO 



PLATE 42 



Kuang 

Shang dynasty (middle-late An-yang, 12th-l 1th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 16.8 cm. (6f in.) 

Width, 19.2 cm. (l\'m.) 

Weight, 0.79 kg. (1 lb., 12 oz.) 

Accession number 39.53 



The lid terminates in an animal head with bottle horns over the spout, 
and at the back is a fehne head with hooked snout. On top of the fluted 
handle is a third animal head with ram's horns. Uniformly fine lei-wen 
pattern covers the whole surface of the vessel, and over this, in low 
relief, are various dragon forms. On each side two large k'uei dragons 
are confronted to form t'ao-fieh masks. On the upper register are a 
dragon, a hare, an elephant, and two birds on each side; and around the 
base are eight fish arranged in two confronted sets on each side. An even 
gray-green patina with occasional areas of cuprite covers the surface. 



238 



PLATE 42 




NUMBER FORTY-TWO (39.53) 



NUMBER FORTY-TWO 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The decor style on this piece is one of the most common of the An-yang 
period, and has already been discussed in connection with the chia 
Number 22 and other vessels in the collection. Bronzes in this style are 
often distinguished by an extraordinary crispness and precision of cast- 
ing (cf. also the ku No. 10); the workshops in which the style was 
current apparently maintained an especially high standard in both 
design and technique of fabrication. 

A kuang in the Pillsbury Collection would appear to precede the 
present example stylistically; it is even simpler in silhouette, and the 
decor is flush with the surface, belonging to Loehr's "Fourth Style. "i'*'^ 
Another which Ch'en Meng-chia dates on the basis of its inscription to 
the time of King Ch'eng (1024-1005), is the kuang which provides a 
good example of the next stage in the evolution of this type after ours. 
The outline is more complex, with additional projections, and the 
flanges are no longer smooth and continuous; the eyes of the t'ao-fieh 
are rectangular with slits for pupils; and the animals of the decor are 
larger in relation to the size of the vessel, giving it the more crowded 
appearance typical of many early Chou pieces. A still later stage is 
probably represented by a kuang in the Sumitomo Collection, in which 
the same features are accentuated. ^''^ These four form an instructive 
sequence, in which our vessel must logically fall between the "classic" 
An-yang stage of the Pillsbury kuang and the early Chou stage of the 
piece published by Ch'en Meng-chia. A date in the latter part of the 
An-yang period, which is also suggested by the nature of the decor, thus 
seems most likely. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel was probably cast directly in a two-piece, four-division mold, 
but is so highly finished that only vestiges of mold marks show at the 
quarter lines. None can be seen on the lid except on the curled projec- 

140 Karlgren, . . . Pillsbury . . . , No. 31, PI. 46-7. 

141 Ch'en Meng-chia, Hsi-chou Part I, p. 173-4 and PI. XI-XU. 
14'-^ Sumitomo, Sen-oku . . . , No. 94. 



240 



NUMBER FORTY-TWO 



tion between the broad ears of the animal mask. The handle appears to 
have been separately cast and fixed to the vessel with hard solder. The 
inside of the handle is channeled and partially filled with original clay 
core, very like those on many vessels of the type kuei. The horns of the 
sheep-like animal are modeled sharply in full round. A mold join shows 
on the inside curve of each horn. On the inside wall of the vessel are 
indentations corresponding to the side flanges and the t'ao-t'ieh eyes on 
either side. Inside the lid are also depressions opposite the horns, ears, 
and the t'ao-t'ieh eyes at the rear in which there are residues from clay 
cores. The underside of the bottom is plain. In neither vessel nor lid is 
there any sign of chaplets. 

The modeling and casting of the sunken decor is sharp and fine. The 
surface has one of the finest copper-stained, tin-oxide patinas of any 
vessel in the collection. There is some cuprite, mostly in the fossae. On 
the upper portion of the interior the surface is metallic, but on the 
bottom there is a large patch of botryoidal malachite mixed with 
azurite. There is also a patch of botyroidal malachite on the inside lid. 
There is no evidence of paint or repairs and the condition is excellent. 

Composition : Sample taken from rim of vessel. 

Wet chemical analysis (single analysis): Cu 70.1%; Sn 11.6; Pb 15.6; 
Total 97.3. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 
Fe 0.1; Co 0.002; Ni 0.02; As 0.3; Sb O.Ol; Bi <0.03; Zn 0.02; 
Al 0.002 ;Mg < 0.001 ; Si 0.02. 



241 



NUMBER FORTY-THREE 



PLATE 43 



Kuang 

Shang dynasty (middle An-yang, 12th century B.C.) 
Inscription of two characters in bottom and cover 
Height, 23.5 cm. (91 in.) 
Width, 31.1cm. (12i in.) 
Weight, 3.52 kg. (7 lbs., 12 oz.) 
Accession number 38.5 



This large kuang, standing on an ovoid foot, combines three distinct 
zoological motifs. Seen from the front, the lid terminates in a boldly 
conceived feline head, and the back end shows the face of a great 
horned owl looking upwards. The body of the vessel takes the general 
form of seated fowl with a curious blunt-nosed head with ears. Very fine 
casting in low relief covers the entire surface with lei-wen, various dragon 
types, and with scale-like feathers on the neck, breast, and lower side of 
the fowl. The stylized wings on the sides and the legs and claws on the 
vessel's foot are in higher relief and more boldly designed. Smooth, 
sage-green patina covers the entire surface. 



242 



PLATE 43 




NUMBER FORTY-THREE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This unique vessel, while it conveys an effect of free fantasy in its 
metamorphic animal components, is simpler in design than it appears at 
first sight. Except for monocular dragons of highly abstract character on 
the foot and upper part of the body, and a larger dragon, of which only 
the head is easily recognizable on each side of the lid, all composed so 
loosely and in such narrow bands that they scarcely stand out from the 
spiral filling, only three creatures are represented: the tiger mask at one 
end of the cover, the owl mask at the other, and the fowl that makes up 
the whole lower part of the vessel and the handle. Most other examples 
of kiiang are iconographically more complex, with a richer menagerie of 
beasts represented. The four most commonly found on kuang - the fish, 
elephant, bird, and hare - are absent here. The gracefully curving profile 
is also unusual in kuang. The scale pattern that covers the neck and body 
of the bird, here serving for feathers, appears frequently, with different 
representational functions, on other vessels in animal form - for instance, 
on the trunk of the elephant hiw Number 40, and on the double-ram 
tsun, in the Nezu Museum and in the British Museum.i''^ A kuang with 
some points of kinship was first published by antiquarian Huang 
Chiin,!''* and later entered the Sumitomo Collection. The shape 
appears to be similar, as is the basic design of the lid with tiger and owl 
masks resembling those on this vessel. However, where the tiger on our 
kuang exists only as a mask, that on the Sumitomo vessel is complete 
with a body which is rendered in relief on each side of the spout, its 
front legs reaching forward and ending in protruding claws, its hind 
claws and tail represented on the foot. The owl at the opposite end is 
likewise furnished with legs and claws, a feathered breast (the scale 
pattern), and wings. A handle of the standard C-shaped variety, sur- 
mounted by the mask of a horned beast, has partly broken away. The 

143 Mizuno, In shu . . . , PI. 75; and Yetts, Eumorfopoulos . . . , vol. I, Pis. XIII and IX. 

144 Huang, Tsun kii-chai . . . , III, 19a-b. 

145 Sumitomo, Sen-oku . . . , Supplement (New Acquisitions), PI. I, No. 241 . A vessel closely related to this 
one in design was formerly owned by C. T. Loo; see Florance Waterbury, Early Chinese symbols 
. . . , PI. 7; another is in the Fogg Art Museum; see Mizuno, In shu . . . , PI. 54. Two others, one in the 
Metropolitan Museum (lacking a top) and the second in the Norton Gallery, West Palm Beach, were 
published by Umehara in In-kyo, PI. 109 and 110 respectively. 



244 



NUMBER FORTY-THREE 



plan of the vessel is in a sense more logical than that of the Freer kuaug, 
but the result is decidedly grotesque; the latter, on which the body of the 
fowl replaces the other two, with its wings presumably doubling as the 
wings of the owl, is far more harmonious. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel was cast apparently in a two-piece mold. Mold marks show 
plainly along the median line especially where they cross the foot. On 
the head of the bird which serves as a handle, join traces follow the top 
of the ears indicating transverse divisions in the mold for the top of the 
head. The bottom has a coarse cast-in mesh pattern common to many 
bronzes of this type. The hard clay ring about the inside of the foot 
appears to be residue from the original clay mold. The lid is nearly 
devoid of mold join traces, and there are indentations inside opposite 
the owFs ears and his beak. The inscription of two characters is cast 
inside both the bottom of the vessel and lid. A few small blow holes 
occur on the inside of the vessel, but otherwise the casting is of high 
quahty. There is slight evidence of one chaplet on the inside bottom. 

The surface has a high quality tin-oxide patina, stained green by 
copper. There are also scattered small patches of malachite and cuprite, 
and there are a few small patches of earthy accretion. 

Scattered areas of the surface which fluoresce with pinkish tone in 
ultra-violet light have been touched lightly with paint, apparently for the 
purpose of concealing some of the reddish cuprite. 

Composition : Sample taken from foot of vessel. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 69. 1 % ; Sn 1 5. 1 ; Pb 1 3.9 ; Total 98. 1 . 

Sample taken from rim of vessel: Cu 68.5; Sn 16.3; Pb 13.4; Total 

98.2. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0T%; 
Fe 0.4; Co 0.01; Ni 0.01; As 0.8; Sb 0.03; Bi<0.03; Cr 0.002; Mg 
0.001 ;Mn < 0.001 ; Si 0.06. 



245 



NUMBER FORTY-THREE 



INSCRIPTION 

This inscription of two characters comprises a drawing of a building 
apparently constructed on a raised platform of tamped earth - a char- 
acteristic element in Shang and later building design - and a f/z'/-axe. 
The latter, with three protuberances on each side and a hole pierced 
through the butt end, is well confirmed by recent archaeological finds 
(see Feng-hsi Report, PI. 88, No. 2). A more detailed representation of 
this inscription appears in a kuei {HsU-yin A.40a) and shows clearly that 
a ch'i-'dXQ forms the basis of the drawing. In several other inscriptions 
the building-on-a-platform graph is combined with the graph ching 
"mound," "capital city," which circumstance seems to suggest the 
interpretation above to be reasonably well founded. Only major build- 
ings were constructed with an earth platform. 




Cover Vessel 



246 



NUMBER FORTY-THREE 




Detail of bottom (natural size) 



247 



NUMBER FORTY-FOUR 



PLATE 44 



Kuang 

Early Chou dynasty (late 1 ith- early 10th century B.C.) 
Inscription of eight characters inside the bottom 
Height, 22.9 cm. (9 in.) 
Width, 24.8 cm. (9| in.) 
Weight, 2.69 kg. (5 lbs., 15 oz.) 
Accession number 49.10 



The vessel is rectangular in shape, and both body and cover are 
richly decorated in high relief. The spout end of the lid consists of a 
powerful feline mask with bottle horns. A flange runs back on the top of 
the head like a mane, and on each side of this are winged birds. The back 
end of the lid seen from above consists of a bird mask. The main decora- 
tion of the body is a powerful t'ao-t'ieh mask on each side centered on a 
flange. Notched and hooked flanges appear again at the corners. Above 
and below this are zones of bird and dragon forms. The handle which 
seems to be a recent replacement has a bird-like body with feet, wings, 
neck, and beak recognizably portrayed. The bird's head is held in the 
mouth of a monster which tops the handle with great curving horns. The 
surface is covered with an even, gray-green patina which is set off by a 
black material in the intaglio areas. 



248 



PLATE 44 




NUMBER FORTY-FOUR 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Since the inscriptions in the Hd and body of the vessel offer no positive 
indication of its date, the best evidence is the close resemblance of the 
decor to that on the fang-i Number 38. Even more closely related is the 
fang-i in the Nezu Museum/^^ on which the treatment of the flanges is 
virtually identical, with the hooked pattern rendered in sunken line and 
depressed areas on the surfaces instead of in openwork as on the Freer 
fang-i. The Nezu vessel belongs to the Jung-tzu set, datable by inscrip- 
tions to the time of King K'ang, 1 004-967. This set, like that to 
which our big fang-i belongs, was reportedly found at Lo-yang, and the 
style represented on the vessels of this group may have been local to that 
area, and practiced there during the first half-century or so of the Chou 
dynasty. One feature which distinguishes the present kuang from all the 
others, the boldness with which the t'ao-fieh and other elements stand out 
from the spiral ground, is purely the result of black pigment having been 
painted into the lei-wen and other grooves, as described in the Technical 
Observations; in its original form, it must have resembled the others 
more closely. 

The fact that the handle is a later addition, probably to replace an 
original handle that broke off, is indicated not only by technical exam- 
ination (see below) but also by the fact that the lower attachment of the 
present handle cuts off the tail of a cicada rendered in sunken line on the 
flat surface beneath the handle. The handle was probably copied from 
some other kuang, such as the Chu-nii kuang,^^^ a vessel of similar shape 
on which the handle is almost identical in design. Otherwise, the Chu-nii 
kuang would seem to fall slightly before ours as its decor preserves more 
of the Shang character. Mizuno dates it to the very end of Shang or 
beginning of Chou. Another example closely related in shape, probably 
approximately contemporary with ours, is in the Sumitomo Collec- 
tion. The flanges are the same in profile, but less elaborate in surface 

146 Mizuno, Inshu .... PI. 105. 
14V Mizuno, op. cit., pp. 34 and 49. 

148 Mizuno, In shu . . . , PI. 81. 

149 Sumitomo, Sen-oku Suppl., PI. II, No. 242. 



250 



NUMBER FORTY-FOUR 



pattern; a band of vertical ribbing, of the sort commonly found on 
bronzes of the early Chou period, encircles the body. Differences be- 
tween it and ours probably reflect variations between local styles, with the 
Sumitomo piece belonging to a tradition continuing from the Shang 
workshops and ours to a new and specifically Chou style. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is directly cast apparently in a four-piece mold with the 
principal mold joins running vertically along the center flanges. Mold 
marks show prominently along the median flange of the lid and faintly 
between the horns of the forward masks and the ears of the rear mask. 
Close inspection of vessel and lid show well-concealed chaplets sym- 
metrically placed in both. The characters of both inscriptions are deeply 
cast, and so are the lines of the decor. 

The underside is plain except for four small brackets, one on the inside 
center of each wall of the foot. 

An important feature of this vessel is the handle which appears to be 
a modern replacement. This was first revealed when the object was 
examined in ultraviolet light. The entire surface about the handle, horns 
of the dragon, and of the adjacent side of the vessel fluoresced strongly. 
This lead to the discovery that the handle is joined to the vessel with soft 
solder. Analysis of the handle metal shows that the composition is quite 
different from metal of the body. It is essentially a copper-zinc alloy: 
Cu 59.4%; Sn 5.3; Pb 8.0; Fe 1.2; Ni 1.6; Zn 20.4; Total 95.9. The 
metal of the handle is yellower and softer than the metal of the vessel. 
Probing the join of the handle to the vessel shows that stumps of an 
original handle exist. X-rays reveal the break and solder repair clearly; 
they also show that there is a soft solder repair near the tip of the hook at 
bottom of the handle. A repair here is difficult to explain. The join and 
adjacent areas were covered thinly with a gray paint and also with 
patches of imitation blue and green copper corrosion products to con- 
ceal the repair. These contain modern pigments, mostly Paris green and 
Prussian blue, mixed with chalk. The black that fines the sunken decor is 
black paint applied with a fine brush. It is quite diflferent from the black 



251 



NUMBER FORTY-FOUR 



filling found on other bronzes of this series, and it was probably applied 
at the same time the repairs were made. 

The vessel proper is covered with a fairly uniform grayish tin-oxide 
patina with greenish undertone. There are scattered patches of copper 
corrosion crusts. 

Composition: Sample taken from rim of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 78 .0% ; Sn 1 9.5 ; Pb 0.4 ; Total 97.9. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.07%; 
Fe 0.8; Co 0.02; Ni 0.02; As > 1.0; Sb 0.1; Bi 0.05; Cr 0.002; 
Mg 0.002 ;Mn < 0.001 ; Si 0.01 . 

INSCRIPTION 

Both the vessel-inscription and the lid-inscription appear to be cast. In 
the latter the clan-sign is misplaced. The earliest published record of 
this is in a catalogue issued in 1870. Prior to this and from about 1850 
three other vessels each with the same inscription appeared in various 
catalogues compiled or published during this twenty year period. There 
is a somewhat complex bibliographical background to be considered in 
respect to the contention that the whole series should be regarded with 
strong suspicion including this and two further inscribed vessels of more 
recent appearance. The vessel inscription reads: 

1 . Sheng made for Fu-Hsin (this) 

2. valuable and honoured /. Clan sign 

That in the lid with the misplaced clan sign reads : 

1. Sheng made for Fu-Hsin (this) 

2. Clan sign. 

3. valuable and honoured /. 



252 




Cover 



NUMBER FORTY-FOUR 




Vessel 



253 



NUMBER FORTY-FIVE 



PLATE 45 



Kuang 

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Meyer 

Early Chou dynasty (late 1 1th- early 10th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 31. 4 cm.(12| in.) 

Width, 31.3 cm. (12| in.) 

Weight, 4.59 kg. (10 lbs., 2 oz.) 

Accession number 61.33 



The most striking feature of this exceptionally powerful vessel is the 
great monster mask at the front of the lid with its curling horns, like 
the horns of the Ovis poli. On the back of this monster lies a dragon form 
with bottle horns giving the curious impression that the main monster 
has two different sets of horns. The back of the lid is again a bird mask 
with something like buffalo horns at the top. A fish, a tiger, and an 
elephant are among the animals identifiable on the lei-wen ground. The 
body consists of a bird-like design at the front with a beak protruding 
below the spout. Ears stick out at right angles from the vessel behind the 
bold round eyes, and the wings consist of coiled dragons. The two front 
legs, triangular in section and broad like the legs of chia, have clearly 
defined birds' legs and claws in relief. The back of the vessel consists of a 
monster mask, and the two legs are made up of human forms with 
snake-like bodies wrapped around the lower parts. The handle, as in the 
case of the previous kuang, is made up of a monster head holding in its 
mouth the top of a bird's head. In this case, however, the representation 
of the bird is complete; and the legs, which terminate in human feet, 
stand on the ground. An even, glossy olive-brown patina covers the 
whole surface of the vessel. {See pi 45 and fig. 34.) 



254 *^ 



PLATE 45 




NUMBER FORTY-FIVE (61.33) 



NUMBER FORTY-FIVE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The kuang with legs seems to be rare. The only comparable example 
may be a vessel in the Fujita Museum, Osaka, which is similar but 
simpler in design. The rear legs of the Fujita kuang have cicadas on 
their surfaces instead of the human-head, serpent-bodied demons, and 
the handle is less elaborate, with a fish-dragon for support where our 
vessel has a grotesque pair of humanoid feet as totally superfluous addi- 
tions that only add to the no doubt intentional effect of oppressive 
excess. 

Both these kuang belong to a group of Shang or early Chou bronzes 
that tend to depart from conventional vessel shapes in the direction of 
free plastic sculpture. Some take the forms of animals as noted in the 
discussion of the huo Number 40. Others, such as these two and the 
Sumitomo and Cernuschi yu referred to below, are based on standard 
vessel types, but with the basic shape radically altered, chiefly through 
the addition of heavy appendages and high relief elements. Behind this 
development, which is paralleled by the appearance of heavy spikes, 
lugs, etc. in early Chou vessels in other styles such as the yu Number 50 
and the kuei Number 66, we may recognize an advanced technical 
mastery of the bronze medium, and a new awareness of the special 
properties that distinguish it from clay, wood, or other materials that 
earlier bronzes had tended to imitate. Bronzes of this group have a 
number of stylistic features in common, as for example the dispersion of 
elements of the surface decor and these elements executed in relief 
against lei-wen grounds. Often the relief elements are decorated with 
sunken linear designs such as scale patterns, striation, and sometimes 
feather patterns. Another characteristic shared by this group is the 
remarkable profusion and variety of creatures that occur on a single 
vessel. Extreme examples of this tendency are found on the two kuang 
(Fujita and Freer) and on the two yu (Sumitomo and Cernuschi).!^! 
These two pairs of vessels stand somewhat apart from all others in sheer 

150 Mizuno, In shii . . . , PI. 10. Another, excavated at Yen-tun-shan and also early Chou in date, is 
published in Hsin-chung-kuo . . . , pi. XXXIX top. 
Mizuno, op. cit., PI. 69; and Salmony, Asiatische Kiinst, pis. 26-29. 



257 



NUMBER FORTY-FIVE 




Figure 34 



exuberance of invention, in bizarre juxtapositions, and in their relative 
freedom from the strict principles of design, such as symmetry and 
segmentation, that govern most Shang and Chou bronzes. 

We may note that some of the features that distinguish bronzes of this 



258 



NUMBER FORTY-FIVE 



group, the relatively naturalistic rendering of animals, the free and un- 
symmetrical combination of animal forms into crowded, sometimes 
teeming compositions, the use of striation on animal bodies, are charac- 
teristic of Ordos and other nomadic bronze art in later centuries; and we 
may wonder whether this style was not somehow affiliated with, or in- 
fluenced by, the styles of some nomadic people of the borderlands of 
China. 

A kuang of more conventional shape, with the common oval foot, in 
the Sumitomo Collection, related to this in a number of points. The 
mask at the forward end of the lid is similar, but is furnished with bottle 
horns instead of ram's horns. The elephants on the lid of ours and just 
below it on the Sumitomo piece agree closely in design. Curiously, what 
appears to be a bird's beak protrudes from the top of the flange bisecting 
the forward surface of the Sumitomo vessel. This is probably the vestige 
of an owl that occupied the front of some earlier vessel on which this is 
partly based, as it does on the Freer kuang. The lid is surmounted by a 
serpent-dragon followed by a bird, the same combination to be seen in 
that position on the ram in the Fujita Museum this, in turn, has 
curling horns closely resembling those on our kuang. Such correspond- 
ences as these, items from a common repertory on which the bronze 
designers drew, may in time permit us to distinguish the output of 
particular workshops among Shang and Chou bronze vessels. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel, in spite of its intricate shape and deep undercutting, is cast in 
only three parts: the vessel proper, handle, and lid. The vessel apparently 
is basically cast in a two-piece mold assembly by direct casting. The 
inter-leg core parting lines are located along the edges of the legs, but no 
divisions are made vertically through their center faces. The legs are not 
solid but are cast with long narrow slots on each of the two inside faces 
which open into a clay core that fills the interior [fig. 35). The core clay 
is warm gray in color and is quite soft much like the core residues in the 

152 Sumitomo, Sen-oku, II, 94. 
Mizuno, op. cit., PI. 74. 



259 



NUMBER FORTY-FIVE 





Figure 35 Figure 36 

inner recesses of the lid. Some of the legs show a slight shoulder where 
they join the body of the vessel. The bird beak under the pouring spout 
is cast integrally with the vessel; it is cored with clay, and there are 
openings at the base of its top and bottom. The two projecting ears on 
the side of the spout and the two smaller ears farther back are all solid 
and are cast as one with the vessel. The high-relief dragons and human 
heads, in contrast to the beak and the ears, have corresponding indenta- 
tions on the vessel inside. 

The handle is an open-core casting, revealing the reddish baked clay 
of the original core which is still in place. In some respects the handle 
resembles the common open-core handles of vessels of the type kuei, but 
the method of joining is quite different. There is a seam at the join of 
handle to vessel which indicates the vessel was precast and the handle 
was later cast on to it. The spillage at the join is from handle onto the 
vessel {fig. 36). Under the upper handle join, and half buried in the clay 
core, is a protruberance from the vessel which may be part of a boss or 
lug which served to engage the handle and hold it securely by mechan- 



260 



NUMBER FORTY-FIVE 



ical means to the body. If such a lug exists at the lower join it is con- 
cealed by the clay core. 

The method used to fabricate the lid is more difficult to understand. 
Like the vessel it appears to be cast in a two-piece mold with divisions 
running more or less at right angles over the animal head foreheads, 
horns, ears, and jaws. The piscamorphic horns on the t'ao-fieh at the 
back of the lid, and the two-legged horned reptile astride the neck of the 
ram are cast as one with the lid. On the under surface there are corres- 
ponding indentations still partially filled with original clay core. Al- 
though the ram's horns also appear to be cast as one with the lid, there 
are no corresponding indentations on the inside. There seems to be a 
longitudinal join extending along the spine of the horned dragon, and it 
extends to the proper right side of the buffalo's forehead where it dis- 
appears. Below the nose of the buffalo it seems to pick up again, and it 
ends at the lid rim. A transversal join is also barely visible between the 
front of the horned dragon and the rear of the ram's horn. Traces of 
another horizontal join are visible on the two lower sides between the 
lei-wen and the lower part of the principal mask. In all there appear to be 
six mold sections for the lid alone. The ram's horns like the legs of the 
vessel are cast hollow and cored with baked clay. The back surfaces of 
both the ram's horns and the buffalo horns are undecorated which may 
have some significance in respect to the way the mold sections were made 
and how they were disposed. An odd shaped metal plug under the jaw of 
the buffalo looks like a repair to a casting flaw. 

The surface of the vessel is covered all over with a lustrous dark brown 
tin-oxide patina which is revealed along the deeply chipped edges and 
rims. There are small patches of botryoidal malachite, especially on the 
cover; and the inside of both vessel and cover are thinly covered with 
rough green corrosion crusts. The condition is excellent. 

Composition : Sample for analysis taken from proper left front leg. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 73.4% ; Sn 1 1 .3 ; Pb 1 2.5 ; Total 97.2. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 
Fe 0.01 ;Ni 0.005 ;Sb 0.01 ;Mg < 0.001; Si < 0.001. 



261 



NUMBER FORTY-SIX 



PLATE 46 



Kiiang 
Recent 

Inscription of 16 characters in both vessel and cover 
Height, 21.3 cm. (8| in.) 
Width, 23.5 cm. (91 in.) 
Weight, 2.69 kg. (5 lbs., 15oz.) 
Accession number 12.72 



In general style this kuang is an imitation of Number 44 (49.10). At the 
front of the cover is a monster head with bottle horns, and at the back 
another animal mask with cat-like ears. Along the cover between these 
two are dragons in high relief on a ground of lei-wen. The rectangular 
body has t'ao-t'ieh masks on all four sides, and there are flanges at the 
four corners and in the middle of the front and both sides. A monster 
mask tops the handle at the back. All relief parts of the decoration are 
inlaid with either silver or gold. Except for this, the vessel has a dull 
brown patination over the whole surface. The workmanship is of poor 
quality throughout. It seems likely that the vessel is an archaism perhaps 
made in Ming or Ching times on the basis of an illustrated book. 

At the time he purchased this from Nan Ming Yuan in Tientsin, Mr. 
Freer made this comment, ''Patches of regilding mar its appearance; but 
1 believe it to be a genuine specimen of Chou." 



262 



PLATE 46 




NUMBER 



FORTY-SIX (12.72) 



NUMBER FORTY-SIX 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This imitation belongs in the same category with the lei Number 19, 
featuring inlay in broad areas and spiral wire on flat elements of decor 
raised slightly above a crudely rendered lei-wen ground. As in that case, 
it seems likely that a woodcut picture, rather than any actual bronze 
vessel, was the model. Here it is the simplification and misunderstanding 
of the monoculous dragons, in particular, and the way each of the decor 
elements is encircled by several shallow grooves following its contours 
and setting it off from the lei-wen proper, that reflect the illustrations in 
antiquarians' catalogues rather than any pieces of genuine antiquity. The 
prototype of this kuang with its square base and prominent flanges must 
have been early Chou. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The absence of mold marks or parting lines indicates the vessel and lid 
were probably not cast in a piece mold. The handle is tubular cast, and 
inside it is a fine black powdery filling which is a mixture of carbon black 
and earthy material containing much fine quartz. Close examination of 
juncture of handle to body shows no evidence of seam or mechanical 
join. Likewise, all the flanges seem to be cast as one with the vessel. The 
corners of the bottom are crossed by double parallel raised lines in the 
form of an X. There are four small brackets, one centered at each side 
where the foot joins the bottom. A sixteen-character inscription is 
crudely cast inside the bottom of the vessel and again in the lid. No chap- 
lets were observed. 

It seems probable that the inlay depressions were cast-in, not cut in 
later. In many places the broader inserts of silver and gold show at their 
margins a narrow strip of the same metal which suggests that the inlay 
metal was crimped into a groove provided at the edges of the depres- 
sions. A similar technique seems to have been used in fixing the inlay on 
huo Number 111. 

The unaltered bronze surface is brown and metallic in tone. Although 
there are scattered thin patches of malachite on inside surfaces and on 
the inside of the foot, there is little on the exterior. There is one small 



264 



NUMBER FORTY-SIX 



patch of artificial patina made from coarsely ground malachite located 
near the upper handle join. There are no indications that the vessel was 
ever buried. 

The inscription is cast, but the characters are crude and shallow. The 
strokes in the lid are heavily filled with malachite, but in the vessel they 
are free. 

Composition: Sample taken from a flange. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 73.4"o ; Sn 7.7 ; Pb 1 5.8 ; Zn 2.2 ; Total 99. 1 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

Fe 0. 1 ; Co 0.002 ; Ni 0.09 ; As 0.2 ; Sb 0.2 ; Bi 0.07 ; Mg < 0.001 . 

This is one of the few vessels in the collection in which zinc content 
is greater than 1 percent. 

INSCRIPTION 

It is immediately evident that the inscription is not a proper text. It is 
merely a jumble of archaic-like characters selected haphazardly, no 
doubt, from copies of inscriptions of Sung period date (cf. the Shao-hsing 
inscription Jung, Shang-chou . . . , vol. 1, p. 189). The third character 




Cover Vessel 



265 



NUMBER FORTY-SIX 



(line 1) in our inscription is very close to the fourth line (line 3) of the 
Shao-hsing inscription. The ductus of the script in both is almost identi- 
cal. It would appear, therefore, that the compilation of the inscription 
must be dated later than Sung. Probably it was the intention of the 
manufacturer to simulate an archaic inscription, but unwittingly he 
chose Sung period examples as a guide. In this connection we may recall 
Juan Yiian's incorporation of three Sung period archaistic inscriptions in 
Chi-ku-chai in the belief that they were actually pre-Han inscriptions 
{Chi-ku-chai 5.4, 7.14, and 7.15). Jung Keng has reported several instan- 
ces of similar errors in writings dating from Sung times in his chapter on 
facsimiles {Sliang-chou, cf. pp. 186, 188). If scholars erred in this manner 
it would not be remarkable to find a bronze artisan of Ming or Ch'ing 
times creating an inscription like the present one. 



266 



NUMBER FORTY-SIX 




Detail of silver inlay on tip of vessel (x4) 



267 



NUMBER FORTY-SEVEN 



PLATE 47 



Yu 

Shang dynasty (middle-late An-yang, 12th- 1 1th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 24.2 cm. (9i in.) 

Width, 21.5 cm. (8 J in.) 

Weight, 3.40 kg. (7 lbs.,8oz.) 

Accession number 42.14 



This vessel takes the form of two owls standing back to back and is 
supported on the four legs of the two birds. On the wing and breast areas 
scale patterns, both plain and with lei-wen, are used to simulate feathers. 
Crested birds with bottle horns are placed on lei-wen backgrounds above 
and below the wings; and bottle-horned k'uei dragons coil part way 
around each foot. Large horns lie flat on the top above the eyes, and the 
bold beaks protruding at both ends are decorated in intaglio. On each 
side is a vertically perforated lug in the form of a monster mask, and on 
top is a roof-shaped finial decorated with inverted t'ao-t'ieh that are not- 
able because they are the only ones on this vessel. On the otherwise plain 
bottom, the space between the four feet is decorated in intaglio with a 
large coiled serpent dragon with bottle horns, a simplified version of the 
one that decorates the p'an Number 3. Above and below this are fao-t'ieh 
masks, the top one facing up, the lower one down. In spite of the styliz- 
ation and the distracting and unrelated elements, ornithologists recog- 
nize this as a representation of the species Bubo bubo, the European and 
Asiatic relative of the Great Horned Owl of North America. 



268 



PLATE 47 




NUMBER FORTY-SEVEN (42.14) 



NUMBER FORTY-SEVEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The double-owl yu is common among Shang and early Chou vessels. 
Among the numerous examples, those with bodies bare of ornament 
make up the majority. jj^g other group to which ours belongs are by 
contrast richly ornamented over their whole surfaces with symmetrically 
arranged animals on each side of the median line set against the custom- 
ary spiral filling. 

The earliest in the group are probably those in the Pillsbury, the 
Sumitomo, and the Hiroumi Collections. The decor on all these is 
mostly flat, with only wings, eye, and horns of the owls slightly raised; 
no flanges break their sides, and small animal masks are located below 
the attachment of the handles. An example in the Fogg Art Museum is 
similar but with slightly higher relief.^^^ Our j^w falls logically next in the 
sequence, with bottle-horned birds in fairly bold relief above and below 
the wings and other elements raised from the surface, such as the k'uei 
dragons curled around the legs, which are rendered only in sunken line 
on the earlier pieces. Flanges now bisect the sides, displacing the beast 
mask, and appear also on the breasts and crests of the owls. Presumably 
still later are the two double-owl vessels of more complex design found 
also in the Sumitomo and Hiroumi Collections,^" on which projections 
break the outlines of the flanges, the k'uei dragons proliferate, and up- 
turned beaks (seen already in milder form on the Fogg Art Museum ves- 
sel) further disrupt the restrained silhouette of the earlier forms. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel was cast in a two-piece mold by direct casting, but it is so 
highly finished that only vestiges of the joins can be seen. There do not 
appear to be any chaplets. The two rope holders are cast as one with the 

154 E.g. Waterbury, Early Chinese symbols ... PI. 57-61, and Umehara, SKSIJ, I, 40-41. Others in the 
Sackler Collection (525), the Brundage Collection (B.60.81, and B.60. B.947), the Minneapolis 
Institute of Art (50.46.27) and the Metropolitan Museum (43.28). Our No. 48 is an imitation of this 
type. 

155 Karlgren, . . . Pillsbury . . . , No. 24, PI. 36. Sumitomo, Sen-oku . . . , No. 70. Umehara SKSU, 1/38. 

156 Mizuno, Inshu . . . , PI. 48. 

157 Sumitomo, Sen-oku . . . , 69a-b, and Umehara, SKSIJ, I, 37. 



270 



NUMBER FORTY-SEVEN 



vessel. Join traces indicating the meeting of the outer mold assembly and 
the inter-leg core are easily discernible. The short legs are hollow and 
open at the ends to expose the original clay cores retained in them. 
Between each pair of feet on the underside where the scale and lei-wen 
feather pattern of the body meets the flat bottom, is a distinct ridge or 
fault which is obviously a join line of the mold parts (fig. 37). 




Figure 37 



271 



NUMBER FORTY-SEVEN 



The birds on the upper part are in high rehef and seem to have been 
made separately from identical molds or stamps. The raised circles in the 
narrow band around the rim appear to be from impressions made in the 
mold sections by the end of a tube. 

The serpent motif underneath is quite different in character from the 
decor on the other parts of the vessel. Here the sunken lines are deep and 
narrow and have an incised appearance, which suggests that this decor 
element was modeled in a technique unlike that used to model the decor of 
the vessel sides. The lid, like the vessel, is cast from a two-piece mold, and 
the mold joins are along the long axis. The beaks of the owls are solid. 

The lid knob apparently is not original. In the general description it 
was pointed out that the slanting sides bear inverted t'ao-fieh while the 
vessel and Ud have none. On examination it was discovered that the post 
of the knob was inserted into an irregular hole in the top of the lid, 
secured there with soft solder, and the joint concealed by paint and 
plaster. The knob and post are a single solid piece; the color of the metal 
is redder than the metal of the hd. Analysis of a sample taken from the 
knob stem shows Cu 83.6% ; Sn 11.2; Pb 4.0 ; Total 98.8. This leaves no 
doubt that the knob is foreign to the lid. 

The surface is covered with an elegant tin-oxide patina tinged uni- 
formly pale green. Much of the sunken decor is filled with red cuprite 
and some earthy residues. The lower part of the interior surface is 
glossy and uncorroded, but the upper part is thickly encrusted with 
malachite. In a small patch of corrosion crust in this area, the impression 
of a finely woven fabric, probably silk, can be faintly seen. The cover 
inside is quite colorfully encrusted with mineral products. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of owl's beak on cover. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 74.4% ; Sn 1 5.7 ; Pb 7.8 ; Total 97.9. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0T%; 

Fe 1.0; Co 0.001; Ni 0.005; Bi 0.03; Mg<0.001; Mn< 0.001; 

Si < 0.001. 

Note: Spectrometric analysis on a sample of the vessel taken near 
one leg gave almost identical results. 

272 



NUMBER FORTY-SEVEN 




Lid showing knob removed 



273 



NUMBER FORTY-EIGHT 



PLATE 48 



Yu 

Recent 

No inscription 
Height,22.2cm. (8f in.) 
Width, 19.0 cm. (7| in.) 
Weight, 2.75 kg. (6 lbs., 1 oz.) 
Accession number 11.50 



The covered vessel in the general form of two birds back to back has 
annular rings on the sides which once served to attach the handle, now 
missing. Two monster masks in relief form the cover decoration, and the 
finial is in the typical form of a cluster of vertical cicadas. The body is 
simply decorated with the stylized wings of birds done in high, smooth 
relief. The brownish patina shows some areas of malachite encrustation. 
Mr. Freer considered it a genuine Chou or Han specimen. Mr. Wenley 
thought it might be a Sung reproduction. 



274 



PLATE 48 




NUMBER FORTY-EIGHT (11.50) 



NUMBER FORTY-EIGHT 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The vessel type is late Shang in origin, and a similar piece, and another 
missing its lid but otherwise closely related, were excavated at An- 
yang. Other double-owl yu without fine surface decor are found in a 
number of collections. '^'^ Two examples, neither quite identical in 
design to the present piece, are reproduced in woodcut in Po-ku tu-lu}^^ 
The angular, debased character of the broad decor elements on the 
present piece suggests that such woodblock designs may have served as 
the inspiration of this vessel if not as the actual model. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel and the cover are each cast in a single piece though probably 
not in a piece mold. There are no visible mold marks except those that 
show vertically on each side of the two handle rings [fig. 38). The four 
legs are open at the bottom and are fully cored with clay. Depressions on 
the inside of the vessel correspond to the heavy bird wing decor on the 
outside. On the outward face of the top of each leg, a metal plug is 
located directly at the join of leg to body. These plugs may be chaplets or 
spacers, but other plugs in the vessel sides are obviously only repair 
patches. Three symmetrically placed holes under the knob of the lid 
expose a clay core which completely fills the knob and also extends down 
into the stem. 

The surface is covered with black tarnish interrupted by scattered 
areas of natural malachite. The inside of the cover bears a nearly uniform 
layer of natural malachite which has the smoothness of green enamel 
paint, but is not. 

Composition: Sample for analysis taken from edge of one leg. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 78.0% ; Sn 6.9 ; Pb 1 1 .2 ; Total 96. 1 . 



158 Huang, Yeh-chung . . . , III, 1, 18, or Jung, Shang chou . . . , no. 647. 

Cf. the discussion of the yu No. 47. 
160 ch. I, pp. 35 and 36. 



276 



NUMBER FORTY-EIGHT 



Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 
Fe 0.2; Co 0.01; Ni 0.05; As 0.2; Sb 0.01; Bi <0.03; Al 0.05; 
Mg0.007;Mn0.001;Si 1.0. 




277 



NUMBER FORTY-NINE 



PLATE 49 



Yu 

Shang dynasty (late An-yang, 1 1th century B.C.) 
Inscription of one character inside bottom 
Height, 36.5 cm. (141 in.) 
Width, 27.0 cm.(10iin.) 
Weight, 9.67 kg. (21 lbs., 5 oz.) 
Accession number 40.1 1 



The covered vessel with bail handle is richly decorated with various 
dragon and fao-fieh designs in relief on lei-wen grounds in three distinct 
horizontal bands plus the cover. Most unusual is the band of dragons 
with bottle horns and proboscidian snouts on the neck. Vertically the 
vessel is divided into four sections with bold heavily segmented flanges. 
A row of cicadas appears on the bail handle which terminates in two 
feline masks. The surface is covered with a grayish-green patina showing 
some areas of encrustation. 



278 



PLATE 49 




NUMBER FORTY-NINE (40.11) 



NUMBER FORTY-NINE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This monumental vessel belongs to the same late An-yang phase of 
the bronze-caster's art as the U-ting Number 31 ; the close resemblance 
of the fao-t'ieh masks on the two vessels establishes their kinship. The 
shape is paralleled in vessels reportedly found in An-yang/^i including 
the characteristic profile of the flanges with extra pointed protrusions 
breaking the long segments on the mid-section of the body, and the up- 
turned projections from the lid at the ends of the long axis. In the case of 
some double-owl yu, these projections are to be understood as beaks/^^ 
but here they have no such representational function as they clearly do 
not relate to the fao-t'ieh masks on the lid. The "trunked dragons," 
cicadas, and other decor elements are all well-known on Shang dynasty 
bronzes. 

Other yu vessels related in shape have been assigned to the Late Shang 
period by Mizuno, Watson, Umehara, and Karlgren.i^'^ The early Chou 
stage in the development of this type is exemplified by a piece in the 
Ch'eng Ch'i Collection, Tokyo, with the pierced, hooked flanges typical 
of that era;i^^ one in the Hakutsuru Museum, with zones of vertical 
ribbing on body and lid;^*^^ and, pre-eminently, by Number 50. These 
are all narrower in the body, proportionately, than the Shang examples, 
and exhibit less of the pear-shaped bulge in the lower mid-section. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is a direct casting from a two-piece, four-division mold. True 
join traces can be seen along the flanges at the long axes of both vessel 
and cover. There is also a vestige of a join in the form of a vertical ridge 
or fault on the smooth band of the stepped-back collar of the vessel, 



161 Umehara, Kanan anyo ihd, PI. XXXII (Nezu Collection, Tokyo), and XXXIII (former Kawai Collec- 
tion, Kyoto). 

162 E.g. the example in the Fogg Art Museum, Mizuno, In shii . . . , PI. 48. 

163 Mizuno, In shii . . . , PI. 78. Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. 23b, a relatively small (84 in. in 
height example in the British Museum). Umehara, SKSjJ, I, (Tend Museum) and 55 (Hakutsuru 
Museum). Karlgren, . . . Pillsbury . . . , Pis. 22 and 23. 

164 Umehara, SKSjJ, I, 62. 

165 Op. cit., I, 68. 



280 



NUMBER FORTY-NINE 



which is ordinarily concealed by the lid. The handle trunnions are 
cylindrical and are cast as one with the vessel in line of the pre-assembly 
mold joins; and the separately cast handle was probably sprung over 
them. Only one division is located at the center of the loop of the handle 
which in this case lacks the usual sectional divisions at the curves. 

The lid is similarly cast. The knob of the cover was found to be 
partially hollow but not core filled. It seems to have been cast-on sep- 
arately through a hole in the lid and the extrusion underneath looks 
something like a crude rivet. The heavy projections at the ends of the lid 
are core-hlled with the baked clay still inside exposed by the comma- 
shaped openings on both sides. We can theorize that in order to secure 
the correct placement of these cores between the enclosing outer-mold 
sections, clay extension spacers of comma shape were originally built 
into the two sides of each core in much the same way as they were done 
on the lid of yu Number 50. 

The decor on the end of one lid projection is blurred. Close examina- 
tion shows the outline of a seam which indicates the presence of a patch 
or inset of metal possibly poured in to repair a fault in the casting. As a 
result the decor grooves in the area of the repair have registered poorly. 
The underside of the vessel is quite plain. There are no signs of chaplets. 
A notch and tenon just above the trunnion of one handle permits the lid 
to fit in only one direction. 

The principal elements in the high relief decor are identical, but the 
lei-wen which surround them are not thus implying that the high relief 
was stamped on the model or in the mold with dies, but the lei-wen were 
cut by hand in the mold sections. 

This vessel is one of the most solid and sound in the series; corrosion 
is only superficial. A thin layer of azurite covers the inscription cast in 
the bottom, and a little earthy material is lodged in the fossae of the 
design. Examination in ultraviolet light shows fairly extensive areas, 
mostly on the cover, that are touched lightly with green paint, obviously 
for the purpose of concealing patches of cuprite. 



281 



NUMBER FORTY-NINE 



Composition : Sample taken from upper rim of vessel. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 82.8%; Sn 14.6; Pb 3.7; Total 101.1. 

Sample taken from edge of base of vessel : Cu81.4/o; Sn 13.6; Pb 3.5; 
Total 98.5. 

Sample taken from rim of cover : Cu 82.5% ; Sn 1 5. 1 ; Pb 2.0 Total ; 
99.6. 

Sample taken from handle: Cu 89.0;% Sn 10.0; Pb 1.2; Total 100.2. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry : Sample taken 
from upper rim of vessel: Ag 0.1%; Fe 0.09; Co 0.008; Ni 0.01; 

Bi 0.03 ; Cr 0.002 ; Mg < 0.00 1 ; Si 0.003. 
Lead content of the cover is sufficiently lower than lead content of the 
vessel to indicate that possibly different alloy meUs were used for each of 
the two members. The alloy of the handle is quite different (higher in 
copper and lower in tin and lead) from either vessel or cover. This 
suggests that the metal of the handle was deliberately made sufficiently 
elastic to permit it to be sprung onto the trunnions. 

INSCRIPTION 

The cast-in graph comprises a bird with a crest shaped in the form of a 
Ko-dagger axe. There are several other examples published in various 
catalogues which indicate that the graph functions as a clan sign - e.g. 
in Chia-pien (8.17) it is followed by the posthumous name-title tsu-hsin 
"Ancestor Hsin." 




282 



NUMBER FORTY-NINE 





NUMBER FIFTY 



PLATE 50 



Yu 

Early Chou dynasty (late 1 1th- early 10th century B. C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 51.1 cm. (20 J in.) 

Width, 35.0 cm. (ISfin.) 

Weight, 23.83 kg. (52 lbs., 8 oz.) 

Accession number 30.26 



This covered vessel with bail handle is one of the most powerfully 
executed yu of the period. Decorated in four horizontal bands plus the 
cover, the whole thing is also divided vertically by four exceptionally 
heavy flanges. Birds of various forms on lei-wen grounds comprise the 
main motif. Four large heavy protrusions emerging from the vertically 
fluted band on the shoulder are decorated with buffalo masks; and 
similar masks appear on the lugs at each end of the lid and again in 
relief on the handle. The finial is a bud-like member consisting of six 
vertical cicadas in relief. A broad band of elongated dragon forms on 
lei-wen ground covers the handle. The surface is covered with a smooth, 
grayish patina with some areas of encrustation. 



284 



PLATE 50 




NUMBER FIFTY 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This yu and the kuei Number 66 belonged originally, along with other 
vessels now scattered among different collections, to a second altar set 
reportedly found, like the well-known Tuan Fang set which is pre- 
served in the Metropolitan Museum, at Pao-chi Hsien in Shensi Province. 
Umehara has published an old photo of this second set, on which the 
Freer vi/ and kuei vessels are identifiable. If these two are representa- 
tive of the set, it was generally better preserved and made up of pieces of 
higher quality than the Tuan Fang set. 

A number of stylistic features indicate a date near the beginning of the 
Chou period. The zone of vertical ribbing is commonly found on 
bronzes of that era; the best-known example is the K'ang-hou kuei, in 
the Malcolm Collection, firmly datable by its inscription to the reign of 
King Ch'eng (1024-1005).^^^ The heaviness and broken outline of the 
flanges are characteristic of early Chou style, as are the large birds 
rendered with curvilinear forms in bold relief. The reduction in the 
repertory of creatures represented, here confined to two (birds and 
oxen) contrasts both with the extravagance and variety of Late Shang 
vessels, those, that is, on which animal motif are as numerous as they are 
here, and with the virtual disappearance of recognizable animal forms 
from later Chou vessels. The same combination of the birds and oxen is 
seen on the kuei Number 66, where the horned beasts dominate and the 
birds appear only as linear designs on the handles. 

The shape of the vessel, tall for its breadth and given further height by 
a high foot, belongs to a post-Shang stage in the development of the yu 
type (cf. notes on No. 49). This relative slimness is negated, however, by 
the extraordinarily long and heavy projections which disrupt the sil- 
houette of the vessel and invade the surrounding space in a manner akin 
to the styles of such contemporary sculptors in metal as Lipschitz and 
Roszak. Such bronzes as this, the kuei Number 66 and a few others^ •'^^ are 

166 Umehara, Kydsei-sho . . . , PI. 4. Umehara reproduces on PI. 4 two views of the piece, mistakenly taking 
them for diflerent vessels. 

167 Yetts, An Early Chou hion:e\ also Ch'en Meng-chia in Kao-kii-hsueh-pao, 1955, pp. 161-65. 

168 E.g. {he fang-i formerly in the Higginson Collection, now in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, which 
has similar projections and also a zone of vertical ribbing. Cf. Umehara, SKSjE, 1, 43. 



286 



NUMBER FIFTY 



evidently products of a short-lived outburst of ferocity of style in the 
early decades of the Chou dynasty, perhaps motivated in part by some 
technical innovations in the bronze-caster's craft which allowed this final 
break with ceramic forms and a completely idiomatic use of the medium. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is an extraordinary piece also from the technical point of 
view. It is cast in seven members including vessel, lid, handle, and four 
figurehead protruberances. Both vessel and lid show join traces indicat- 
ing the use of four-piece mold assemblies. On the vessel provision was 
made for the four precast figureheads by casting with the vessel four 
short rectangular posts with platforms interrupting the ribbed decor 
band. The protruberances, which X-rays reveal are core cast with thin 
walls, were hollowed out at their bases sufficiently to permit them to fit 
over the posts. They were secured to the vessel with hard solder which 
forms a smooth sloping shoulder at the join. Small splotches or buttons 
of metal on both vertical sides of the protruberance near the join appear 
to be caused by solder that has oozed through holes made to facilitate 
anchorage. Analysis of a sample of the solder shows Cu 71.8%; Sn 13.0; 
Pb 12.6; Total 97.4 which is similar to the composition of the vessel 
metal. The edges of the ribbon of solder on the vessel side are true and 
straight but on the protruberance side it is irregular and flows over for a 
distance of a centimeter or more. 

A strange feature is the inward flaring lip of the vessel, but in this 
respect it is similar to the yu vessels Numbers 56 and 57. The flanges of 
both vessel and lid are solid and cast with the body. On the step of the 
rim of the vessel there is a raised line indicating a mold join. It con- 
tinues down the side and for a short way onto the top of the flange. 
There are also faint traces of mold joins on tops of the lower flanges. 
The underside of the bottom, unlike most vessels of this type, is rounded; 
not flat. There are no criss-cross marks or brackets. 

The fabrication of the lid, which fits the vessel very closely is peculiar, 
but in other ways. The large knob and the stem are clay-filled, and three 
perforations, which expose the inner core, are spaced symmetrically 



287 



NUMBER FIFTY 



underneath. X-ray shows that the clay core is cone shaped and that it 
extends well down into the stem. A depression in the under surface of the 
lid coincides with the knob-stem. A small drilling through the area has 
revealed a flat irregular void about 2 cm. in diameter, beyond which a 
thin wall of metal separates the lid top from the clay of the stem core. 
This void may be a casting flaw. Also on the lid, and coinciding with the 
flanges above, are depressions about 1 cm. long and 2 mm. deep, which 
may be compared with those in yu Number 51 and the interior surface of 
kuei Number 66. On top of the lid are marked join traces on the thick 
flange ends facing the knob; but these cease abruptly where the vertical 
face of the flange joins the lid top, and do not continue across the circular 
area to the stem. There are two vertical mold marks on the knob stem in 
the line of the long axis. On one side of the plain band around the upper 
rim, are traces of two chaplets approximately midway between the 
flanges, but they cannot be seen on the opposite side. 

The lid protruberances as well as the knob are core filled, and X-rays 
show that the walls are thin and that the inside surface follows faithfully 
the outside modeling. The core is exposed by the comma-shaped perfora- 
tions on the sides. Further perforations may be noted: a rectangular one 
forming the mouth of each animal, one underneath the neck, and one on 
top of the neck, but not opposite each other. All of these perforations are 
more or less square or rectangular in shape; and they probably indicate 
the positions of spacers required to position the core prior to casting. 
Strangely there is no continuation of the major axis join line through 
either of the lid protruberances, but there are suggestions of horizontal 
join traces in line with the sharp shoulder edge of the lid; these are 
depressions not ridges, it is quite evident that the technique for casting 
the lid differs considerably from methods employed in numerous other 
lids of comparable structure and design. 

The swing handle carries decor on both upper and lower faces; and 
the mold was done in three sections, joining at the center and at the 
curves of the loop. Some join traces may be seen along the horns, ears, 
and jaws of the animal-head terminals. At the curves of the loop two 
animal heads are placed astride the mold-join lines; they are hollow and 



288 



NUMBER FIFTY 



clay cored, and the core may be seen in a small hole on the top of each 
head. The handle eyes are cast through loops which in turn are cast 
integrally with the vessel. The underside of each eye is rough and bears 
vertical ridges which may indicate the location of the sprue through which 
the handle metal was poured. The two heads with pointed antlers which 
surmount the handle eyes were cast as one with the handles. 

The details of decor on both vessel and lid, as well as the handle, are 
provocative and raise questions about fabrication. On the vessel proper 
the main decor on diagonally opposed fields, and the lei-wen ground as 
well, are identical suggesting that dies were impressed on the mold 
sections in the orthodox way. On the lid, however, the main decor on 
two diagonally opposed sections on the vertical part of the lid is identical 
in respect to contours, but the lei-wen grounds are not. This indicates 
that the bird figures were made with a die but that the lei-wen was added 
later. There are other inconsistencies as well. The legs as well as the 
positions of the small birds which are in rounded relief differ in detail. 

The surface is thinly and uniformly covered with gray-green, tin- 
oxide patina. A considerable amount of dull green malachite covers the 
interior. There is little earthy material, but the decor grooves of the 
flanges carry a filling of fine gray clay not found elsewhere in the sunken 
decor of the vessel. 

Composition: Sample taken from base. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 67.4%; Sn 14.0; Pb 13.4; Total 94.8. 

Sample taken from the lid : Cu 70.4% ; Sn 1 3.7 ; Pb 1 2.8 ; Total 96.9. 
Sample taken from a projection: Cu 68.8%; Sn 13.1 ; Pb 14.0; Total 
95.9. 

Sample taken from the handle: Cu 73.5%; Sn 12.2; Pb 11.6; Total 
97.3. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: AgO.08%; 
Fe 0.7; Co 0.02; Ni 0.02; As 0.07; Sb 0.05; Cr < 0.001 ; Al 0.005; 
Mg < 0.001 ;Mn < 0.001 ; Si 0.06. 



289 



NUMBER FIFTY-ONE 



PLATE 51 



Yu 

Recent 

Inscription of one character in vessel and cover 
Height,41.3cm. (161 in.) 
Width, 26.2 cm. (101 in.) 
Weight, 10.57 kg. (23 lbs., 5 oz.) 
Accession number 11.55 



The covered vessel in typical yu form is marked by extremely heavy 
flanges and a thick handle attached to the long sides. The decoration of 
vertical lluting and crested birds and dragons on lei-wen grounds are 
executed very much in the early Chou style, comparable as a whole to 
that on Number 50. A smooth, dark brown patina covers the whole 
vessel with minor areas of malachite encrustation. 

This piece came from Lee Van Ching of Shanghai, and Mr. Freer 
assigned it to Chou from the first. His note reads, "Very fine specimen of 
the Chou dynasty. Compare with S.I. 85 (No. 52, 09.260). See similar 
specimen illustrated in Thoms' Ancient Chinese vases of the Shang 
dynasty, page 55; also illustration on page 52 which shows a very 
strong relation in details of design including the fabulous birds 'Hwang' 
and 'Fung'." 



290 



PLATE 51 




NUMBER FIFTY-ONE (11.55) 



NUMBER FIFTY-ONE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This yu is an imitation of a vessel very much hke one in the Pillsbury 
Collection. Except for the handles the two pieces are very close; and 
the bands of vertical ribbing, the pairs of confronted birds, and the 
heavy flanges all tend to suggest an early Chou date. Karlgren assigns 
the piece to Shang no doubt because of the inscription in the ya-hsing. 
Whatever its date, the Pillsbury yu would seem, on stylistic grounds, to 
antedate slightly our Number 50. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel appears to be an archaistic piece and does not seem to have 
been cast in a piece mold. What seem to be mold-join traces on some of 
the horizontal edges of the flanges may be simulations. The decor has a 
certain plastic quality. Not only are the principal patterns on the foot- 
band identical but also the lei-wen. The handle loops are cast with the 
vessel, and the handle was after-cast into them. Three depressions 
which may indicate the use of chaplets occur in the inscription area of the 
vessel bottom, but elsewhere there are no signs of chaplets. Irregular and 
jagged criss-cross lines are present on the bottom underside, but there 
are no brackets. The foot is rimmed inside with hard baked earth which 
may be residues of an original clay mold. The heavy flanges are of solid 
metal, but the lid protruberances have cores which are revealed by the 
decorative openings on both sides. The knob is also cored, but there is 
only one opening from the knob overhang. Elongated depressions inside 
the lid correspond to the flanges without, a feature that is also to be 
observed in the lid of yu Number 50. 

Most of the outside surface is glossy metallic brown, but the inside of 
the cover and the neck is coated with thin, hard malachite. There is little 
or no evidence of long burial. Except for minor casting flaws, the con- 
dition is excellent. 

Both inscriptions which differ slightly in size appear to be cast. The 
one on the vessel bottom is shallow but perfectly made. Irregularities of 

Karlgren, . . . Pillsbury . . . , No. 16, PI. 22 and 23. Working from photographs alone, Karlgren as- 
signed our piece to Shang in his first great study of Chinese bronzes, Yin and Chou . . . , PI. XXVI, A64. 



292 



NUMBER FIFTY-ONE 



the lines of the inscription in the hd are caused by an uneven and partial 
filling of bright green malachite; otherwise the two inscriptions are 
nearly identical. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu71.7%; Sn 10.4; Pb 13.7; Total 95.8. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: AgO.l/o; 

Au<0.01; Fe 0.7; Co 0.01; Ni 0.01; As 0.2; Sb 0.1; Bi 0.2; 

Cr < 0.001 ;A1 0.004; Mg < 0.001 ;Mn < 0.001 ; Si 0.001. 

INSCRIPTION 

This Ya-hsing graph enclosing a libation pourer is discussed in the 
inscription notes following our fang-i Number 37. Rubbings of the 
inscription which is cast in both the vessel and the lid have not hitherto 
been published. 




Cover Vessel 



293 



NUMBER FIFTY-TWO 



PLATE 52 



Yu 

Recent 

Inscription of 12 characters inside both Hd and vessel 
Height, 31.8 cm. (12i in.) 
Width, 30.5 cm. (12 in.) 
Weight, 7.03 kg. (15 lbs., 8 oz.) 
Accession number 09.260 



The vessel of typical yu shape has an arching handle ending in two 
rams' heads in the round. Both lid and vessel are vertically divided by 
four heavily segmented flanges, and the principal decorations are t'ao- 
t'ieh masks and split-skin serpents centered on small monster heads. The 
rough all-over brownish patina has areas of simulated malachite and 
cuprite encrustation, and the quality of the workmanship is quite poor. 

The original attribution was to Shang when this vessel came from 
Yung Pao Chai in Peking. Mr. Freer placed it a bit later when he wrote, 
"Very important in design, casting, and inscription, but I believe a Chou 
product.'' 



294 



PLATE 52 




NUMBER FIFTY-TWO (09.260) 



NUMBER FIFTY-TWO 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This vessel must be based fairly closely on a yu of early Chou date, since 
it could not be rejected as a product of that period on stylistic grounds 
alone. As a general parallel to the shape, the hooked flanges, and the 
ram's head terminals on bail handle, we may cite the yu in the Hakutsuru 
Museum, datable by its inscription to the early decades of the Chou 
dynasty. 1''^ The very high relief decor, serving more to disrupt than to 
ornament the surface, and the absence of lei-wen are also features found 
in yu of the early Chou.^^^ The two-bodied (or split-bodied) serpents 
above and below the lid join are otherwise unknown on yu vessels, but 
are common on those of other types in this period, such as our fang- 
ting Number 34 or fang-i Number 38. The tao-t'ieh masks, partially 
metamorphosed into abstract patterns of broad bands and hooks, 
appear to occupy a position in an early Chou sequence following those 
in the kuei Number 63 and preceding those on the fang-i Number 38, a 
vessel far more radical in this regard. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The faint remnants of what appear to be section joins on the vertical 
flanges lack the sharpness characteristic of normal direct castings in 
section-mold assemblies. The flanges are deeply undercut, and the 
patterns on their sides are carelessly done. The top of one of the flanges 
is connected to the handle loop with a short web or flash of metal which 
is obviously accidental but probably reflects the method used in casting. 
The bottom of the lid grip is pierced by two squarish openings (one not 
fully perforated) which probably resulted from extensions of the core to 
permit proper spacing within the mold assembly. There appear to be no 
chaplets, and there are no criss-cross lines or brackets on the bottom. 
The swing handle has the usual three divisions and the animal head 
terminals show traces of joins. In general the decor of the vessel is not 
clear and sharp but has a smoothed-over appearance. The inscription in 

I'^O MizLino, //; shu . . . , PI. 103; the inscription, reproduced and discussed on p. 46, fig. 47, belongs to the 

Ch'en-ch'en series; cf. the discussion of the liuo No. 41 . 
l^i Mizuno, op. (it., PI. 88 (M.F.A., Boston), and Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes. Pi. 30a (Victoria and 

Albert Museum). 



296 



NUMBER FIFTY-TWO 

both vessel and lid is cast; the strokes are partially filled with malachite. 

Much of the surface is dark brown in color with metallic lustre, but 
there are scattered areas of smooth malachite. There are no earthy 
residues or other evidence that the vessel was buried. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 79.7% ; Sn 14.0; Pb 1.2; Total 94.9. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.09%; 

Fe 0.3 ; Co 0.003 ; Ni 0.03 ; As 0.07 ; Sb 0.07 ; Mg < 0.001 ; Si 0.01 . 
Sample taken from the rim : Cu 82.2% ; Sn 14. 1 ; Pb 1 .8 ; Total 98. 1 . 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription which is cast in both the vessel and the lid comprises 9 
characters typical of Shang and early Western Chou. The calligraphy is 
beautifully executed; it reads: 

(1) The King . . (verb) Yu, hunted (in) X. X 

(2) made (for) Fu-ting (this) tsuii . Clan sign 

From several aspects to be considered in detail later, this inscription text 
is judged to be highly suspect. However, as our vessel is seventh in a 
series of inscribed vessels containing the same inscription text and 
individually published at wide intervals over the period of 160 years 
since the prototype inscription appeared in Chi-ku-chai (1.20), there is 
little need to elaborate here. Our inscription set has not hitherto been 
published although a set of original rubbings is in the Kosai takulwn 
Collection in Kyoto University. 




Cover Vessel 



297 



NUMBER FIFTY-THREE 



PLATE 53 



Yu 

Early Chou dynasty (late 1 1th- early 10th century B.C.) 
Inscription of six characters in both vessel and cover 
Height, 29.2 cm. (Hi in.) 
Width, 20.3 cm. (8 in.) 
Weight, 3.32 kg. (7 lbs., 5 oz.) 
Accession number 09.258 



The cylindrical vessel with cover is decorated with casting in low 
relief, and the surface is a rather even cuprite red speckled unevenly with 
patches of malachite. The over-all decoration is disposed in broad 
horizontal bands alternating between bird and animal patterns on lei- 
wen grounds and bands of plain ribbing. On the bail handle are linear 
dragons on lei-wen ground, and the terminal rings are capped with 
bottle-horned bovine heads. 



298 



PLATE 53 




NUMBER FIFTY-THREE (09.258) 



NUMBER FIFTY-THREE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This vw and another that looks just like it are illustrated in thecatalogue 
of the Tuan Fang Collection.^^^ jj^g inscriptions have the same text, 
differently written, and according to the descriptions the second vessel 
is some three inches smaller overall than the first. Other similar yu are 
in the Oeder Collection and in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.^'^^ jj^ 
general this group seems to fall into the stylistic repertory of early 
Chou.i^' The combination of zones of vertical ribbing with fairly 
organically rendered birds as the dominant motif links this vessel with 
the yu Number 50 and other bronzes of early Chou date. The greatly 
attenuated and formalized dragons, made up of narrow bands and 
hooks, are very close to those on the yu Number 54 that we have assigned 
to the time of King Ch'eng or King K'ang, that is about 1024-967. 
Dragons and birds of these types also appear on the bronzes excavated at 
Hai-tao-ying-tzu in Jehol Province, datable by their inscriptions to the 
reign of King Ch'eng 1024-1005.^^'^ Mizuno also places this type of yu 
in early Chou and includes it in that position on his chart showing the 
development of the yu type.^'^ 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel appears to be a direct casting in a two-piece, four-division 
mold assembly. True join traces are just visible at the halves in line with 
the loops while slight remnants of pre-assembly joins may be observed in 
the upper and central decor bands in the quarters in line with the free 
animal heads. The loops for the handle are cast as part of the vessel and 
the swing handle manifests the structural details which have been noted 
on other vessels of this type. The rounded bottom is high set being 
about 3 cm. above the foot rim of the vessel. There are no criss-cross 

l*"' Tuan Fang, T'ao chai . . . , 2:34, 35. No date is given. 

173 Karlgren, New Studies No. 621, PI. XLVII: Lippe, "A gift . . . p. 103. 

1'74 There is one dissenting voice. Lippe, op. cit., p. 105, states, without documentation, that the vessel ''is 
now unanimously dated in the Shang dynasty." 

175 Watson, Archaeology in China, PI. 57 (yu with dragons), and 62 {ting with birds). Higuchi, Newly 
Discovered Western Chou Bronzes, discusses the date of this find. 

176 Mizuno, In shu . . . , p. 45, fig. 14. 



300 



NUMBER FIFTY-THREE 



markings on the bottom or brackets on the inside foot. The inscription 
in both the vessel and cover are cast. Corrosion products including 
cuprite, malachite and azurite line the strokes. 

in spite of the fairly high tin content of the alloy, there is little or no 
tin oxide corrosion product on the surface which, however, is largely 
covered with cuprite with scattered thin encrustations of dark green 
malachite, and there are also scattered patches of powdery, bright green 
which test abundantly for the chloride ion. X-ray diffraction analysis 
shows that this bright green is a mixture of basic copper chlorides which 
correspond to the minerals atacamite and paratacamite. It is possible 
that the bronze was originally quite heavily encrusted with unsightly 
patina resulting from ''bronze disease," but this has mostly been removed 
mechanically. It looks normal in ultraviolet light, and there are no 
repairs or artificial accretions. 

Composition: Sample taken from upper rim of vessel. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 79.6%; Sn 16.4; Pb 1.9; Total 97.9. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.07%; 

Fe 0.3; Co 0.007; Ni 0.02; As 0.2; Sb 0.1; Bi 0.05; Cr 0.002; 

Mg 0.00 l;Mn 0.001; Si 0.01. 




301 



NUMBER FIFTY-THREE 



INSCRIPTION 

The cast-in inscription of six characters is repeated in both the vessel 
and its lid. It was once in the Tuan Fang Collection and at least two 
further copies of the inscription have since appeared. There is reason to 
suspect the inscription as noted in detail in Volume III. Short inscriptions 
usually present the forger with limited opportunity of error, if he is to 
make mistakes. The inscription reads: 

1 . [The Marquis] Chi of the Ya-i (clan) made (for) 

2. Mu-Hsin [lit. 'Mother-Eight'] (this) /. 



302 



NUMBER FIFTY-THREE 




Detail of decor band around top of vessel 



303 



NUMBER FIFTY-FOUR 



PLATE 54 



Yu 

Early Chou dynasty (late 1 1th- early 10th century B.C.) 
Inscription of 28 characters inside base and lid 
Height, 22.2 cm. (8| in.) 
Width, 19.7 cm. (7i in.) 
Weight, 2.21 kg. (4 lbs., 14 oz.) 
Accession number 60.20 



This vessel differs from the last two yu in that the bail handle crosses 
the long axis of the body. Three narrow bands of dragon forms are seen 
on the lid, around the neck and around the foot. All have lei-wen grounds 
as does the handle. The latter terminates in bold animal masks and 
smaller masks appear at the center of each side of the neck decoration. 
A smooth, dark green patina with some areas of encrustation covers the 
entire vessel. 



304 



PLATE 54 




NUMBER FIFTY-FOUR (60.20) 



NUMBER FIFTY-FOUR 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The evidence for assigning this yu to the early part of the Chou dynasty 
is unusually full and consistent and is based on several convincingly 
datable vessels that are closely related in form and decor, or both. First 
come four yu published by Ch'en Meng-chia and dated by him on the 
basis of their inscriptions. 

The Pao yu^^'' has a narrower and more slender profile; the beast 
heads terminating the handle have bottle horns, suggesting that it is still 
under Shang influence; and the dragons in the decor bands are similar 
to ours. The inscription according to Ch'en, suggests the first Chou 
reign, that of King Wu. Next come the two Cli'ing yu^^^ which have 
dragon bands closely resembhng ours on lid, vessel, and base. In this case 
the dating depends on the use in the inscription of the expression Hsin-i 
to refer to the city of Lo-yang, a designation which Ch'en feels was used 
only in the early decades of the dynasty. Accordingly he places the two 
yu and the rest of the find in the reign of King Ch'eng. Finally, very 
similar in shape to ours, but decorated only with raised "bowstrings" is 
the Ching yu with its inscription suggesting the early years of the reign 
of King K'ang.1^9 

Among the vessels found at Hai-tao-ying-tzu Ts'un in Jehol province 
was a very similar yu with dragons of almost identical design. ^^^^ The 
find is not precisely datable, but seems to belong in the first two Chou 
reigns with the exception of a hsien and a which may be Shang.^^^ 
Two more vessels that should be brought forth in evidence are a yu and a 
p'an found at Yen-tun Shan in Kiangsu. They have on them bands of 
dragons somewhat more dissolved and fanciful but still clearly related in 
style with narrow lines of even width forming angular patterns and often 
ending in pointed and hooked curls. a kuei in this group, decorated 

K'ao-ku hsiieh-pao, 1955, No. 9, p. 157 and PI. 1. Rubbings of the decor bands on p. 156. 
I'^S Ch'en Meng-chia, Hsi-chou . . . , Part II. Rubbings of the vessels in Cheng-ch'iu-kuan chi-chin t'u 36 
and 37. 

179 K'ao-ku hsiieh-puo, 1956, No. 3, p. 1 12 and PI. 5. 

180 Watson, Archaeology in China, PI. 57 and p. 23. 

181 Higuchi, Newly Discovered Western Chou Bronzes, pp. 30-37. Thirteen of the vessels are illustrated in 
WWTKTL 1955, 8, pis. 1-13. 

182 Watson, op. cit., PI. 63a and 64b. 



306 



NUMBER FIFTY-FOUR 



around the base with dragons of the same general character although not 
identical in detail, bears an inscription referring to a sacrifice made by 
King Ch'eng to his father.i^^ 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is a direct casting from a two-piece, four-division mold. True 
join traces along the major axis are clearly visible in the decor bands 
and along the undersides of the handle loops. Pre-assembly joins in the 
original molds may be observed just above the free animal heads in the 
neck decor band. The lid is made in much the same way. At the base of 
the finial and in line with the major axis are two square chaplet openings. 
The handle was apparently aftercast in such a way that the terminal eyes 
were engaged by the two loops which are cast as one with the vessel. 
There are no criss-cross lines on the underside. Chaplets are discernible 
on the inside bottom within limits of the base rim, one in the center of the 
inscription. Similarly on the lid one chaplet is visible near the finial. 

The main decor on the upper band in relief and the main decor on one 
side of the panel are identical indicating they were made by dies or 
stamps. 

The characters of the inscription are cast in the manner of most 
characters on Chou bronzes with some unevenness in depth of the lines, 
and some of the characters remarkably undercut. The grooves contain 
usual corrosion products. Surrounding the inscription are vestiges of 
grooved lines which form a sort of rectangular frame. 

Much of the metal surface is hardly more than deeply tarnished. On 
the inside of the neck it has been mechanically scraped down to remove 
corrosion crusts, and the operation has exposed a large area of red 
cuprite. The bottom of the bowl has some areas covered with touch-up 
paint in which the modern pigments, emerald (Paris) green and Prussian 
blue, were identified; this may have been applied to cover cuprite that 
was exposed when thick corrosion crusts were scraped off. Otherwise, 
the piece is in good condition. 

183 Watson, op. cit., PI. 63b and p. 24. 



307 



NUMBER FIFTY-FOUR 



Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 83.3% ; Sn 1 5. 1 ; Pb 0. 1 ; Total 98.5. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.07%; 

Au <0.01; Fe 0.01; Co 0.03; Ni 0.02; As 0.2; Sb 0.02; Bi 0.03; 

Cr < 0.001 ; Al 0.001 ; Mg < 0.001 ; Mn < 0.001 ; Si 0.005. 

The small amount of lead in this bronze is noted. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription, as in 1 1.40 (cf. No. 73), reads: 

1 . In the thirteenth month, (on the day) hsin-mao (28), 

2. The King was in Kan. (He) awarded Hsien the territory called 

3. ; awarded him cowries - five strings. Hsien responded to the 

King's 

4. munificence, therefore made (for the lady) Chi (this) valuable /. 
Both inscribed vessels have been known since late last century and 
originally were in the collection of Ch'en Chieh-ch'i. 




308 



Cover 



Vessel 



NUMBER FIFTY-FOUR 




NUMBER FIFTY-FIVE 



PLATE 55 



A lid of a.yu 

Early Chou dynasty (late 11th - early 10th century B.C.) 

Inscription of four characters inside 

Height, 10.8 cm. (4i in.) 

Width, 17.1 cm.(6| in.) 

Weight, 1.36 kg. (3 lbs.) 

Accession number 16.361 



This fragmentary lid is decorated with four round bosses on which are 
whirling spiral designs in intaglio. The finial, a cluster of vertical cicadas, 
is like those on the two yu that follow; and the smooth glossy brown 
patina is more than half covered with extremely thick malachite en- 
crustation. 



310 



PLATE 55 




NUMBER FIFTY-FIVE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

While it is hard to see what else this can be, the lids of most known yu 
of this stylistic group seem to fit over the mouths of the vessels. On this 
one, the remains of a ring set back from the under edge means that it 
must have fitted inside the mouth. The possibility remains that it may 
have belonged to some other type of vessel such as a hu, a huo, a p'ou, 
etc. ; but so far no satisfactory parallel has turned up in the lid of any 
existing bronze. 

The knob is a type commonly found on late Shang and early Chou 
vessel lids, and the relief "whorl-circles'' that appear as bosses on the 
surface are familiar in the Shang repertory and survive into the early 
Chou on certain vessel types, notably the kuei}^^ 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The cover is cast in one piece with no signs of mold marks. Inside are 
four depressions under the exterior bosses; presumably these were to 
minimize shrinkage and cracking when the metal cooled. The knob is 
cast hollow over a clay core. One chaplet is clearly visible in an un- 
corroded area, and others may be hidden under the crusts. The inscrip- 
tion of four characters is cast underneath near the rim. 

A notable feature is the unevenness of the corrosion attack. About 
half of the outer surface is covered with thick, dull green corrosion 
crusts while the other half of the surface is as smooth as when first 
fabricated and is now glossy brown and metallic. The reason for this 
juxtaposition of unaltered areas with areas of heavy corrosion is still not 
clearly understood. The rim and lip all around are deeply mineralized. 
The corrosion crusts are a mixture of chloride and carbonate salts of 
copper (atacamite and malachite overlying cuprite). Some earthy 
residues are entangled with them. A portion of the lip about half-way 
around is broken off. 

Composition: Sample taken from an uncorroded part of rim. 
Wet chemical analysis: Cu 83.3%; Sn 14.5; Total 97.8. 

18^ E.g. Karlgren, New Studies . . . , PI. XL, Nos. 381, 393. 



312 



NUMBER FIFTY-FIVE 



Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Pb 0.3%; 
Ag 0.07 ; Fe 0.1; Co 0.001 ;Ni 0.02 ;A1 <0.001; Mg < 0.001 ; Si 0.02. 

INSCRIPTION 

This inscription comprises a pictograph of an animal, an unidentified 
graph, and the dedication to Fu-hsin. 




313 



NUMBER FIFTY-SIX 



PLATE 56 



Yu 

Early Chou dynasty? (late 1 1th - early 10th century B.C.) 

Inscription of three characters inside bottom 

Height, 32.4cm. (12| in.) 

Width, 25.1 cm. (9|in.) 

Weight, 5.70 kg. (12 lbs., 9 oz.) 

Accession number 11.36 



The handle of this yu, arching the long axis of the vessel, simulates a 
twisted rope looped through vertical rings at the shoulder. Bands of 
diamond-shaped lozenges bordered by rows of circles are faintly cast on 
neck and lid and partly obscured by corrosion. The finial is a bud form 
made up of stylized vertical cicadas; and a single monster mask in 
relief appears in the center of each side of the shoulder. The surface is 
uniformly covered with a dark brownish-green patina showing some 
areas of encrustation. 

The authenticity of this yu and the next (No. 57) remains in doubt. As 
will be seen, the technical observations include some questions about how 
the molds were made but otherwise show nothing to suggest that the 
bronzes are not ancient. The very great difference in weight and in the 
composition of the two alloys seems to preclude any possibility that the 
two were made in the same shop at the same time as copies of an early 
original in spite of the great similarity of form and decoration. Barnard 
considers them late on the basis of his examination of the inscriptions. 
Whether this point alone is enough to condemn them we do not know. 
They have none of the characteristics that typify the bronzes made in 
Sung times or later in imitation of ancient ceremonial vessels. For these 
reasons the date given above is followed by a question mark. Mr. Freer 
considered both yu "splendid examples of genuine Shang bronze." 



314 



PLATE 56 




NUMBER FIFTY-SIX (11.36) 



NUMBER FIFTY-SIX 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY (n.36 and n.37) 

Under this heading there is no need to discuss these vessels separately. 

Three yu of the same type were reportedly found at An-yang.i^'^ and 
another of the same group is in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. All 
have plain bodies with bands of simple decor around the shoulder, and, 
in two cases on the lid. All have the raised "bowstrings" around the foot, 
and the knob resembles a cluster of cicadas. Evidently the type originated 
in the Shang dynasty as a simplified version of the richly ornamented yu 
represented by Number 49. It is striking, however, that on the earlier 
the handle arches the short axis of the vessel rather than the long axis 
as here. According to Watson,^ this shift in the orientation of the 
handle takes place near the end of the eleventh century, say in the reign 
of King K'ang. Our two pieces thus represent a stage between the typical 
Shang yu and the fully developed early Chou examples which are 
broader in proportion to their height and have lower feet. They may be 
placed right in the middle of the Shang-Chou transition representing a 
stage midway between the typical Shang yu and such early Chou 
examples as Number 54 and Number 58, which are broader in propor- 
tion to their height, with shorter feet. They may be dated at the very end 
of the Shang dynasty or the beginning of Chou. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Mold-join traces are discernible under the handle loops and along the 
foot in vertical line of the major axis, but it is not entirely clear how the 
mold was made. The relief decor has a worn and smooth look in some 
areas, and there are indications that the lei-wen were accentuated with a 
black filling, now mostly worn away {fig. 39). The lid lacks any vestiges 
of join traces, and the knob is clay cored. There are two rectangular 
holes on the long axis at juncture of the vessel and foot; and the criss- 

Ch'en Meng-chia, Yin-tai-t'ung-ch'i, 1954, PI. 20, fig. 27, "very likely excavated from the small tomb 
No. 1:2026 in the autumn of 1935" (p. 27); Karlgren, . . . Hellstrdm . . . , PI. 15, No. 2 and p. 8; 
and Huang, Yeh-chiing . . . , I/A/20. The last, with a band of simple lozenges bordered with rows 
of raised circles, is especially close to 1 1.37. 

186 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. 23a. 

187 Op. cit., p. 33. 



316 



NUMBER FIFTY-SIX 




Figure 39 



cross pattern in relief on the bottom with unusually thick and regular 
lines seems to imitate the more informal criss-cross patterns on Shang 
bronzes. The inscription of three characters is cast in the bottom of the 
vessel only. The strokes are thinly coated with black and hold earthy 
residues. The lid fits tightly and in only one position. No chaplets were 
seen in either vessel or cover. 

At the termini of the handle there appear to be join marks and on one 
is the stump of a sprue. These must result from the complicated structure 
of the mold at the point where the terminal eyes of the bail interlock 
with the handle loops. The remainder of the handle lacks the usual join 
marks which suggest the use of piece-molds. 

The surface is thinly covered with dull-toned patches of malachite and 
azurite. Most of the interior is dull metallic and tarnished. If the vessel 
was once buried, it seems that it has been out of the earth a long time. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 66.3% ; Sn 9.0 ; Pb 22. 1 ; Total 97.4. 



317 



NUMBER FIFTY-SIX 



Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 
Au<0.01; FeO.07; Co 0.003; Ni0.03; As 0.2; SbO.l; BiO.05; 
Mg< 0.001. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription appears only in the vessel. It comprises the two charac- 
ters Fu-kuei placed above the clan sign, Fish. There are perhaps some 
grounds for suspicion in this reversal of the characters; but in short 
inscriptions of such limited context, it is difficult to advance acceptable 
conclusions in one direction or the other. 




318 



NUMBER FIFTY-SIX 




Detail of bottom 



319 



NUMBER FIFTY-SEVEN 



PLATE 57 



Yu 

Early Chou dynasty? (late 1 1th - early 10th century B.C.) 
Inscription of five characters inside both vessel and cover 
Height, 32.8 cm. (12J in.) 
Width, 23.8 cm. (9|in.) 
Weight, 4.37 kg. (9 lbs., 10 oz.) 
Accession number 11.37 



This vessel matches the last in both form and decoration, but the 
brownish-green patina of the surface is heavily covered with encrustation 
and earthy accretions which largely obscure the decoration. 



320 



PLATE 57 




NUMBER FIFTY-SEVEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 
See Number 56(11.36). 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Like the preceding this vessel bears traces of mold-joins at intervals 
along the major axes, especially along the foot; and also on the handle 
loops. The construction of the handle is the same except that the twisted 
strands do not extend around the loop. The decor band is smoothed 
down and completely obliterated in places. No chaplets are visible, and 
underneath there are no criss-cross lines, no brackets, and no holes in the 
walls of the foot. The knob is cored with clay which is exposed by three 
small holes under the overhang. As a comparison of the analyses will 
show, the alloy compositions of the two vessels are quite different. The 
strokes of the inscription in vessel and cover are wide and shallow but 
appear to be cast. 

The fossae of the lei-wen are filled with some black substance which 
can be seen only when the surface is wet with water or solvent. The 
darker patches on the cover are residues of a fabric having a rather 
coarse weave. The surface is thinly covered with corrosion crusts, mostly 
dull green malachite, and with calcareous earthy deposits and dirt. The 
vessel may have been buried. The inside surfaces of both vessel and 
cover, however, are brassy and metallic. There is no evidence of paint or 
modern repairs. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 74.5%; Sn 12.4; Pb 10.4; Total 97.3. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 

Au <0.01; Fe 0.1; Co 0.007; Ni 0.02; As 0.1; Sb 0.07; Bi 0.09; 

Mg < 0.001; Si 0.001. 

INSCRIPTION 

As may be noted, there are inconsistencies between vessel-text and lid- 
text in respect to the placement of the individual elements. These com- 
prise the commonly found clan sign usually arbitrarily transcribed as 



322 



NUMBER FIFTY-SEVEN 




323 



NUMBER FIFTY-EIGHT 



PLATE 58 



Yu 

Early Chou dynasty (late 1 1th - early 10th century B.C.) 
Inscription of three characters inside cover and vessel 
Height, 23.1 cm. (9 Jin.) 
Width, 22.9 cm. (9 in.) 
Weight, 2.66 kg. (5 lbs., 14 oz.) 
Accession number 47.12 



Both lid and cover are decorated with confronted birds with extremely 
long and elaborate tail feathers and crest feathers, the latter curving up 
over the head and coming down in front. All designs are on a ground of 
lei-wen. The bail handle, terminating in monster masks, curves in a flat 
arc over the long axis of the vessel. The lid has stubby lugs at either end 
and a circular finial which can serve as a foot when inverted. A smooth, 
even, and somewhat mottled yellowish-brown patina covers the entire 
surface. 



324 



PLATE 58 




NUMBER FIFTY-EIGHT (47.12) 



NUMBER FIFTY-EIGHT 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The sudden rise of the bird motif to a position of dominance on several 
famihes of bronze vessels in the early Chou period, whatever its signific- 
ance in terms of dynastic change or rehgious reorientation/*^^ was an 
important aspect of the revolution in both style and iconography that 
brought an end to the slower, more orderly progression that had taken 
place through the Shang period. The prominence of the bird on vessels 
of the early decades of Chou has already been noted (see the tsim No. 18, 
and the yu No. 40). 

In determining the approximate date of our yu however, we must 
begin with the shape. A number of roughly datable early Chou examples 
were cited in connection with Number 54, and to these two more should 
be added. Especially interesting as a direct predecessor of ours is the 
T'uan yu, the inscription on which, linked with the Nieh-ling series, 
indicates that it was made in the time of King Ch'eng ( 1024-1005). 
Another is the Ching yu, dated by Kuo Mo-jo to the reign of King Mu 
(947-928).^^" As already noted, the yu became squatter as the Chou 
dynasty progressed; and this one, within such a sequence, must closely 
follow the slimmer T'uan yu, but precede the still broader and squatter 
Ching vi/. 

Very similar in shape is the yu in the Hakutsuru Museum, which 
belongs to the Jung-tzu set, already cited in connection with the fang-i 
Number 38. The inscriptions on the vessels of this series indicate a date 
in the reign of King K'ang (1004-967), although, as we have noted, the 
stylistic affinities with vessels of the preceding reign are close, especially 
in ihQ faug-i and fang-tsun of the set.^^^ The birds on the Hakutsuru 
vessel are smaller than ours and simpler in design, being compressed into 



Ho, Slicing and Chou . . . , p. 178, suggests that the tribal emblems of the conquered people "once 
feared but now subjected and pacified," were given prominent places on the arts of the ruling dynasty. 
Thus the "Shang 'phoenix' . . . played the same role during the dynastic transition in the arts of its new 
master, the Chou aristocrats." 

Jung, Shang chou . . . No. 668, and p. 422; the inscription discussed by Loehr, Bionzentexte . . . , 1, 
p. 71ff. 

190 Kuo, Liang chou . . . , No. 169. 

191 Mizuno, In-shd . . . , PI. 12 (nos. 1 and 4); the yu also in In shu . . . , PI. 100-101. But affinities of the 
yu are later. 



327 



NUMBER FIFTY-EIGHT 



triangular spaces on the lower part of the vessel body. The shape of their 
heads and beaks, however, the tapering necks, the more organic, even 
naturalistic outlines of their bodies set them clearly apart from the far 
more abstract, schematized birds on, for example, the kuei Number 70 
and bring them closer to these. Another point of similarity is that on 
both the Hakutsuru yu and ours, the birds appear in a properly con- 
fronting, quasi-heraldic arrangement, while in the later versions of the 
motif, to be noted below, they turn their heads to face away from each 
other. 

Two yu with the more highly formalized birds, of the kind seen on the 
kuei Number 70, can be considered close lineal descendants of this type. 
One is in the Sumitomo Collection, Kyoto the other is the Keng-ying 
yu in the Fogg Art Museum. Kuo Mo-jo dates the latter vessel to the 
time of King K'ang, and Ch'en Meng-chia (whose dating depends on 
stylistic criteria, especially the formation of the birds, rather than on 
epigraphy) to the same reign or the following, that of Chao (966-948). 
Both preserve the shape of ours without significant alteration; on both, 
however, a band of decor has been added just below the rim, compressing 
and crowding the pairs of birds on the main body area so that they take 
on more of the character of geometric surface patterns, less of repre- 
sentational images. The added band of decor, in each case, contains the 
C-shaped bird forms, their tails detached and countering the curve of 
their bodies, that will later, in a further stage of degeneration, produce 
the abstract C-patterns found commonly in the same position on Middle 
Chou bronzes. In these respects, the Sumitomo and the Fogg yu stand 
between ours and the Middle Chou style, when the yu form disappears 
altogether. 

On another in the Sumitomo Collection, some of the distinctive 
features of ours reappear in exaggerated form, suggesting that this, too, 
derives from the same type, but in a different direction from the two just 

192 Another example of a bird rendered in this style is on a chiieh in the collection of Lord Cunliflfe; see 
Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. lOA. 

193 Sumitomo, Sen-okii . . . , 66. 

194 Fogg Art Museum 1943.52.107; see Kuo, Liang chou . . . , no. 168, and Ch'en, Hsi- chou . . . , Part 
I, PI. IX and X. 

195 Sumitomo, op. cit., 67. 



328 



NUMBER FIFTY-ETGHT 



considered. It is even broader and heavier in feeling; the rams' heads at 
the ends of the handle are enlarged; and the long plumes that make up 
the drooping crests of the birds have been transformed into a decorative 
pattern of narrow bands broken at intervals by large "eyes," which take 
the same shape as the "scales" often seen on the neck of such birds. The 
birds turn their heads to face backward, an arrangement characteristic, 
as we have remarked, of the later stages in the development of the motif. 
As on our yu, the lei-wen fill the spaces around the design in a rather 
mechanical manner, a more perfunctory handling of the spiral filling that 
leads into cruder renderings, and ultimately to its total disappearance, a 
phenomenon that appears, however, already by the beginning of Chou 
on certain vessels. 

In view of all the foregoing, we consider this piece to be approximately 
contemporary with the Hakutsuru yu and the Jung-tzu series, and to 
date probably from the early years of the reign of K'ang; i.e., close to 
1000. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Both vessel and lid are cast directly in two-piece, four-division mold 
assemblies. The true mold joins are aligned along the major axes, and 
the handle loops which are cast with the vessel are located in the same 
fine. The lid projections are indented inside. On the underside there are 
no brackets or criss-cross lines. Several chaplets are discernible sym- 
metrically located around under the bulge of the vessel body, and four 
are visible inside the bottom within limits of the foot. A rough area under 
the eyes of the handle indicate where the handle was cast through the 
loop. The inscription of three characters is probably cast inside the bot- 
tom of the vessel and again in the lid. 

The main decor on the two sides is identical, indicating the use of a die 
or stamp. The lei-wen, however, dififer in details; hence they were 
probably incised in the mold sections. The decor on one half of the 
handle matches that on the other half. 

The patina is smooth and uniform with yellowish-green tone. There 
are only small patches of green and red corrosion crusts, chiefly on the 



329 



NUMBER FIFTY-EIGHT 



handle, and earthy residues partially fill fossae of the design. Small 
patches of paint on the handle seem to conceal no breaks or repairs. The 
lines of the characters inscribed in the cover are partly filled with a 
brownish film-forming material which draws away from the edges and 
seems to be organic in composition. 

Composition : Sample taken from rim of vessel. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 74.7%; Sn 12.6; Pb 5.4; Fe 2.5 ; Total 95.2 

Sample taken from foot of vessel : Cu 74.8% ; Sn 13.1; Pb 3.7 ; Total 

91.6. 

Sample taken from under edge of cover : Cu 75.9% ; Sn 1 3.8 ; Pb 4.5 ; 
Fe 2.1; Total 96.3. 

Sample taken from handle : Cu 77.4% ; Sn 1 4. 1 ; Pb 6. 1 ; Total 97.6. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.09%; 

Co 0.01 ; Ni 0.03; As > 1 ; Sb 0.01; Bi 0.03; Cr 0.002; Mg < 0.001; 

Mn < 0.001 ; Si 0.01. (Samples from rim; sample from foot and cover 

analyze about the same.) 
The low totals for the four elements determined in wet analysis and 
the slight variations in proportions of the elements can be attributed to 
the difficulty in getting a fair sample for analysis because of corrosion 
penetration deep into the metal. The dilTerences are not large enough to 
indicate that different alloy melts were used for the separate members of 
the vessel. This bronze is also unique because it has the highest iron 
content of any bronze in the series, and this may account for the warm 
tone of the patina. 




Vessel Cover 



330 



NUMBER FIFTY-EIGHT 



INSCRIPTION 

An inscription of three characters is inscribed in both the vessel and the 
hd. It reads simply: "Made (this) exalted /." The vessel-maker's name is 
not incorporated. Reproductions of the inscription have been published 
in Chou chin-wen (5.111) and Hsiao-chiao (4.25b). Although the char- 
acter tsimg "ancestral," "exalted," etc. is employed in a number of longer 
inscriptions in other contexts, it is rarely found preceding the vessel 
name. 



331 



NUMBER FIFTY-NINE 



PLATE 59 



Yu 

Recent 

No inscription 
Height, 9.2 cm. (3| in.) 
Width, 7.0 cm. (2iin.) 
Weight, 0.31 kg. (11 oz.) 
Accession number 1 1 .82 



This miniature yu with decoration inlaid in silver and gold in Ch'ing 
dynasty archaistic style has a very realistic twisted rope handle arching 
over the long axis. It is typical of the things made for decoration and 
amusement in the 18th century. The smooth, dark-green patina has 
simulated areas of malachite encrustation. The original attribution of 
this piece was Sung, and Mr. Freer's only comment was, "interesting." 



332 




NUMBER FIFTY-NINE (11.82) 



NUMBER FIFTY-NINE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This miniature vessel is based on the smooth-surfaced type current in 
the late Shang and early Chou periods; for references to examples, see 
the discussion on Numbers 56 and 57. The inlaid designs, however, are 
in a fanciful and florid style dependent more on Late Chou geometric 
decor than on the Shang-Chou repertory. More specifically, they appear 
to be based on simplified and debased renderings of such decor into 
woodcut, such as are to be seen in the Po-ku t'u-lii and K'ao-ku-t'u. The 
barely recognizable monoculous dragons are quite out of keeping with 
the geometric patterns, but likewise derived from woodcut illustrations. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Vessel, handle, and cover are each cast in a single piece ; and the absence 
of mold marks suggests that they were not cast in a piece mold. The side 
loops to accommodate the swing handle are cast as one with the body at 
the upper join, but both lower joins are made with soft solder. This 
indicates the loop was cast as a stem and bent around after engaging the 
precast bail. The inlaid pieces of silver and of gold are set into channels 
that apparently were cut into the surface after casting. The underside is 
plain. The patches of green scattered over the surface are a sort of paint 
made with powdered malachite. There is no indication that the object 
was ever buried. 

Composition : Sample taken from rim of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 70.4% ; Sn 4.9 ; Pb 1 9. 1 ; Zn 3.5 ; Total 97.9. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

Fe 0.2; Co 0.01; Ni 0.1; As 0.2; Sb 0.2; Bi 0.03; Mg< 0.001; 

Mn <0.001; Si 0.001. 
The presence of little tin, much lead, and an appreciable amount of 
zinc is noted. 



334 



NUMBER FIFTY-NINE 




NUMBER SIXTY 



PLATE 60 



Yii 

Early Chou dynasty (late 1 Ith-early 10th century B.C.) 
Inscription of six characters inside the bottom 
Height, 41.6 cm. (16| in.) 
Width, 56.5 cm. (221 in.) 
Weight, 24.97 kg. (55 lbs.) 
Accession number 37.1 



The massive deep basin is equipped with two powerful handles pro- 
truding at the sides and curving up to just below the lip. A band of eight 
t'ao-fieh masks centered on plain flanges lies above the handles, and 
below this is a row of hanging blades, each consisting of two vertical 
dragons. Elongated dragons in pairs surround the foot, each pair facing 
one plain flange. All the relief decoration is on grounds of lei-wen. Light 
green patina covers the whole surface and shows moderate areas of en- 
crustation. Inside some parts of the lip are patterns of matting clearly 
revealed in the encrustation. 



336 



PLATE 60 




NUMBER SIXTY 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Large yii of this type are relatively uncommon; and perhaps the best 
known as well as the nearest to ours in size is that in the Toledo Museum 
of Art (H.29.2 cm. 11| in.).!^^ Another was among the bronzes exca- 
vated at Hai-tao-ying-tzu and this was still smaller (H.24 cm. 9 in.).^^'^ 
Ch'en assigns all three yU and another in the Peking Museum to early 
Chou.^9^ The Peking and Toledo pieces, like ours, have large hanging 
blades as their main body decor. These probably derive from the 
abstractions of cicada forms that appear commonly in the Shang 
repertory of bronze ornament, as seen, e.g., on the tsun Number 16 or 
the chia Number 20 where, however, they are found as rising blades. By 
the early Chou stage of the three yii, they have been reinterpreted as 
confronting pairs of dragons joined at the tails. This transformation may 
be observed on a Shang period predecessor of the three yii, a yii found in 
one of the tombs at Hsi-pei-kang, An-yang.^^^^ The inscription on this 
piece, like that on the yii from Hai-tao-ying-tzu, includes the word yii as 
the designation of the vessel, attesting to the correctness of the name. It 
was evidently a container for rice.-^*^ 

In its tendency to reduce the animal forms to rectilinear patterns made 
up of bands of even width with hooks projecting at intervals from the 
sides, the decor belongs to a mode current in the early decades of Chou. 
An attribution to that period is further supported by the similarity of the 
t'ao-t'ieh in the upper band to those on the fang-i Number 38. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The entire vessel is cast in one piece by the direct method. The mold 
marks, which are faint, indicate a four-piece, eight-division mold with 
true joins separating the t'ao-tieh on the foot. A mold join is plainly 



196 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, 25b. 

197 Wen-wu, 1955, No. 8, p. 21; Watson, Archaeology in China, Pi. 61; and Higuchi, Newly discovered 
Western Chou bronzes, fig. 1 , and pp. 32-35, for a discussion of the date. 

Ch'en Meng-chia, Hsi-chou . . . , Part II, pp. 99-101. The Freer vessel is reproduced in PI. 2; the 
Po-yii in PI. 3; the K'ang-i<ung j-w in PI. 4-5. 

Ch'en Meng-chia, Yin-tai-t'ung-ch'i, No. 7, 1954, PI. 5, fig. 6, and p. 24. 
200 Ch'en Meng-chia, Hsi-chou . . . , p. 100-101. 



338 



NUMBER SIXTY 



visible along one side of one of the upper flanges. There are chaplets in 
the vessel side just above the join of each handle and also traces of them 
at the same level in some of the narrow spaces between the hanging 
blade motifs. X-rays revealed four large chaplets symmetrically placed 
in the bottom of the vessel. The two handles, which are solid, are cast 
integrally with the vessel, and there is no evidence of a seam or join 
where the details of design on the vessel merge with the handle shoulder 
{fig. 40). On the inside opposite each of the two handle contacts are low 




Figure 40 



339 



NUMBER SIXTY 



rounded bosses each about 3.5 cm. in diameter. These seem simply to 
give added thickness and strength to the sidewalls where the handles are 
joined, and there is no indication that they are rivet heads or welds. The 
bottom bears a pattern of criss-cross marks very similar to that on the 
underside of ting Number 78. They form a cross in the middle and chev- 
rons in the four quadrants. Six brackets are located in the angle between 
foot and bottom. Close examination with long focus stereomicroscope 
and bright illumination reveals nothing to suggest the characters were 
incised in cold metal, but the possibility remains that they might have 
been etched rather than cast. 

The exterior surface is mostly covered with smooth, gray-green, tin-oxide 
patina interspersed here and there with patches of crusty malachite. 
Corrosion is thicker on the inside. Quite a bit of earthy material still 
clings to the bronze. One especially interesting feature is the imprint of 
a coarse fabric or reed matting with twill weave in the patina along a 
portion of the inside rim of the vessel. This circumstance probably 
reflects the burial customs at the time when this vessel was used. 

Examination in ultraviolet light, confirmed by microscopic studies, 
shows scattered areas of paint and artificial patina on the exterior. 
Pigments present are the commonly used Paris green and Prussian blue. 
Otherwise the vessel is in excellent condition. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of base. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 84. 1 % ; Sn 1 3.3 ; Pb 1 .2 ; Total 98.6. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 

Au <0.01; Fe 0.5; Co 0.004; Ni 0.03; As 0.2; Sb 0.3; Bi 0.2; Cr 

0.002; Mg <0.001;Mn < 0.001 ; Si 0.01. 

INSCRIPTION 

The location of this incised inscription is a most unusual one for vessels 
of this kind. Two of the characters are executed in a highly questionable 
manner, namely the first graph ts'ung used here as a person's name and 
the fifth, / a generic term for ritual vessels. The text reads: "Ts'ung made 
(this) valuable and honoured /. Clan sign." 



340 



NUMBER SIXTY 




341 



NUMBER SIXTY-ONE 



PLATE 61 



Kuei 

Shang dynasty (middle-late An-yang, 1 2th- 1 1th century B.C.) 

Inscription of two characters 

Height, 21.0 cm.(8iin.) 

Width, 14.0 cm. (SJin.) 

Weight, 2.41 kg. (5 lbs., 5 oz.) 

Accession number 41.8 



Thin segmented flanges divide the surface of the vessel into six 
vertical sections, and k'uei dragons center on every second flange in the 
main zone to form t'ao-t'ieh. Single dragons are similarly confronted 
below and pairs of dragons above. In the zone next to the top, the 
alternate centering flanges are interrupted by animal heads in the round; 
and the uppermost zone consists of rising blades framing inverted cicadas. 
Finely cast lei-wen cover most of the vessel, and the patina is uniformly 
gray-green of very smooth texture. 



342 



PLATE 61 




NUMBER SIXTY-ONE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Shang dynasty kuei usually lack handles and fall into two broad cate- 
gories of shape: (a) those with nearly straight sides like Number 62, and 
(b) those with a pronounced S-curve to their profiles as in this example. 
So far there appear to be no grounds for making a chronological distinc- 
tion between the two types; the majority of both seem to be late Shang. 

A kuei shaped much like ours was recently excavated near An-yang; 
but the t'ao-fieh is of the more coherent and sparsely ornamented 
variety, the rim more flaring, and the foot narrower.^o^ Closer to ours is 
the one in the Museum van Aziatische Kunst in Amsterdam.-"' One 
variant (perhaps an earlier type?) that is narrower in relation to its 
height and tends to be more cylindrical in form was published by 
Karlgren;^o=^ and Mizuno has published an example like ours in every 
respect except that it has handles.^o^ 

In his discussion of our kuei Mizuno places it in the late An-yang 
period, a dating consistent with the character of the decor which places 
it in a group often distinguished by an extraordinary precision of work- 
manship; and in the same group, flanges, when present, may extend all 
the way up to the rim and sometimes beyond. (Cf. the ku Nos. 8 and 10 
and the kuang No. 42 for discussions of these various features.) 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast in one piece in a three-piece, six-division mold, and the 
mold joins are in vertical line with the six flanges. The decor is crisply 
cast and the line edges are sharp. On the smooth band under the body 
bulge chaplets are arranged in pairs on either side of the true-join lines. 
Some of the individual chaplets show distinctly on both the inner and 
outer vessel surfaces. There are three symmetrically disposed chaplets, 
one indistinct, on the bottom. The underside of the bottom is plain. The 
inscription of two characters is cast inside the bottom with unusual 
sharpness and clarity. 

201 Kaogu, 1964, no. 1 1, p. 591 and PI. XII, No. 6. 

202 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. 4a. 

203 Karlgren, A^^h' Studies . . . , PI. XIII, No. 431. 

204 Mizuno, In shu . . . , PI. 27. 



344 



NUMBER SIXTY-ONE 



The surface is uniformly covered with smooth, pale gray-green, tin- 
oxide patina; but the underside of the bottom is encrusted with mala- 
chite. A fairly definite edge to the crust just inside the foot rim indicates 
that originally the entire bronze was covered with mineral crusts which 
have mostly been removed mechanically. Only traces of earthy residue 
mixed with cuprite are lodged in the fossae; there is no evidence of paint 
or recent repair. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 74.9%; Sn 14.3; Pb 10.0; Total 99.2. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.07%; 

Fe 0.03; Co 0.004; Ni 0.008; Sb0.02; Bi 0.03; Cr 0.001; Mg 0.003; 

Mn < 0.001; Si 0.05. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription which comprises the character / "arm-pit" and ch'e 
"chariot'' has previously been reproduced only in the old Freer cata- 
logue (p. 29). The significance of this combination cannot be assessed. 




345 



NUMBER SIXTY-TWO 



PLATE 62 



Kuei 

Shang dynasty (middle-late An-yang, 12th-l 1th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 18.1 cm. (7 J in.) 

Width, 25.4 cm. (10 in.) 

Weight, 3.43 kg. (7 lbs.,9oz.) 

Accession number 94.17 



This deep kuei without handles is a less usual shape though not un- 
known. The surface is divided vertically by six small segmented flanges; 
and each two zones combine to form a large bold t'ao-fieh mask in the 
main band. Above are paired dragons facing the monster mask atop the 
short flange that splits the tao-t'ieh. Single A '^y^/ dragons face one another 
in three pairs around the foot. The design is cast in low relief of in- 
different quality; and the surface is covered with a patina of coppery 
tone with some areas of malachite, the whole thing rubbed smooth by 
much handling and perhaps waxing. 

This piece marked Mr. Freer's first venture into the field of ceremonial 
bronzes, and was in fact one of the early oriental pieces in the collection 
which at this time included some 247 works of American art, 19 pieces of 
Japanese pottery, 1 Japanese painting, and 1 piece of Chinese pottery. At 
the time he bought it from R. E. Moore of New York, his comment was, 
'T believe this is a copy of an ancient Chou design and probably made in 
Japan." Mr. Lodge in 1923 wrote "Japanese(?)"; and in 1940 Mr. 
Wenley's note was "Probably Japanese." How far the two later opinions 
were influenced by what had been said before it is now impossible to say. 
Almost nothing is known about Japanese copies of archaic Chinese 
bronzes; but poor as this kuei is in terms of quality, it seems to be quite 
unhke those late Chinese bronzes that were evidently based on wood- 
block illustrations in the Sung and Ch'ing catalogues (cf. e.g. Nos. 19, 



346 



PLATE 62 




NUMBER SIXTY-TWO 



32, 46, etc.). As will be seen in the stylistic discussion which follows, it is 
unusually like a number of early kuei of this rather unusual type, and it 
should also be noted that the major Sung and Ch'ing catalogues do not 
seem to illustrate a vessel of this shape combined with this decoration.^o^ 
In view of this and of the fact that the laboratory analysis gave no 
indication of anything suspicious, we have been inclined to give it the 
benefit of the doubt until something more definite turns up. 

STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Perhaps the outstanding example of this type is the one in the Museum 
fiar Kunst und Gewerbe in Hamburg.^o^ with its cleanly and masterfully 
drawn t'ao-fieh and dragons standing out sharply against a neat ground 
of lei-wen. Our piece has the same decor in much cruder form, and the 
detail has been blurred by corrosion and perhaps by cleaning. Other kuei 
of the same straight-sided type are in the Kunstindustrie Museum in 
Copenhagen, a piece reportedly from An-yang,'"^ one in the Pillsbury 
Collection,208 and one in the Fogg Art Museum (1943.52.106). All three 
feature higher relief in the decor and more prominent segmented flanges, 
and they appear to be somewhat later in date. A kuei of the same type 
with flush decor, stylistically earlier than any of the foregoing, is in the 
Brundage Collection in San Francisco (B60.B34). 

The similarity of this shape to footed pottery bowls found at An-yang 
suggests a ceramic prototype.^o^ 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast in one piece in what was probably a three-piece, six- 
division mold assembly. There is only slight evidence of mold joins on 
the top and bottom of one of the true-join flanges and on the foot. At the 
juncture of body and foot there are three equidistant rectangular holes 

205 About the nearest they come may be seen in Hsi-chUng, i-pien, ch. 6, p. 45. 

206 Mizuno, In shu . . . , PI. 29. 

20V Karlgren, New Studies . . . , PI. XIV, No. 434; see also p. 89, where it appears among the bronzes 
"with certainty coming from An-yang hien." 

208 Karlgren, . . . Pillsbury . . . , PI. 54. 

209 E.g. I-chiu-wu-san . . . , p. 36, Fig. 6, Nos. 5, 6, 7. 



348 



NUMBER SIXTY-TWO 



which probably had to do with spacers or lugs used to support the core. 
There appear to be chaplets on either side of some of the flanges and 
under the body bulge. The underside of the bottom is plain and without 
criss-cross lines or brackets, and the edge of the foot rim is smooth and 
shows no evidence of mold join. There is a sharp flare on the inside of 
the foot rim. 

Much of the surface is metallic brown in tone with a rubbed look. 
Other areas are thinly covered with glossy green malachite and patches 
of azurite and cuprite. In the middle of one of the panels there is a small 
patch of red and green patina which bears the imprint of a fabric pattern, 
apparently a fine-weave silk. The fine lines of sunken decor, especially in 
the lei-wen, are filled with black substance, the same mixture of fine 
quartz and carbon seen on many early bronzes. The sunken decor has a 
smoothed down and worn look, but many of the lines appear to have 
been worked over and deepened with a tracer or blunt chisel. It is 
possible that this bronze came upon the scene quite early and has long 
been venerated in Chinese collections. 

Composition: Sample taken from base. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 82.6% ; Sn 10.2 ; Pb 3.5 ; Total 96.3. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

Fe 0.2; Co 0.004; Ni 0.02; As 0.2; Sb 0.2; Bi 0.03; Al 0.002; Mg 

0.001; Si 0.02. 

Both Sn and Pb content of the alloy are below average. 



349 



NUMBER SIXTY-THREE 



PLATE 63 



Kuei 

Early Chou dynasty (late 1 Ith-early 10th century B.C.) 

Inscription of 1 1 characters inside bottom 

Height, 28.3 cm. (Ill in.) 

Width, 34.2 cm. (13Hn.) 

Weight, 6.32 kg. (13 lbs., 15 oz.) 

Accession number 38.20 



The vessel of standard kuei shape and its high rectangular stand are a 
single piece. Both vessel and base are covered with designs in relief 
featuring bold t'ao-t'ieh patterns in the main zones flanked by crested 
birds. Around the neck are double pairs of k'uei dragons facing one 
another across monster masks. Around the base of the kuei proper are 
confronted pairs of serpents. The two handles have monster masks with 
bold horns on the top, and the mouth of the monster holds the head of a 
bird-like form complete with beak, eyes, wings, tail, and feet. Between 
the claws of the latter is a human mask. The surface is covered with a 
smooth, dark greenish patination on which are some areas of malachite 
encrustation. 



350 



PLATE 63 




NUMBER SIXTY-THREE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The relief decor on this kuei is essentially late An-yang in style, but 
there are also a few elements usually associated with early Chou. If, for 
instance, we compare the t'ao-t'ieh on the body with such a classical 
Shang example as that on the yu Number 49, which it appears at first 
glance to resemble closely, or the animals in the uppermost band with 
those on the same yu, we may observe subtle differences. The representa- 
tions on our kuei seem to be closer to that mode in which the forms are 
composed of bands of even width, tending to rectilinear formations with 
the corners rounded and hooks projecting at intervals from the sides, a 
mode which, seen in its fully developed form on the fang-i (No. 38), was 
popular through the first half-century or so of Chou. 

Related examples of kuei on square stands similarly appear to date 
from the early part of the Chou dynasty. A piece without lei-wen (a 
phenomenon relatively frequent at the time) is in the City Art Museum 
of St. Louis another, in the Pillsbury Collection, Minneapolis, has 
the hooked flanges typical of the period.-* ^ Two other examples with 
square platforms belong to the four-handled variety and can likewise be 
dated to the beginning of Chou. One in the Hakutsuru Museum'-^^ 
exhibits vertical striations on the base and projecting bosses on the 
body (cf. kuei No. 66 for the discussion of both features); the other, the 
T'ien-wang kuei, is ordinarily dated to the very beginning of the Chou 
period on the basis of its inscription, although one scholar has recently 
argued that it was made by the Chou people in the reign of King Wu 
before they conquered the Shang.'-*^ 

The handles on the Hakutsuru vessel resemble ours in basic design, 
but are simpler; the eyes and beak of the bird are omitted, the wing has 
no serpent head, and the small human mask between the claws of the 
bird is missing. The same simplified form is seen in the handles of the 

210 Kidder, Eai lv Chinese bronzes . . . , p. 78 and PI. XXI. 

211 Karlgren, . . . Pillsbury . . . , p. 101 and PI. 52. See also Jung, Shang-chou . . . , nos. 288-300. 

212 Mizuno, //; sini . . . , Pi. 95. 

213 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, p. 49, for a discussion of this piece (whicii he calls the "T'ien Wu 
kuei"}; the suggestion of a Shang date was made by Sun Tso-yiin, "Shuo 't'ien-wang kuei' wei Wu- 
wang nieh-shang i-ch'ien t'ung-chi," Wen-wu, 1958, no. 1, pp. 29-31 where the piece is illustrated. 



353 



NUMBER SIXTY-THREE 

Ta-pao kuei, which both Jung Keng and Kuo Mo-jo date, on the basis of 
the inscription, to the reign of King Ch'eng (1024-1005).'^i4 On the 
Pillsbury kuei on the other hand, an uphfted elephant's trunk is attached 
to the outer surface of what appears, in the other examples, to be the 
outthrust tongue of the horned feline beast at the top of this totem-pole- 
like assemblage. Such variations complicate the question of the icono- 
graphic significance of these handle formations. For example, Davidson's 
suggestion that the protrusion from the animal's mouth on the handles is 
not a tongue, but the beak of an additional bird,-!^ is weakened by the 
fact that it is only on this one example that the main bird is furnished 
with a separate beak. On others, the protrusion apparently doubles as 
the tongue of the feline and the beak of the bird, resembling, in the latter 
function, the upturned beaks of owls on some double-owl yu. 

The possibility remains that this vessel may be slightly earlier than any 
of the related pieces cited above, since it exhibits, or retains, as the case 
may be, more of late Shang style. If Karlgren's theory is correct, and 
names of the "X-fu" type in inscriptions always indicate a Chou date, it 
must be placed near the beginning of that dynasty; on the evidence of 
the style, we are bound to date it to the period of the Shang-Chou 
transition. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel and the large nearly square base are cast in one piece in what 
appears to be a two-piece, four-division mold. The true mold joins are in 
line with the two animal heads and the flanges which are cast integrally 
with the vessel. There is no evidence of a seam or join where the foot of 
the vessel and the square base meet. The mold divisions continue along 
the top surface of the base but not along the sides. Mold divisions for the 
base might have been along the corner edges - but there is no sign of 
them there now. 

There are a great many chaplets in both the vessel and base. Four are 
clearly defined on each of the four faces of the base, and there are two 

214 Jung, Shang-chou . . . , no. 281. 

Davidson, The bird- . . . , (esp. pp. 8-9). 



354 



NUMBER SIXTY-THREE 



below each handle in the lowest circular band above the base. At least 
five appear in the bottom of the vessel, but their disposition is not 
symmetrical. Most are more or less square or rectangular in shape. 
Extending from the center bottom underneath is a short elongated boss 
which may be the remnants of a suspension for a bell. There are no 
criss-cross lines or brackets. 

The handles are pre-cast with open channels on the inside which still 
retain the original clay core extending up into the animal heads. The 
vessel is cast to the handles, a fact which is shown by extensive spillover 
of metal from the vessel on to the handle stems {fig. 41). A radiograph 
shows that the square ends of the pre-cast handles are completely 
enclosed by spill-over metal from the vessel. The fine lei-wen design on 
the body is true and undistorted right up to the edge of the shoulder of 
the join. There are no signs of handle joins on the inside of the vessel. 




Figure 41 



355 



NUMBER SIXTY-THREE 



Chemical analysis of a sample of metal from one handle shows that its 
composition is slightly different from the metal of the vessel proper, but 
the difference is hardly significant. 

The two sides of the base which lie beneath the handles are shorter 
than the other two (18.7 and 19.9 cm.). The details of the fao-tieh masks 
are similar but not identical. The lei-wen on all sides differ in detail and 
disposition. Another noteworthy feature is the deep undercutting about 
the bosses that form the eyes of the dragons, even the small serpents 
about the foot. The inscription was cast in; the bottoms of the grooves 
have a corrugated appearance caused possibly by mechanical cleaning. 

The surface of the bronze is only thinly covered with grayish-green 
corrosion products. Much of this surface is lustrous black or gray. There 
are scattered small patches of cuprite and crusty malachite. Earthy 
accretions are lodged on the inside of the foot and base. There are no 
breaks, losses, or evidence of repair or paint. 

Composition : Sample taken from lower edge of square base. 
Wet chemical analysis: Cu 82.0%; Sn 13.2; Pb 3.6; Total 98.8. 

Sample taken from underside of handle: Cu 82.3%; Sn 14.4; Pb 2.3; 

Total 99.0. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 
Fe 0.3; Co 0.008; Ni 0.03; As 0.2; Sb 0.04; Bi 0.08; Cr 0.002; 
MgO.OOl; Mn < 0.001 ; Si 0.03. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription of 1 1 characters reads : 

1 . Po Che-fu made (this) valuable 

2. kuei to entertain the King upon arrival and departure. 



356 



NUMBER SIXTY-THREE 




357 



NUMBER SIXTY-FOUR 



PLATE 64 



Kuei 

Early Chou dynasty (late 1 Ith-early 10th century B.C.) 

Inscription of 42 characters inside bottom 

Height, 15.9 cm. (6i in.) 

Width, 26.6 cm. (101 in.) 

Weight, 2.15 kg. (4 lbs., 12oz.) 

Accession number 11.38 



The vessel of standard kuei form is decorated on the body with a 
massive tao-t'ieh centered on a flange on either side. Below this is a band 
of double pairs of confronted serpents. The two handles are topped by 
monster masks and have long lugs depending from the bottoms. The 
whole vessel is covered with a dark green patina showing considerable 
areas of malachite encrustation and earthy accretions. 

The vessel was called Shang when Mr. Freer bought it from Riu Ching 
Chai of Peking. His own note reads, . . seems to be more Chou than 
Shang, but the inscription, when read, may give its real date." 



358 



PLATE 64 




NUMBER SIXTY-FOUR 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This kuei belongs to the same family as the preceding although minor 
differences in detail are noticeable. In this case the handles join the body 
at the rim level and there is no band of dragons around the neck. The 
main t'ao-t'ieh is a simplified version of the same type and is more 
crudely executed as are the serpents that surround the concave area of 
the upper base. In this and several of the kuei that follow the handles are 
based on the "bird-in-the-animaFs-mouth" design so clearly represented 
on the preceding. The head of the bird has disappeared altogether in this 
abbreviated version; the wings are barely indicated in relief on the sides 
of the handle, and the feet and tail are merely suggested by the sunken 
lines on the rectangular lugs below. 

Kuei of this type are not uncommon, and there are a number of closely 
related examples in the Palace Museum in Taiwan.- They may vary 
somewhat in date, but in general they fall not far from the Shang-Chou 
transition or a little later. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast in one piece in what seems to have been a two-piece, 
four-division mold assembly. The true mold joins are in line with the 
handles. Join traces are particularly noticeable under the handle lugs 
and on the edges of the flanges of the base. The handles are open-core 
castings, but they bear little evidence of join-traces in the animal heads 
or along their centers. Two vertical mold marks on the body form a 
rectangular undecorated area under each handle. One squarish chaplet 
can be seen under the body bulge and perhaps others are concealed under 
corrosion crusts. The bottom is criss-crossed by the network of narrow 
ridges common to this type of vessel. Much of the original upper core 
still remains along the inside ledges of the foot. Three symmetrically 
placed squarish chaplets are located in the bottom within the inscription 
area. It is noteworthy that each of the three chaplets is cut across by a 
portion of the grooves of an inscription character. The character wang 
which crosses one chaplet is incomplete having part of the vertical stroke 

Ku-kung-t'ung-ch''i . . . , hsia, hsia-pien, pp. 145-9. 



360 



NUMBER SIXTY-FOUR 



missing. This missing portion of the character is directly in the middle of 
the chaplet. While the characters exhibit all the normal features of a cast- 
in inscription, the undercut, wavy edges and the even continuation over 
chaplets suggest that the inscription might have been etched. Radiography 
further reveals that the criss-cross lines on the underside are also inter- 
rupted in the middle of the chaplet but that the broken ends of the lines 
actually cross the edges of the chaplet before they terminate. Excava- 
tions of residues of core clay from the underside of the vessel revealed 
the edges of the chaplet and confirmed the radiograph reading. It could 
be seen also that the criss-cross lines that cross the edges of the chaplet 
terminate in a thickened and rounded blob of metal, not a broken end. 
(The observations made on this single chaplet if they could properly be 
interpreted, would perhaps have an important bearing on many aspects 
of bronze casting technology in China. See Vol. 11, Ch. VI.) 

Although the dark green crusty patina has an artificial appearance, 
examination shows that it is mostly naturally formed malachite inter- 
spersed with a little azurite. There are no repairs; and in ultra-violet light, 
there is no evidence of paint or touch up. 

Composition: Sample taken from underside of handle lug. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 76.0% ; Sn 14.8 ; Pb 7.9 ; Total 98.7. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

Fe 0.06; Co 0.007; Ni 0.03; As 0.3; Sb 0.1; Bi 0.07; Cr 0.003; 

Mg 0.00 l;Mn 0.001; Si 0.01. 

INSCRIPTION 
The inscription of 42 characters reads : 

1. In the first month, in the first quarter of the month, on the day 
wu-ch'en (5). 

2. the King invoked a curse on the Jen-fang. (They were) no mean 
adversaries. (When) all (was accomplished), 

3. the King awarded the Tso-ch'e X : cowries - ten strings. 

4. (He) responded extolling the Son of Heaven's great and illustrious. 
King. 



361 



NUMBER SIXTY-FOUR 




362 



NUMBER SIXTY-FOUR 




NUMBER SIXTY-FIVE 



PLATE 65 



Kuei 

Early Chou dynasty (late 1 Ith-early 10th century B.C.) 
Inscription of three (?) characters inside bottom 
Height, 14.3 cm. (5f in.) 
Width, 24.4 cm. (9| in.) 
Weight, 1.50 kg. (3 lbs., 5 oz.) 
Accession number 24.14 



This small vessel has typical kuei handles with monster masks at the 
top, bird wings at the side, and pendent lugs below. Except for the 
narrow band of finely deteriorated dragon form, the so-called "animal 
triple band," around the neck and the high base, the body is plain. In 
the center of each side of the neck band is a small feline monster mask in 
relief. The dark green patina is encrusted with malachite, cuprite, 
azurite, and some earthy accretions. 



364 



PLATE 65 




NUMBER SIXTY-FIVE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The most striking feature of this kiwi is the plain smooth surface 
bounded at the top and bottom by borders of the animal triple band 
pattern. A similar decorative scheme appears on the Ch'in kuei which has 
been dated by its inscription to the reign of King Ch'eng (1024-1005).2i7 
On the other hand a number of related kuei, differing only in such 
details as the placement of the handles, the shape of the handle lugs and 
the treatment of the foot, are assigned to the Shang dynasty by Jung 
Keng;2i8 and Kuo Mo-jo illustrates one with a very similar foot but 
with hooked handle lugs without attempting an attribution.^i^ In general 
this family seems to fit into the closing years of Shang or the early part 
of Chou on all grounds. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

This vessel is cast in one piece directly from a two-piece, four-division 
mold with the true joins in vertical line with the handles. Mold marks 
show faintly on the bottoms of the handle lugs. The handles are chan- 
neled on the inside and filled with original clay core. The underside of 
the bottom is plain. Along the foot rim the fine of contact between the 
outer molds and the upper core is plainly visible. There are at least two 
chaplets inside the bottom, possibly more. The characters of the in- 
scription are poorly cast and barely legible. 

Much of the surface is covered with dull and crusty corrosion products 
and earthy accretions. There is no evidence of breaks, losses, or repairs. 

Composition: Sample taken from handle lug. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 82.0% ; Sn 1 3.8 ; Pb 1 .8 ; Total 97.6. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.09%; 

Au<0.01; Fe 0.03; Co 0.003; Ni 0.03; As 0.2; SbO.Ol; Bi 0.03; 

Mg < 0.001; Si 0.004. 



217 Kuo Mo-jo, Liang chou . . . , p. llv; Ch'eng Meng-chia, Hsi-chou . . . , PI. I (top) and pp. 73-6. 

218 Jung, Pao-yiin-lou . . . , pp. 41. 42, 43, 44, 45; Shang Ch'eng-tso, Shih-erh-chia . . . , p. 8. 
Shang Ch'eng-tso, op. cit., 17, huo. 



366 



NUMBER SIXTY-FIVE 



INSCRIPTION 

Owing to some mishap during the process of casting, the inscription has 
not fully registered. Only the last two characters ". . . precious /" are 
reasonably clear. Originally the text would have comprised four or five 
characters. 




367 



NUMBER SIXTY-SIX 



PLATE 66 



Kuei 

Early Chou dynasty (late 1 Ith-early 10th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 23.5 cm. (9i in.) 

Width, 36.5cm.(14|in.) 

Weight, 8.53 kg. (18 lbs., 13 oz.) 

Accession number 31.10 



The vessel has four heavy handles, and the surface is dominated by 
two bands of long spikes, each arranged in groups of twelve between the 
handles and the intermediate segmented flanges, A single broad band of 
vertical ribbing surrounds the center of the body and on the base are 
four pairs of confronted k'uei dragons centered on small flanges. The 
dominant decoration consists of water buffalo heads which appear in 
relief on the handles and on the tops of the flanges a total of no less than 
28 times. The smooth, grayish patina shows some areas of malachite 
encrustation. 



368 



PLATE 66 




NUMBER SIXTY-SIX 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

As noted in the discussion of Number 50, this kuei, together with that 
yu, originally belonged to an altar-set which was unearthed intact but 
later dispersed. The two pieces are outstanding examples of an appar- 
ently short-lived early Chou style characterized by a profusion of heavy 
angular projections that violate the surface outline of the vessels, and by 
a reduction in the repertory of animal motifs so that a single animal, 
here a horned bovine, dominates the iconographic theme of each piece. 
Except for the birds rendered in sunken line on the sides of the handles, 
and the dragons in the foot-band, the animal representations on this 
piece are limited to the 28 bovine masks. 

Three examples of the four-handled kuei dating from the early Chou 
period have already been cited in connection with Number 63; the 
T'ien-wang kuei, the Ta-pao kuei, and the piece in the Hakutsuru 
Museum. To these can be added those in the Brundage Collection 
(B60.B111) and the Fogg Art Museum (1944.57.17a), both cruder and 
probably somewhat later than this. 

As noted in the discussion of the yu, the band of vertical ribbing is a 
feature confined (excluding recent imitations) to bronzes of the early 
Chou period. The spikes that protrude from the bands above and below 
this represent a last extreme stage of a development that begins in the 
Shang dynasty with an all-over diaper pattern featuring low bosses in 
the center of each lozenge, as on the ting Number 29. Variants of this 
decor type seen on early Chou vessels are mentioned in the discussion of 
the fang-ting Number 34. On the Hakutsuru kuei, and the very similar 
piece in the Moore Collection,22o the bosses are longer than on Shang 
vessels, but shorter than the present ones, and still set in the diaper 
pattern. On a handleless kuei formerly in the Manchu Imperial House- 
hold Collection,22i they are elongated and more closely spaced. On ours, 
the diaper pattern has disappeared altogether; and the spikes are even 
closer set and placed in horizontal and vertical rows. While this series 
need not conform to the actual chronological order of the three vessels 

220 Mizuno, Inshu... , PI. 95; Umehara, SKSjEll, 105. 

221 Jung, Wuying tien . . . , I, 54. 



370 



NUMBER SIXTY-SIX 



concerned, it probably indicates the direction this variety of decor took 
from the Shang into the early Chou period. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The four handles were precast, and the vessel was cast on to them in 
what appears to be a four-piece, eight-division mold. The handles are 
open-core cast and are centered on the true join divisions; the clay cores 
extend down into the lobes. The four vertical pairs of ornate flanges 
midway between the handles are also precast units, and the vessel was 
cast to them. There are mold joins in the ribbing between each of the two 
upper flanges in line with the left face of each flange and these continue 
down into the plain area below the body bulge. This feature is note- 
worthy as the mold sections usually join along the middle of the flange. 




NUMBER SIXTY-SIX 



The eight flanges on the base, however, are cast as one with the vessel 
as are the spikes, which total 192 in the 16 panels. The joins where the 
vessel is cast on to pre-cast members are well finished with the vessel 
metal forming a neat bevel of regular width sloping to the member 
{fig. 42). Two of the pre-cast flanges are not fully covered by the vessel 
metal but have a groove on either side which insures a firm locking 
action by the cast-over metal {fig. 43). On the interior and coinciding 
with the flanges are vertical pitted areas which appear to be casting 





Figure 43 



372 



NUMBER SIXTY-SIX 



defects resulting from contact of molten metal with the solid metal of 
the precast flanges. 

Chaplets are located approximately in the center of the groups of 
spikes, one in each group. There are four brackets underneath at the 
angle of the bottom and the foot, but there are no criss-cross marks. 

The sunken decor on the sides of all four handles is identical possibly 
indicating the use of a stamp or stencil in their execution. 

The surface of the vessel has thin metallic gray patina with weathered 
patches of malachite. A dull azurite crust covers much of the underside. 
The condition is excellent. 

Composition: Sample taken from foot. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 70.3%; Sn 10.0; Pb 14.7; Total 95.0. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 

Au <0.01; Fe >1.0; Co 0.03; Ni 0.03; As 0.3; Sb 0.04; Bi 0.05; 

Cr < 0-001 ; Al 0.002 ; Mg < 0.001 ; Mn 0.004; Si 0.05. 
Wet chemical analysis - sample taken from under handle lug: Cu 

70.7% ; Sn 10.7 ; Pb 1 3.7 ; Total 95. 1 . 
Trace elements estimated by emission spectrometry are present in 
about the same proportion as found in the sample from the foot. 



373 



NUMBER SIXTY-SEVEN 



PLATE 67 



Kuei 

Early Chou dynasty (late 1 Ith-early 10th century B.C.) 
Inscription of four characters inside both vessel and lid 
Height, 18.8cm.(7|in.) 
Width, 25.7 cm. (10| in.) 
Weight, 2.30 kg. (5 lbs., 1 oz.) 
Accession number 17.193 



Three similar bands of decoration appear on the otherwise plain 
vessel and lid. They consist of confronted pairs of animals that look like 
water buffalo with their knees bent. The lid has a circular finial which 
can serve as a foot when inverted, and the two handles have the usual 
monster masks on top and dependent lugs below. The even, dark green 
patina shows some areas of malachite encrustation. Yamanaka and 
Company of New York sold Mr. Freer this bronze as Six Dynasties. His 
own note reads, "Genuine specimen of Han or Six Dynasties." 



374 



PLATE 67 




NUMBER SIXTY-SEVEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

An approximate parallel to the shape, with rather similar handles, but 
with solid rectangular lugs instead of hooked shapes, may be seen in the 
two Ling kuei, reportedly found at Lo-yang, and datable through their 
inscriptions, according to Ch'en Meng-chia, to the reign of King K'ang 
(1004-967)."" A more closely related kiiei, in the collection of Denis 
Cohen is dated by Watson to the same period, --^ The handles on these 
show a further simplification of the type discussed in connection with 
the Awe/ (No. 64). 

The most striking feature of this vessel is the bands of kneeling water 
buffalo, rendered in simple relief against a plain ground. This technique 
occurs occasionally on early Chou bronzes in motifs that are otherwise 
not unusual for the period; a kuei in the collection of Lord Cunliffe, for 
example, features long-crested birds that are distinguished from the 
common variety only by the absence of linear surface ornament,-- ' and 
another in the former Manchu Imperial Household Collection has 
trunked dragons of the same character. --^ These are typical examples of 
the frequent elimination of lei-w en and other linear ornaments on Late 
Shang and early Chou bronzes. 

The most interesting parallel to the bovines, however, is a yu in the 
Pillsbury Collection--^ decorated with crouching deer. These, like our 
water buffalo, are rendered in true plastic relief, in smooth, convex 
forms. As noted by both Karlgren and Watson,--^ the deer display an 
unusual degree of naturalism, and the same could be said of the buffalo 
with all their ungainliness. Karlgren suggests that the deer on the 
Pillsbury yu have affinities with the Northern Nomad animal style, a 
likelihood strengthened by the inscription, according to which the vessel 
was made by the prince of Mo, a northern tribe, to commemorate a gift 



222 Ch'en Meng-chia, Hsi-chou . . . , No. 10, PI. XIV-XV and pp. 76-78. 

223 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. 42a. 

224 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. 44b. 

225 Jung, Wu-ying-tien . . . , p. 63. 

226 Karlgren, . . . Pillsbury No. 15, PI. 20-21. 

227 Watson, op. cit., p. 40. 



376 



NUMBER SIXTY-SEVEN 



of three deer from the King. The appearance of a "distinct and near- 
naturahstic style" in the hunting-scene vessels several centuries later in 
the same area of northeast China, the ancient state of Yen, modern 
Hopei Province, suggests the persistence of a local style in this area. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The casting appears to have been made in a two-piece, four-division 
mold assembly with the mold joins located in hne with the handles, 
which were cast as one with the vessel; these are channeled and filled 
with original clay core. On the side under each handle is a raised un- 
decorated area formed apparently against the surface of the handle core. 
Under the bulge of the body four chaplets are evenly disposed, and there 
may be others inside the bottom concealed by the corrosion. The 
bottom underneath is plain. The lid, which fits only one way over a high 
rim, seems also to have been cast in a two-piece mold in line of the two 
rectangular spacer openings in the side of the finial; around this are five 
(possibly six) squarish chaplets in the undecorated band. The bulging 
eyes of all of the water buffalo are noticeably undercut and even appear to 
be peened over. The inscriptions in both vessel and lid appear to have 
been cast by standard methods; the strokes of the body inscription con- 
tain some malachite and cuprite. 

The surface is quite smooth and black but interrupted with thin 
patches of blue-green patina. There is little or no tin-oxide patina. The 
rim under the cover is bright brassy metal. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 78.5% ; Sn 10.3 ; Pb 8.5 ; Total 97.3. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.09%; 

FeO.3; Co 0.007; Ni0.03; As 0.3; SbO.3; Bi0.07; Mg< 0.001; 

Si 0.001. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription is incorporated in both the vessel and the lid and reads : 
"Made (this) valuable and honoured A rubbing has been reproduced 



377 



NUMBER SIXTY-SEVEN 



in Hsiao-chiao (7.64a). Forgers have often contented themselves with 
hmiting their efforts to this incomplete sentence (cf. Jung Keng, Shang- 
chou . . . , pp. 199-200); we can trace their manipulations from the period 
of the Sung catalogues through the early Ch'ing catalogues up to the 
present. It cannot, of course, be surmised that every such inscription 
text is spurious. 




Vessel Cover 



378 



NUMBER SIXTY-SEVEN 




NUMBER SIXTY-EIGHT 



PLATE 68 



Kuei 

Early Chou dynasty (10th century B.C.) 
No inscription 
Height, 16.0 cm. (6 J in.) 
Width, 30.2cm. (Ill in.) 
Weight, 4.39 kg. (9 lbs., 11 oz.) 
Accession number 16.480 



The large t'ao-tUeh in the main band of decoration are flanked by 
vertical dragons, and on the neck and foot are bands of confronted pairs 
of crested birds. The handles consist of the usual monster mask and bird 
combination. The entire vessel is covered with a heavy malachite en- 
crustation and a good deal of earthy accretion to a point where the 
design is largely obscured. 

Mr. Seaouke Yue of Shanghai sold the piece to Mr. Freer in New 
York as Shang. Mr. Freer's own note reads, "Very important. Note 
beautiful tones of green and blue, and exquisite craftsmanship and 
quality of metal. I am uncertain whether Shang or Chou, but the design 
leads me to believe the latter, notwithstanding Mr. Yue's positive claim 
that it is Shang; however, it would be considered Shang on the scholar- 
ship found in 'Thoms on Ancient Chinese Vases of the Shang Dynasty,' 
and which is considered authoritative." 



380 



PLATE 68 




NUMBER SIXTY-EIGHT 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The birds in the upper band are of the type common to vessels of the 
10th century, several of which are cited in the discussion of the ting 
Number 33. Parallels to the shape, and to the distinctive formation of 
the handles, may be seen in the Kuo-po kiwi, which Kuo Mo-jo 
dates to the time of King Chao (966-948) ;-2 8 the T'o kuei, datable to the 
latter part of the reign of King Ch'eng or the succeeding reign of King 
K'ang; i.e., the early 10th century and the Ching kuei, placed 
by Kuo Mo-jo in the reign of King Mu (947-928).23o In view of this 
spread of related vessels over at least three reigns, we do not attempt to 
assign the present kuei a more precise date than that indicated above. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel, including handles, is cast in one piece in a two-piece, four- 
division mold. In spite of heavy corrosion, vertical mold marks are 
plainly visible at the quarters, especially under the handles. These are 
made in the traditional way, channeled in the inside and filled with 
original clay core. The band of the decor does not continue under the 
handle where there are clear marks of the handle core, a further indication 
that these were cast with the vessel. There are two depressions on the 
inside, one directly behind each animal mask, probably to counteract 
shrinkage after casting. The underside of the bottom is plain. If chaplets 
are present, they are hidden by corrosion crusts. 

The surface is thinly encrusted inside and out with malachite, ataca- 
mite, and cuprite mixed with earth. Scattered small areas where the 
surface has been replaced by tin oxide are lustrous and metallic. The 
object was apparently long buried, and has not been cleaned since 
recovery. There is no evidence of paint or repairs. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 78.2% ; Sn 17. 1 ; Pb 3.2; Total 98.5. 



Kuo Mo-jo, Liang chou . . . , rubbing, ?'«-///, fig. 62, discussion, k'ao-shih p. 54. 

Jung, Shang chou . . . , No. 266; the inscription discussed by Loehr, Bronzetexte . . . , I, p. 315ff. 

Kuo Mo-jo, op. cit., t'u-lu 63; k'ao-shih, 55v; also Jung, op. cit., no. 271. 



382 



NUMBER SIXTY-EIGHT 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 
Fe 0.1; Co 0.02; Ni 0.03; As 0.2; Sb 0.09; Bi 0.07; Al < 0.001; 
Mg < 0.001; Si 0.02. 



383 



NUMBER SIXTY-NINE 



PLATE 69 



Kuei 

Early Chou dynasty (10th century B.C.) 
Inscription of seven characters inside the bottom 
Height, 14.6 cm. (5|in.) 
Width, 27.0 cm.(10| in.) 
Weight, 2.27 kg. (5 lbs.) 
Accession number 11.53 



The typical pattern of kuei decoration in this case consists of crested 
birds with their heads turned backwards. Two on each side combine to 
form the major t'ao-t'ieh decoration; two pairs are confronted across a 
monster mask in each side of the neck zone; and on each side of the base 
are two extremely elongated birds. The handles show a stylized and 
simplified form of the customary monster head on the top and depend- 
ent lug below. Under each handle is a vertically placed cicada. The 
vessel is largely covered with malachite and cuprite encrustations which 
have been polished over in the Chinese manner. There are several 
breaks in the base and one sizable repair. 



384 



PLATE 69 




NUMBER SIXTY-NINE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Several kuei of similar shape are cited in the discussion of the previous 
piece (No. 68); and all seem to suggest 10th century for this stage in the 
development of the form. The motif that occupies the main areas of the 
body, a confronting pair of birds, is treated at some length in connection 
with the yu Number 58, the kuei Number 70 and the tsun Number 74. 
Within the sequence formed by these three, the present kuei has most in 
common with Number 70, and is probably not far removed from it in 
date. The Ching kuei mentioned in connection with Number 68 is also 
closely similar. A yu with birds nearly identical in design, but lacking the 
lei-wen ground, the Keng-ying yu, is dated by Ch'en Meng-chia to the 
time of King Chao (966-948), although his reasons are stylistic rather 
than epigraphic.'-^^ 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast in one piece in a two-piece, four-division mold, and 
the mold joins are located along the line of the handles which are one 
with the vessel; they are channeled on the inside and filled with original 
clay core. The hook of one of the handle lugs is completely closed in the 
line of the mold marks with a web of metal, and the other is partially 
closed. On the side, directly under each handle, a cicada pattern is 
modeled in relief apparently from a negative cut in the handle core. 
Each cicada is enclosed by ridges formed apparently by mold joins at the 
edges of these cores. The underside of the bottom is plain. Four chaplets 
or spacers can be seen inside the bottom opposite the corners of the 
inscription cast in the bottom, and two more are located within the 
inscription area. In spite of corrosion crusts, other chaplets are descern- 
ible on the outside of the vessel, some in the midst of decor. The in- 
scription is apparently cast in the usual way. There are breaks in the area 
of the inscription and also in the lower sidewalk An irregular hole about 
5 cm. long in the upper sidewall has been repaired with an insert of new 
metal. The surface is mostly covered with warty malachite and cuprite. 

231 Ch'en Meng-chia, Hsi-chou . . . , Part III, pp. 91-93, and PI. 9. 



386 



NUMBER SIXTY-NINE 



Composition: Sample taken from handle lug. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 82.6% ; Sn 1 3.2 ; Pb 1 .5 ; Total 97.3. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 

Fe 0.2; Co 0.01; Ni 0.02; As 0.3; Sb 0.1; Bi 0.2; Zn <0.03; Mn 

< 0.001; Si 0.001. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription which comprises seven characters seems to be incised. It 
has not hitherto been published. In the calligraphy there is clear evidence 
that the inscription should be suspect, while the combination of Ch'eng- 
Kuo-Po-Ting in the first line raises several questions of doubt. The 
inscription may be translated as follows: 

1 . The Count of Ch'eng-Kuo, Ting, 

2. made (this) valuable kuei. 




387 



NUMBER SEVENTY 



PLATE 70 



Kuei 

Early Chou dynasty (10th century B.C.) 
Inscription of seven characters inside bottom 
Height, 14.0 cm. (5iin.) 
Width, 26.1 cm. (10 J in.) 
Weight, 2.35 kg. (5 lbs., 3 oz.) 
Accession number 15.102 



The main areas of design resemble those of the previous kuei in that 
they are made up of crested birds. The differences in this case occur 
around the bottom where the birds have entirely deteriorated into an 
elongated scroll pattern, and at the handles each of which is a single 
elaborately conceived crested bird. The brass colored surface has con- 
siderable malachite and cuprite encrustation, and one side of the foot 
rim is broken. An unusual feature is that the thin ragged lines often 
found under the bottoms of such vessels in a simple criss-cross or 
diamond pattern are here arranged to depict a coiled dragon. 

Formerly in the Bing Collection, this piece was bought by Mr. Freer 
from Lai-yuan and Company of New York who called it Chou. This 
attribution has not been changed; and Mr. Freer's note, written some 
years later, simply reads, "Very important. On loan at the Metropolitan 
Museum, March 1918." 



388 



PLATE 70 




NUMBER SEVENTY 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This broader, squatter form of the kuei, heavier in feehng, probably 
takes us further into the Chou dynasty and closer to typical Middle 
Chou kuei than the previous examples, which retain more of the 
strength and tension of the Shang form. The Ching kuei, mentioned in 
the discussion of Number 68, is quite similar in shape, and Kuo Mo-jo 
dates it to the time of King Mu.The handles are closely matched by those 
on the Lu kuei, which he assigns to the same reign ;232 the chief difference 
is that in ours, the spaces between the pendent feet of the birds on the 
handles and the foot of the vessel are filled with webs of bronze. A kuei 
formerly in the collection of C. T. Loo, Paris, offers another example of 
such handles on a piece that in other features as well is closely related to 
this one.233 

The pair of confronted birds with heads turned back forms the main 
motif of the body and has numerous parallels. Examples that appear to 
belong to the same stage of development have been dated to the 10th 
century by Watson234 and Ch'en Meng-chia;^^^ a tsun with birds of this 
type bears an inscription belonging to a group that Karlgren places in 
the time of King Mu.'^^ Comparison of this last vessel with our tsun 
Number 74 reveals that the confronted birds on the present kuei and all 
the related pieces are approaching a stage of dissolution in which all 
reference to the bird form will finally be lost, and only the broad mean- 
ingless bands of the Middle Chou style will remain. 

The similarity of our kuei with the above mentioned pieces, all linked 
in one way or another with the reign of King Mu (947-928), tends to 
suggest an attribution to the same period. 

The dragon in thin relief lines on the base appears on a number of 
other and, quite unexpectedly, on the K'ang-kung in Toledo. 

232 Kuo Mo-jo, Liang chou . . . , No. 83, illus., and p. 62, inscription. 

233 Elisseeff, Quelques hemes . . . , pp. 229-241, PI. LXVIIIa. 

234 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. 37b, also in Jung, Wu ying tien . . . , 48 and Shang chou . . . , 
No. 272. 

235 Ch'en Meng-chia, Hsi-chou . . . , Part III, pp. 91-93, and PI. 9. Another of squatter shape but with 
birds very like those on our kuei is illustrated by Yetts, Eumorfopoulos. . . , vol. I, No. A27, PI. XXI. 

236 Karlgren, Yin and Chou . . . , p. 35 and PI. XXI, B36. 

237 E.g. Karlgren, . . . Pillsbury . . . , PI. 51 ; Kelley and Ch'en, . . . Buckingham . . . , PI. XVII; Umehara, 
SKSU, II, 107 and 109; and Ch'en, Hsi-chou II.Pl. 7. 



390 



NUMBER SEVENTY 



TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel and handles are cast in one piece; and although there is 
slight evidence of section lines running vertically along the axis of the 
handles, it is possible it was not cast in a piece mold. The handles are 
clay cored, even down into the lobes; but unlike most examples of this 
type, they are cast full round, without channels. The underside of the 
bottom has four small brackets at the angle with the foot. The cicada 
motif under each handle is much like that on the previous kuei Number 
69. Chaplets occur on the inside of the bottom in and around the 
inscription, and there is faint evidence of them under the bulge of the 
vessel body. 

The surface is irregularly and unevenly corroded. Many areas have 
dull metallic lustre while others are encrusted with malachite and 
cuprite. Both top and bottom rims are especially heavily corroded. A 
portion of the foot has broken out and has been mended. 

Composition: Sample taken from angle of handle (on side to left of 
inscription)? 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 77.2% ; Sn 1 6.2 ; Pb 3.2 ; Total 96.6. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.07%; 

Fe 0.07 ; Co 0.002 ; Ni 0.02 ; As < 0.07 ; Sb 0.03 ; Bi 0.03 ; Al < 0.00 1 ; 

Mg < 0.001; Si 0.04. 




391 



NUMBER SEVENTY 



INSCRIPTION 

This cast-in inscription of seven characters reads : 

1. Shih Mei-hsiung made (for) 

2. Tsu-hsin (this) valuable /. 

Excepting perhaps the title-name combination, the context seems 
quite innocuous while the calligraphy is beautifully executed and typically 
early Western Chou. It is not surprising, therefore, to find rubbings of 
this inscription reproduced in several recent catalogues in the belief that 
it is genuine. 237a 



237a The inference that the vessel itself is doubtful is discussed in some detail by Barnard in connection 
with the study of this inscription in Volume III. (J. A. P.) 



392 



NUMBER SEVENTY 




NUMBER SEVENTY-ONE 



PLATE 71 



Chih 

Shang dynasty (middle-late An-yang, 12th-l 1th century B.C.) 
Inscription of one character inside both vessel and hd 
Height, 19.4 cm. (7| in.) 
Width, 8.9 cm. (SJin.) 
Weight, 0.79 kg. (1 lb., 12 oz.) 
Accession number 38.6 



The vessel is divided into four horizontal bands of decoration, and the 
lid forms a fifth. On the neck and belly are t'ao-t'ieh flanked by vertical 
dragons while horizontal dragons are confronted on the shoulder and 
foot. The flanges are plain. On the lid are two more t'ao-tieh, here 
flanked by small horizontal dragons, and the finial knob has five scroll 
whorls in intaglio. All the decoration is in low rehef on a smooth back- 
ground, and the whole vessel is covered with a glossy, silvery green 
patina with some areas of malachite encrustation. 



394 



PLATE 71 




NUMBER SEVENTY-ONE (38.6) 



NUMBER SEVENTY-ONE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The occurrence of chih of this type in Shang times is attested by two 
vessels found at Hou-chia-chuang which are different in decoration but 
closely similar in shape.^^s Essentially the decor is of the type described 
in connection with a number of our Shang vessels. Careful comparison 
between this piece and the kuei (No. 61), for example, reveals that the 
disconnected elements of the t'ao-tieh are identical in form, and the only 
difference is that the latter vessel is largely covered with lei-wen while the 
surface of the chih is quite smooth. Apparently this perfectly plain 
surface is accounted for by the omission of one stage in the process of 
preparing the mold from which the bronze was to be cast. The question 
is discussed further in Volume II (chap. 4, sec. 2). 

The elimination of lei-wen grounds is occasionally found in Shang 
times and becomes more common in early Chou. An example of the 
latter is Number 75. For reasons which remain to be explained kuei 
seem to have been cast in this style more frequently than other types.'^^ 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

No mold marks are discernible, but the vessel was probably cast in a 
two-piece mold. There is complete separation of the design elements 
vertically along the major axis, but there are no join lines of any kind. 
The underside of the bottom is plain. There are faint traces of chaplets 
under the bulge of the sides. The finial and stem appear to be cast as part 
of the lid, and a small depression in the under surface coincides with the 
stem juncture above. Around the inscription in the lid are vestiges of 
lines which indicate the inscription was originally impressed in the 
negative on a clay block which was inserted into the core. Thus the 
inscription appears to be surrounded by a slightly depressed area. 

Most of the surface is covered with gray-green tin-oxide patina; but 
there are scattered patches of malachite and cuprite. The inside of the 

238 Li Chi, The beginnings . . . , PI. VKI. 

239 Another Shang chih is illustrated by Jung, Shang-chou . . . , No. 571 ; a third is in the Metropolitan 
Museum, Lippe, A Gift . . . , p. 104 right; and a fourth in the Hakutsuru Museum, Umehara, SKSjJ, 
II, 119. Jung, op. cit., illustrates many early Chou kuei in this style: 201, 208, 209, 225, 247, 257, etc., 
etc. 



396 



NUMBER SEVENTY-ONE 



neck is covered with a thin uniform, dark layer of malachite, a portion of 
which has been chipped away to reveal the inscription. Probably much of 
the surface was originally covered with this malachite, but it has mostly 
been removed by an early cleaning. The malachite cleaves easily to 
reveal the green-stained, tin oxide layer beneath. Scattered earthy 
accretions are lodged in the fossae. 

In ultra-violet light about half the surface shows patches of pale 
yellowish fluorescence, which are areas of paint. Microscopic examina- 
tion of the bluish and bright green crusty patches show the presence of 
characteristic spherulitic particles of Paris green and of synthetic ultra- 
marine. This modern paint was applied, obviously, to conceal dull red 
patches of cuprite uncovered in the mechanical cleaning. Much of this 
paint was removed. There are no breaks or losses. 

Composition : Samples taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 78.8% ; Sn 1 5. 1 ; Pb 3.4 ; Total 97.3. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.07%; 

Fe 0.06; Co 0.005; Ni0.02; Bi<0.03; Cr 0.003; Mg 0.001; 

Mn < 0.001; Si 0.03. 

INSCRIPTION 

The single character inscription which appears in both the vessel and 
the lid has not yet been acceptably identified. In one other inscription it 
is employed as a place-name, here it functions as a clan name. 




Cover Vessel 



397 



NUMBER SEVENTY-TWO 



PLATE 72 



Chih 

Early Chou dynasty (10th century B.C.) 
Inscription of eight characters inside bottom 
Height, 12.0 cm. (4| in.) 
Width, 11.0 cm. (4| in.) 
Weight, 0.82 kg. (1 lb., 13 oz.) 
Accession number 19.6 



The squat vessel with flaring lip is decorated with two bands of crested 
birds in relief. Around the neck they are elongated to fit into a narrow 
band ; whereas, on the main body they assume more normal proportions. 
In both cases they have the heads turned back, and the crests meet in the 
center of each side. Dark green patination covers the whole vessel, and 
there are some areas of malachite encrustation and of earthy accretions. 



398 



PLATE 72 




NUMBER SEVENTY-TWO (19.6) 



NUMBER SEVENTY-TWO 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Chih of this shape, oblong in section and with a pronounced bulge near 
the base, appear to belong exclusively to the early Chou period. They 
are clearly related in form to yu vessels of the same age. A Shang 
predecessor may be seen in the Museum of Eastern Art, Oxford and 
one that is probably to be dated earlier in the Chou dynasty than ours is 
in the City Art Museum, St. Louis.^^i Both have lids surmounted by 
capped posts. The two other related pieces cited below, closer in style 
and presumably in date to this one also have hds, but surmounted by 
the flaring oval finial more common as lid handles on Chou dynasty yu. 
We may assume that this chih was originally provided with a hd of this 
latter type. 

The main motif on the body, the confronting pair of birds, has been 
discussed in connection with the kuei Numbers 69 and 70, and the 
reasons for dating this form of the motif to the tenth century are given 
there. A quite similar piece in the British Museum is assigned that date 
by Watson.242 Another similar chih published by Umehara features the 
addition of a handle on the side.243 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

No prominent mold marks are visible, but there is a vertical break in the 
design along the ends which indicates the vessel was cast directly in a 
two-piece mold. Two chaplets can be plainly seen, one under the body 
bulge, and the other inside the bottom; others are probably hidden by 
corrosion or may be fused with the metal. The underside of the bottom 
is plain. The surface inside and out is covered with dull-green and bluish 
copper corrosion products mixed with earthy residues. Scattered patches 
of powdery green indicate localized areas of dormant "bronze disease." 
Some corrosion crusts had to be removed from the inside bottom to 
make the inscription legible. There is no evidence of paint or repairs. 

240 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. 7a. 

Kidder, Early Chinese bronzes . . . , PI. XIX, pp. 72-3. There classified as a hu. 

242 Op. cit., PI. 38. 

243 SKSjJ, II, 121. Formerly Yokota Collection, Kyoto. 



400 



NUMBER SEVENTY-TWO 



Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 77.5% ; Sn 14.2 ; Pb 4.3 ; Total 96.0. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.09%; 

Fe 0.3; Co 0.01 ; Ni 0.03; As 0.1 ; Sb 0.09; Bi 0.05; Zn 0.03; Mg 

< 0.001; Si 0.005. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription appears to be cast-in and reads : 

1 . X made (for) Fu-kuei (this) 

2. valuable and honoured /. Use. 

The placement of yung "use" here, as though it were a clan sign, is 
unique; but it may, however, be intended to be equivalent to the phrase 
y wig-she fig, a form of sacrifice. 




401 



NUMBER SEVENTY-THREE 



PLATE 73 



Tsim 

Early Chou dynasty (late 1 Ith-early 10th century B.C.) 

Inscription of 27 characters inside bottom 

Height, 20.6 cm. (8 J in.) 

Width, 17.5 cm. (6| in.) 

Weight, 1.56 kg. (3 lbs., 7 oz.) 

Accession number 1 1 .40 



A graceful vessel of inverted bell shape with a flaring foot. The only 
decoration consists of a narrow band of crested dragons centered on 
monster masks on the main body and a narrow band of disintegrated 
monocular dragons around the foot. The smooth, olive-brown patina 
shows considerable areas of malachite and cuprite encrustation. 

According to the record this tswi came from the Chen Ta Whah Ling 
(sic) Collection of Weihsien and was sold through By Rai Sai (sic). Mr. 
Freer noted only that it was a "beautiful specimen from the famous 
Shantung collection." 



402 



PLATE 73 




NUMBER SEVENTY-THREE (11.40) 



NUMBER SEVENTY-THREE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Since the inscription on this tsun is identical with that on the j^w Number 
54 and the decor bands are virtually identical, there is no reason to 
doubt that it is contemporary with that safely datable vessel. It differs 
from slightly later tsun, such as the following piece (No. 74), in being 
taller and narrower. While no Shang example of this shape is known in 
bronze, a gray pottery goblet from An-yang is suggestively related in 
outline and we may suppose that our tsun, dating from the very 
beginning of Chou, retains more of a Shang dynasty shape than do the 
later examples. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast in one piece, apparently in a two-piece, four-division 
mold, with true joins mid-way between the high relief animal heads. 
None of the mold lines is very obvious. The bottom has no markings. 
In places along the edge of the foot rim, the join between outer molds 
and upper core is well preserved. Two chaplets are plainly visible inside 
the bottom just outside the area in which the inscription is cast. The 
patina of irregular patches of warty malachite and cuprite is un- 
distinguished; and there are scattered earthy residues. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 82.2% ; Sn 14.8 ; Total 97.0. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Pb 0.07%; 

Ag 0.1; Au <0.01; Fe 0.2; Co 0.001; Ni 0.02; As 0.2; Sb 0.05; 

Bi0.09;Mg < 0.001; Si 0.002. 

The absence of lead, except for spectrographic traces, is noted. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription as in Number 54 reads: 

1 . In the thirteenth month, (on the day) hsin-mao (28), 

2. The King was in Kan. (He) awarded Hsien the territory called 

244 Watson, Archaeology in China, PI. 51. 



404 



NUMBER SEVENTY-THREE 



3, . . . ; awarded him cowries - five strings. Hsien responded to the 
King's 

4. munificence, therefore made (for the lady) Chi (this) valuable /. 
Both inscribed vessels have been known since late last century and 

originally were in the collection of Ch'en Chieh-ch'i. 




405 



NUMBER SEVENTY-FOUR 



PLATE 74 



Tsim 

Early- Middle Chou dynasty (late lOth-early 9th century B.C.) 

Inscription of 14 characters inside bottom 

Height, 28.0 cm. (11 in.) 

Width, 25.0 cm. (9 J in.) 

Weight, 5.58 kg. (12 lbs., 5 oz.) 

Accession number 54.122 



In shape this vessel is a squatter version of the preceding, and now the 
whole surface is covered with decoration. Around the shoulder is a 
narrow band with pairs of elongated crested dragons centered on animal 
masks in high relief. Above this stands a row of rising blades decorated 
with very much disintegrated crested birds. The main decoration con- 
sists of two large bold t'ao-tieh again made up of disintegrated crested 
bird forms. The flaring base is plain. The surface is covered with an 
even, smooth, gray-green patina with only slight areas of encrustation. 



406 



PLATE 74 




NUMBER SEVENTY-FOUR (54.122) 



NUMBER SEVENTY-FOUR 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The striking motif on the body of the vessel seems to be a t'ao-fieh mask 
very loosely rendered in broad bands. On closer examination, however, 
it will be seen that although the designer clearly intended it as a fao- 
t'ieh, its real origin lies not in the standard Shang and Chou fao-t'ieh as 
we might suppose, but rather in the confronting birds we have just been 
discussing. On this tswi the motif has apparently undergone a twofold 
transformation : (a) dissolution into an unrecognizable pattern as seen in 
the rising blades on the neck; and (b) reinterpretation as a monster mask 
through rearrangement of the parts and the addition of eyes. 

Among related tsim, the closest is that in the Pillsbury Collection.'^^ 
There the birds are fanciful elaborations of the type seen on our yu 
Number 58 though still quite recognizable. Mizuno places the Pillsbury 
tsun in the 10th century which seems a reasonable date in view of its 
position in the series of vessels with this motif that we have just exam- 
ined. It seems later than the yu Number 58 as it represents an un- 
mistakable step away from naturalistic form and toward the band-decor 
style of Middle Chou. On the other hand the Pillsbury birds still have a 
more organic and less abstract character than do those on the kuei 
Number 70 and the chih Number 72 which face backward and are 
distorted into essentially rectilinear forms with rounded corners. 

Birds of the latter type are featured on the Hsiao tsun which Karlgren 
includes in a group of vessels datable by their inscriptions to the time of 
King Mu."^*^ While the main birds on the body of that vessel are still 
clearly recognizable as such, those in the rising blade patterns on the 
neck have lost their identity almost completely and have become mis- 
taken for dragons, and hardly recognizable dragons at that. On our tsun 
the process of dissolution and reconstitution has progressed even 
further. The forms on the neck are now totally abstract spiral bands with 
only the general shapes and the hooks along the bottom (as "feet") 
surviving from the original birds. The larger birds on the body have, as 

245 Karlgren, . . . Pillsbury . . . , Pis. 43 and 44. 

246 Karlgren, Yin and Chou . .., B36, PI. XXI and p. 35. 



408 



NUMBER SEVENTY-FOUR 



noted at the outset, metamorphosed into t'ao-t'ie/i; and the concave zone 
on the base, filled with elongated dragons on the other two pieces, is 
altogether plain here. 

During the same period a similar transformation occurs in another 
common motif, the long-tailed birds that occupy the upper zones of 
many early Chou vessels. As noted in our discussion of the ting Number 
33, these birds degenerate into simple S-curve bands which, if they have 
any function at all, now seem to be dragons rather than birds. Later, 
toward the end of Chou and in Han times, these same fanciful dragons 
can be seen to metamorphose into abstract arabesques and beyond into 
the beginnings of landscape where the same forms take on new signifi- 
cance as hills and trees. This persistence of a form through a shift in 
meaning, while not unknown in the arts of other countries, is a phe- 
nomenon that perhaps plays a greater part in the morphology of Chinese 
art than in that of any other culture. 

Other tsun of the same type are in the University Museum at Phila- 
delphia and in the Sumitomo Collection.^^^ 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast in one piece in a two-piece, four-division mold. The 
main mold divisions separate the two principal t'ao-t'ieh masks. The 
animal heads are cast as one with the vessel, but around their edges are 
fine fins of metal which suggest that the heads were formed by inset 
molds. The underside of the bottom is rounded and cast into its surface 
is the familiar mesh pattern often found on bronzes of this type, but the 
raised lines of the mesh are a little unusual because they look as if they 
were smoothed down. There are four irregularly placed brackets on the 
inside where the bottom and foot join. An especially interesting feature 
of this vessel are the chaplets that are symmetrically placed high around 
the vessel at the quadrants between the blade decor elements. There are 
four more in the plain band below the animal heads and two on opposite 
sides in the plain band above the foot. 

247 Umehara, SKSIE, I, 27; and Senoku, 32. 



409 



NUMBER SEVENTY-FOUR 



The inscription is probably cast: the strokes are deep and uniform, the 
edges are fairly straight, and vestiges of a block with the negative inscrip- 
tion set into the mold can be seen (see Vol. II, Ch. VI). 

The surface is covered quite uniformly with smooth, gray-green tin- 
oxide patina, and there are only traces of cuprite and crusty copper 
minerals. No black shows in the fossae, only scattered patches of clay. 
There are three long, shallow depressions on the inside of the rim which 
appear to be scars left by a sharp blow, perhaps from an excavators pick. 
A small notch of metal about 1 cm. long is broken out from the edge of 
the foot, but there are no signs of modern repairs or touch up. 

Composition : Sample taken from rim of foot. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 8 1 .3% ; Sn 1 5.8 ; Pb 1 .8 ; Total 98.9. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.09%; 
Fe 0.6; Co 0.01 ; Ni 0.03; As 0.2; Sb 0.3; Bi 0.08; Cr 0.002; Mg 
< 0.001 ;Mn < 0.001 ; Si 0.01 . 




410 



NUMBER SEVENTY-FOUR 



INSCRIPTION 

The inscription comprising 14 characters reads: 

1 . Po made (for) Ts'ai-chi (the Lady of Ts'ai) (this) sacral 

2. /. May for a myriad years 

3. generations of grandsons and sons forever value (it). 

The reversed sun-tzu phrase which should appear only in rhymed text 
raises serious doubts as to the authenticity of this inscription. The 
inscription shows, furthermore, several features characteristic of incised 
inscriptions. There seems little reason to doubt that it is a later addition. 



411 



NUMBER SEVENTY-FIVE 



PLATE 75 



Hu 

Early Chou dynasty (late 1 Ith-early 10th century B.C.) 
Inscription of six characters inside both vessel and cover 
Height, 24.5 cm. (9|in.) 
Width, 15.5 cm. (6 J in.) 
Weight, 1.67 kg. (3 lbs., 1 1 oz.) 
Accession number 59.14 



This covered vessel has been considered a yu by some writers, and the 
suggestion has also been made that it is a chih. In view of its size and 
shape, it is here classified as a hu until further evidence to the contrary 
may be forthcoming. Both vessel and cover are decorated in smooth, 
rounded relief largely consisting of t'ao-fieh masks and bird forms. On 
the cover is an oval finial which can serve as a foot when that member is 
inverted. The surface is covered with a pale, greenish-gray patina of even 
texture, and there are a few minor areas of encrustation. 



412 



PLATE 75 




NUMBER SEVENTY-FIVE (59.14) 



NUMBER SEVENTY-FIVE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The vessel has been published by Karlgren and also by Jung Keng,24 » and 
both classify it as a yu. It does, in fact, bear a marked resemblance to 
such yu as Jung's Numbers 657 and 658 which are members of the Ch'en- 
ch'en set and are, therefore, datable to the early decades of Chou (see 
No. 41). If it was originally a. yu it must have had handle attachments at 
the ends of the long axis. If, on the other hand, it is really a hu, it must 
once have had tubular lugs in somewhat similar positions, as they 
appear on the hu Number 5. As will be noted in the Technical Observa- 
tions below, there was something in those places at some earlier time; 
but what it was and why it was removed is not clear today. 

The finial on the lid, made in the form of a flaring ring somewhat 
elongated in section, is of a type commonly found on early Chou and 
Middle Chou vessels though it does not appear to have been used in 
Shang. Among several examples of the type in our collection is the 
cylindrical yu Number 53; and it may be worth noting that the birds on 
the two vessels are also closely similar; and the dragons, although differ- 
ent in form, are in both cases composed of the angular patterns of 
narrow bands with hooks projecting at intervals that we have elsewhere 
identified as typical of one early Chou style. Finally, the elimination of 
the lei-wen on a vessel with high relief decor is a phenomenon seen 
frequently on early Chou bronzes (see the chih. No. 71). A famous 
example is the monumental yu in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston,'-^^ 
usually dated the same period. The Boston t'ao-t'ieh has obvious 
affinities with this one, especially in the eyes and in the snout which 
features two round bosses with intaglio spirals for the nostrils. 

Every significant feature here has close parallels in bronzes of early 
Chou date; and we, therefore, assign it to that period. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 
It is not clear whether the vessel shows mold marks or not. Two faint 

248 Karlgren, New Studies . . . , PI. 1 7, No. 592 and Jung, Shang chou . . . , No. 672. The illustration in both 
cases is not readily recognizable as the vessel at that time had a dark and glossy surface. 

249 Mizuno, In shu . . . , PI. 88. 



414 



NUMBER SEVENTY-FIVE 



vertical markings on the sides of the band decorated with birds may 
possibly indicate some such thing. On the other hand it is impossible to 
say that these marks are not traces of handle attachments if indeed the 
vessel was a yu, as noted above, or the vestiges of tubular lugs if the 
vessel was a hu. Whatever was there, the traces that remain today have 
been carefully filed down to leave a fairly smooth and only slightly 
discolored surface. Two squarish holes are located at the bottom of the 
oval finial on the lid. On each side in the plain narrow band above the 
fao-t'leh are vestiges of four chaplets symmetrically located; and four 
more are lower down in the center of the horns of the t'ao-fieh masks. 
The bottom underside has an uneven criss-cross pattern of narrow 
ridges. There are vestiges of chaplets there as well. The bottom also has 
a small repair patch with the stump of a sprue. Unusual features of the 
casting are the large and small bosses which form eyes of the t'ao-t'ieh 
and of the small animal figures. These are nearly all undercut and look 
in profile a little like rivets, although there is no sign of a rivet on the 
inside. The metal is deeply corroded and is probably brittle. Several 
cracks extend downward from the rim. Much of the copper has leached 
out from the surface to leave a fairly thick and uniform layer of tin 
oxide, and there is some cuprite. In view of the way the vessel looked in 
the publications mentioned above, the surface has evidently been 
treated chemically to induce the pale gray-green tin-oxide patina that 
covers it today. This is the condition in which it was offered to the 
Gallery in 1959. The inside of the cover directly over the inscription bears 
a thin layer of bright green malachite, and the inside of the bottom has 
some azurite. The irregular black lumps on one side near the rim are 
made up mostly of cuprite. The characters of the inscription have flat 
smooth edges like those usually seen in Chou bronzes. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 83. 1 % ; Sn 1 5. 1 ; Pb 0. 1 ; Total 98.3. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 

Fe0.02; Co 0.01 ; Ni 0.04; Sb 0.01; Bi0.03; Cr 0.002; Mg < 0.001; 

SiO.Ol. 

415 



NUMBER SEVENTY-FIVE 



The alloy is fairly rich in tin but has little more than a trace of lead. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription text comprising six characters is cast-in, both in the 
vessel and in the lid. It reads: 

1. Po-chii made (this) 

2. valuable and honoured /. 

A yu similar in both shape and decoration is published in Hsi-ch'ing- 
ku-chien (ch. 16, 4a-b). The inscription text is the same, but the char- 
acters are differently placed; and there seems to be some difference in the 
size of the vessel. The first publication of rubbings of these inscriptions 
was in Hsiao-chiao (1935, 5.23a). 




416 



NUMBER SEVENTY-FIVE 





Upper: bottom view of vessel 
Lower: location of lug on side 

417 



NUMBER SEVENTY-SIX 



PLATE 76 



Hu 

Early-middle Chou dynasty (9th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 48.5 cm. (19 J in.) 

Width, 33.3 cm. (13J in.) 

Weight, 13.38 kg. (29 lbs., 8 oz.) 

Accession number 13.21 



A large rectangular vessel with rounded corners has two monster 
mask handles protruding high upon the sides. Wavy bands surround the 
neck without interruption, and the main body decoration on each side is 
a single huge t'ao-t'ieh made up of disintegrated dragon or bird forms 
executed in broad flat strokes on a ground pattern of lei-wen. Another 
wavy band surrounds the spreading foot, and the hollows in the waves 
are filled with unexplained decorative elements. The patina is smooth 
and dark green all over, but there are areas of encrustation and deep 
corrosion. 

Mr. Freer's comment reads, "Very fine specimen of Chou bronze - 
strong in design and casting. The Yamanakas bought this piece directly 
from the late Prince Kung during 1912, brought it to New York and sold 
it to me through an auction held at the American Art Association 
galleries, on February 28, 1913." 



418 



PLATE 76 




NUMBER SEVENTY-SIX (13.21) 



NUMBER SEVENTY-SIX 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Although not in itself a work of any great beauty or refinement, this 
vessel occupies a crucial position in the historical sequence of Chou 
dynasty bronze styles. The main motif on the body, which preserves a 
minimal reference to the fao-fieh or animal mask, is a further degenera- 
tion of the same motif as seen on the tsun Number 74, which, in turn, 
evolved through the dissolution of confronting birds. I n its present form, 
it is on the verge of a final break with the long tradition of zoomorphic 
decor; the broad bands lose almost all trace of representational function; 
and it is more than a century before they regain it as individual "animals" 
(cf., the discussion of the lei No. 86). The position of this liu within this 
sequence would alone suggest the date we have assigned to it. 

The "wave pattern" formed by the undulating bands in the upper 
zone, with chevron-like patterns resembling the "scale" markings on 
Shang bronzes in the intervening spaces, may be seen in different forms 
on vessels of the ninth century: a ting in the Yurinkan, Kyoto, dated by 
Mizuno to the reign of King Li (857-828); another with similar pattern 
placed slightly later by Watson ;2'^" and several of the vessels found at 
Fu-feng-ch'i-chia Ts'un in Shensi. The Fu-feng find, dated as a group to 
the ninth century, includes two vessels associated by their inscriptions 
with the reign of King Li.-^i A ting in the same group is decorated with 
a highly abstract t'ao-t'ieh design clearly related to that on our hu. 
Another t'ao-t'ieh of similar character, although differently composed, is 
seen on a ting formerly in the possession of C. T. Loo, which, if the 
inscription on it is reliable, can be dated to the late ninth century. 

A characterizing feature of all those vessels is that the spaces around 
the design elements are filled with a shallow, crude form of lei-wen, 
sometimes reduced to simple striations instead of spirals. In the slightly 
later Middle Chou bronzes, these remains of the lei-wen disappear 
altogether. 

250 Mizuno, In s/iu . . . , PI. 1 16. Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. 46a. 

251 Fu-feng-c/i'i-cfiia ts'iin cli''ing-t"iing-ch''i c/iiin, Pekin, 1963. The two lei {P\. I and U) are considered the 
earliest of the group, late 10th or early 9th century B.C. ; the two hu (PI. HI and IV) are the ones with 
datable inscriptions. 

252 Davidson, New light . . . , Fig. 1. The inscription is reproduced only in a crude copy. Davidson also 
reproduces the present hu and speaks of it as "closely allied to the Loo tripod." 



420 



NUMBER SEVENTY-SIX 



Two similar vessels have lids, and we must assume that ours was so 
equipped when it was new. One is in the Hakutsuru Museum,"^^ the 
other formerly in the Manchu Imperial Household Collection.254 The 
latter is inscribed, but lacks any evidence for dating. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The mold joins indicate that this large vessel was cast directly in a two- 
piece, four-division mold with the true joins running vertically through 
the handles. The open-core handles are precast and are secured in 
position over bosses which project from the vessel side in much the same 
way that the animal heads on yu. Number 50, and tsun. Number 16. The 
handles are further fastened by an irregular ribbon of hard solder which 
rims the joins. The rim of the vessel has a considerable overhang on the 
inside. At the juncture of the foot with the body and in line with the true 
joins, are two openings which probably mark the location of core 
extension spacers. A thin web of metal covers about half of the area 
occupied by one of the spacers. The underside of the bottom has a criss- 
cross pattern of irregularly spaced, raised lines; one of these continues 
right up to the metal web mentioned above, which partially covers a 
spacer opening. It is actually outside the boundary of the core of the foot 
which indicates that the spacer was an integral part of the core and 
furthermore that the criss-cross pattern was formed by scorings in the 
core surface. No chaplets have been observed, but corrosion crusts may 
hide them. There are a number of imperfections and blow holes in the 
casting and also several imperfections in the decor. In one side a sizable 
area of lei-wen decor is lacking. 

Further study of the vessel has shown that the broad ears of the 
animal heads surmounting the handles are false or recently repaired. 
Probing at the base of each ear has disclosed the presence of a soft-solder 
join, and X-rays tell further that two pins (apparently metal) set in a 
lump of soft solder assisted in making the mends. Likewise the snout of 
one of the heads is joined with the aid of two horizontally placed pins. 

253 Umehara, SKSjJ, IV, 294. 

254 Jung, Wu ying tien . . ., 99; also Shang choii . . . , No. 730. 



421 



NUMBER SEVENTY-SIX 

X-ray spectrographic analysis of a specimen of metal from one ear 
shows that it is chiefly a copper-zinc alloy with a little iron and only 
traces of tin and lead. The metal of the ear is thickly covered with a hard, 
dark-brown artificial product on which sunken decor to match the all- 
over design is modeled. This product which may be a sort of plastic 
made with lacquer is also used to build up the snouts of the animals. 

The metal of the vessel in general is heavily corroded and patches of 
powdery green suggest that basic copper chloride salt (bronze disease) 
is present. Scattered earthy residues indicate the bronze was buried. 

Composition: Sample taken from rim. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 80.8%; Sn 10.8; Pb 3.9; Total 95.5. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry : sample taken 

from edge of foot: Ag 0.2%; Fe 1.0; Co 0.01; Ni 0.02; As 0.05; 

Sb 0.03; Bi 0.03; Zn 0.03; Al 0.002; Mg<0.001; Mn<0.001; 

Si 0.02. 



422 



NUMBER SEVENTY-SIX 




NUMBER SEVENTY-SEVEN 



PLATE 77 



Kuei 

Middle Chou dynasty (9th century B.C.) 

Inscription of 35 characters inside both bottom and Hd 

Height, 25.0 cm. (9J in.) 

Width, 37.2 cm.(14f in.) 

Weight, 6.86 kg. (15 lbs., 2 oz.) 

Accession number 60.19 



This and the following five kuei represent a group that is generally 
recognized as middle Chou in form and decoration, a group that marks 
the penultimate stage in the evolution of the kuei as a vessel type among 
Chinese ceremonial bronzes. Typically the body is squat in shape and 
raised slightly off the ground on three short legs topped by tiger masks. 
On top of the lid is a broad flaring circular finial which can serve as a foot 
when the cover is removed and inverted. As in earlier times, the handles 
spring from monster masks; but these now display great imaginative 
variety and are often far removed from the traditional "bird in the 
animal's mouth" of earlier times. Characteristic decoration consists of 
broad horizontal fluting, mostly around the lower part of the body and 
the upper lid, though sometimes it covers the whole vessel. In most cases, 
however, the rim of the lid and body, and the flaring base, are bordered 
with one version or another of the scale band, the vertical scales or the 
broad figured band of Karlgren's repertory.^^^ Chronologically the type 
seems to range from the ninth century down to the seventh; and some 
of the details to be noticed are described in connection with the vessels 
that follow. The final phase of the evolution of the kuei is not repre- 
sented in this collection; but several examples of the types from the fifth 
century have been published.^^e 

255 Karlgren, Yin and Chou . . . , pp. 118-119. 

256 E.g. Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. 57a. 



424 



PLATE 77 




NUMBER SEVENTY-SEVEN 



The decoration of the present kuei features broad bands of monocular 
zoomorphs around the top of the body and the rim of the hd; styHzed 
scrolls of the "broad figured band" group surround the flaring base. 
Inside the circular finial on top is a monocular beast arranged in a tight 
reversed-S shape to fit the available field {fig. 44). The monster heads on 
the handles have spiral horns, and the lip and snout turn up in an 
elaborate curl. 




Figure 44 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

A number of recently excavated bronzes help to shed some light on the 
problem of chronology, and all the evidence seems to suggest the ninth 
century as the period when this style flourished. Perhaps the most 
important document is a vessel of this same type, the Mi-shu kuei, 
excavated in 1959 with 15 other pieces at Ssu-po-ts'un, near Lan-t'ien in 
Shensi Province.^" On the basis of the inscriptions, most authorities 
assign this group to late Western Chou.^^s Judging from the rather poor 
published photographs, the piece is very hke ours in both shape and 

257 Wen-wu 1960, No. 2, p. 7, lower right. 

258 Higuchi, Newly discovered Western Chou bronzes, pp. 40-43. Cheng, Archaeology in China, III, p. 228, 
dates them all in 811 B.C. without giving any explanation. 



426 



NUMBER SEVENTY-SEVEN 



decoration. Another closely related example is the Chi-po kuei\ and, 
according to Kuo Mo-jo, the maker of the bronze was enfeoffed during 
the reign of King Li.'-^^ Further parallels are found among the several 
kuei excavated at Fu-feng-ch'i-chia Ts'un in Shensi Province, in a group 
also dated to the ninth century by inscriptions on some of the pieces.^^c 
Although not an excavated piece, one more kuei may be mentioned as 
closely related; this is the Sung kuei, now in the Nelson Gallery at 
Kansas City, also part of a group generally accepted as ninth century.^*^! 

The monocular zoomorphs in the band surrounding the lid and the 
body, though usually called ''dragons," or mistaken for the remains of 
dissolved t'ao-t'ie/u'"^' are probably derived from the bird forms com- 
monly found in earlier times.-*^-^ The intermediate stages in this develop- 
ment, from recognizable bird to abstract S-shape, can easily be traced 
on Western Chou vessels. A good example of the intermediate stage is 
on the Chung kuei where the crests and tails of the birds are still evident 
while in other respects the forms are only a short step removed from 
those on our vessel.264 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Both vessel and lid seem to have been cast directly in a two-piece, four- 
division mold. The true joins are in line with the handles. One pre- 
assembly join is to the right of the leg centered between the handles and 
the other is opposite which seems to be normal in this type of vessel. The 
handles, which are cast as one with the vessel, have open channels which 
are still filled with original clay core. Mold marks show plainly on the 
inside edges of the handle lobes. Under the handles the horizontal fluting 
is off register indicating that the core extensions from the handles were 
not properly placed. There are vestiges of chaplets under the body bulge 
and in the irregular fluting under one handle, but none are visible on the 

259 iven-wu, 1962, No. 10, p. 58. 

260 Fu-feng . . . , PI. X, XI, XVI-XIX. 

261 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. 48b, and pp. 54-5. 

262 E.g. by Higuchi, op. cit., p. 43. 

263 Watson, op. cit., p. 53. 

264 Ch'en, Hsi-choii . . . , Pt. II, PI. 1 bottom; rubbing of design on p. 100. 



427 



NUMBER SEVENTY-SEVEN 



inside. The underside of the bottom bears ridges, not in the usual square 
mesh or criss-cross pattern, but as concentric right angles in each 
quadrant. 

The three legs are of special interest because they evidently served as 
sprues or pouring gates in the casting operation. The evidence is in the 
shallow depression on the underside of the leg which shows the metal 
apparently was poured (mold upside down) to the exact level of the 
present bottom of the legs and the depressions were formed when the 
metal shrank on cooling. The backs of the legs extend to form V-shaped 
buttresses along the inside walls of the foot. 

The lid is bisected by mold-join traces. There is faint evidence of 
chaplets around the fluting. The flaring lip of the finial has a marked 
over-hang of about 1 cm. on its inner edge. 

An inscription of 36 characters is present in both the vessel and the 
lid. In view of Barnard's doubts about the authenticity of the inscription 
the characters were examined with special care with all the facilities of 
the laboratory. There is no evidence of any kind that they were incised 
into the cold bronze. A noteworthy feature is the extent of undercutting 
both in some of the inscription characters and in some of the decoration, 
and the wavy edges of some of the strokes; this suggests etching, and the 
dendritic structure of the bottoms of the character grooves and inter- 
sections of the grooves with chaplets tends to confirm this suggestion. 
Therefore, the inscription may be later than the bronze, even though the 
characters have a cast appearance on first inspection. 

The smooth, gray-green tin-oxide patina of the surface enhances the 
bronze greatly. There are hardly any crusty green and blue copper 
mineral products. Very conspicuous, however, is the large red patch of 
cuprite that mostly covers the animal head on one handle and a lesser 
patch on the vessel side. This cuprite does not seem to have been 
exposed by mechanical cleaning but might have been uncovered with 
acid cleaning. In places the intaglio is filled with earthy deposits, some of 
it blackened by carbonaceous residues. The condition of the piece is 
excellent. There are no breaks or losses, and no evidence of repairs or 
paint touch-up. 



428 



NUMBER SEVENTY-SEVEN 



Composition : Sample taken from foot rim. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 8 1 .2% ; Sn 14.0 ; Pb 1 .4 ; Total 96.6. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.07%; 

Au <0.01; Fe 0.2; Co 0.03; Ni 0.02; As<0.1; Sb 0.01; Bi 0.2; 

Cr < 0.001; Al 0.002; Mg < 0.001; Mn < 0.001; Si 0.04. 

INSCRIPTION 

An inscription text comprising 36 characters incorporated in both vessel 
and lid. The inscription is spurious. The following translation is offered: 

1. (i), Shan-fu-liang-ch'i, made (for) my august 

2. deceased father, Hui-chung, and august deceased mother, Hui-i, 
(this) 

3. honoured kuei to be employed in offerings commemorative of filial 
piety, 

4. to be employed in prayers for a vigorous old age - an old age with- 
out limit. A hundred births (!) and 

5. a thousand grandsons - sons and grandsons - forever value and 
employ (it) in sacrifice. 




Cover Vessel 



429 



NUMBER SEVENTY-EIGHT 



PLATE 78 



Kuei 
Recent 

Inscription of 84 characters in both vessel and cover 
Height, 25.0 cm. (9| in.) 
Width, 35.5 cm. (14 in.) 
Weight, 6.12 kg. (13 lbs., 8 oz.) 
Accession number 09.259 



As the above dimensions show, this kuei is very much like the preced- 
ing in size and shape. The main diflference is in the decoration for here 
all three zones are covered with the "scale band"; and it may be worthy 
of note that from the top down, the three bands have the scales set in 
alternating directions. The monster heads on the handles are like the 
preceding with the addition of a curious T-shaped protruberance stand- 
ing in the middle of the forehead where the horns join. The sides of the 
handles are also covered with scales. The flat circular area inside the 
finial is plain. 



430 



PLATE 78 




NUMBER SEVENTY-EIGHT 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The maker of our A i/^Z evidently copied one like the Han-huang-fu kuei 
now in the Tenri Museum at Nara.^^s The only noticeable difference is in 
the scale band on the lid which runs in the same direction as its neighbor 
on the rim of the vessel instead of matching the direction of the band on 
the foot as does ours. The Tenri kuei carries an inscription which states, 
inter alia, that the vessel was part of the dowry of the daughter of a 
certain Huang-fu when she married one of the Chou rulers, probably 
King Li. Mizuno accordingly dates the vessel to that reign (857-828). 
The three Shih-yu kuei, dated by Kuo Mo-jo to the reign of King I (907- 
898) some four decades earlier,^^^ are also very similar to ours; and 
another closely related example is in the Sumitomo Collection.^^^ 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel appears to be cast in one piece in a four-piece, six-division 
mold. The joins are indicated by breaks in the design about 7 cm. right 
and left of each handle. In addition, there appear to be pre-assembly 
joins vertically along the major axis in hne with the handles. These are 
cast as one with the vessel and are channeled inside and filled with 
original clay core except at top of one handle where the core is partly dug 
out and now reveals the inside of the handle-vessel contact. There are no 
vertical mold marks on either side of the handle joins; but there are webs 
of metal under the handles at the points where they join the body; and 
these seem to indicate the location of mold joins. Each dragon head on 
the handles has a T-shaped protruberance between the eyes which is cast 
full round with no sign of mold joins. The vertical ridges above each leg 
on the inside of the foot may be mold marks. The bottom of each leg is 
quite flat and without ridges, and there are no criss-cross lines or brackets 
under the vessel. The foot rim is flat, about 6 mm. wide, slopes inward 
and overhangs about 2 mm. on its inner edge. The lid is quite plain, and 
there are no holes at the base of the finial. There is no evidence of chap- 
lets on either vessel or lid. 

265 Mizuno, /// shu . . . , PI. 118; reproduction and discussion of the inscription, pp. 26-27. 

266 Kuo Mo-jo, Liang chou . . . , t'u-lu, 93-95, k'ao-shih, p. 88b. 

267 Sumitomo, Sen-oku . . . , No. 104. 



432 



NUMBER SEVENTY-EIGHT 



The simple sunken decor is poorly executed; the lines have ragged 
edges, and the shallow grooves are uneven in depth. The inscriptions on 
both vessel and the lid are cast, but the quality is poor. 

The surface of the vessel is thinly and fairly uniformly covered with 
smooth malachite, dull green in tone. There are no breaks or repairs. 

Composition : Sample taken from underside of one leg. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 7 1 .9% ; Sn 7.9 ; Pb 1 7.3 ; Total 97. 1 . 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 
Fe 0.0 1 ; Co 0.005 ; Ni 0.02 ; As 0.07 ; Sb 0.07 ; Bi 0.2 ; Mg < 0.00 1 . 

INSCRIPTION 




Vessel Cover 



The inscriptions in both the lid and the vessel are very poor and in- 
accurate reproductions of a series of earlier published prototypes - all 
with the reversed sun-tzu phrase, incorrect character usage, highly 
questionable calligraphy and several instances of inconstancy of 
character structures. Our inscriptions with line-drawings of the vessel 
and lid have been published in Liang-lei (1872, 6.19a). Both Kuo Mo-jo 
and Jung Keng have declared the set to be spurious. A literal rendering 
of the inscription will illustrate the faulty composition : 



433 



NUMBER SEVENTY-EIGHT 



1. In the 12th month, the third quarter of the month, the day being 
Jeri-wu, Po-hsin- 

2. fu bestowed grace upon Hsien-kai, and stated Tsa! Your assist- 
ance. Hsien-po 

3. House. Award you a wife (?), a chiieh, Use. King. 

4. Yellow. . . . Hsien-kai hastened to extol Po-hsin-fu's grace and said : 

5. Grace Po Hsien Po House. Award. Lord. I. 

6. (particle). Award. Longevity. I am unable not to, with Hsien-po, 

7. a myriad years protect. Hence presume to record (?) in (this) / 
stating: 

8. May from today grandsons and sons. Do not dare to forget Po's 
grace. 



434 



NUMBER SEVENTY-EIGHT 




NUMBER SEVENTY-NINE 



PLATE 79 



Kuei 
Recent 

Inscription of 1 6 characters inside both vessel and cover 
Height, 22.2 cm. (8f in.) 
Width, 33.5 cm. (131 in.) 
Weight, 5.13 kg. (11 lbs., 5 oz.) 
Accession number 11.49 



This kuei is somewhat smaller than the two preceding; and again the 
decoration varies. The bands of monoculi on the lid and body resemble 
those on Number 77, but here they are interrupted in the center by 
highly stylized monster masks somewhat resembling escutcheons. 
Around the base is a band of vertical scales. The monster heads on the 
handles are much more elaborately conceived with horns that look hke 
bushy eyebrows, ears, and, behind these, two completely non-functional, 
fan-shaped members rising parallel above and behind the head. Between 
these a single low horn-like protruberance lies along the top of the neck. 
The character of the circular finial too is quite different. Instead of 
having a slightly inward-sloping flat surface on top with an overhang on 
the inner edge, it is quite smooth and like a flaring funnel on the inside 
while the overhang on the outer edge is hollow underneath thus com- 
pletely reversing the usual form. The dark-brown, metallic patina has 
many areas of malachite and cuprite encrustation. 

The piece was called Chou by Riu Cheng Chai of Peking who sold it, 
and Mr. Freer pronounced it a "Genuine Chou specimen." 



436 



PLATE 79 




NUMBER SEVENTY-NINE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The copyist who made this late imitation of a Middle Chou bronze must 
have had in mind a model like the Shih-chia kuei, the Chi-po kuei, the 
Sung kiiei, and others mentioned in connection with the two preceding 
vessels. The really striking difference is in the treatment of the circular 
finial on top which is constructed in an entirely different way. Among 
published kuei only one seems to have a finial of the same proportions, 
and in that case we are informed that the whole lid is a replacement 
carved of wood.'-^^ 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The two members, vessel and cover, are each cast in a single piece, but 
there are no visible mold marks, even around the handle where they are 
usually found on early vessels of this type. The handles, moreover, are 
not channeled and open on the inside as in the early kuei types. A 
drilling made into the under side of one handle shows it is not solid but 
tubular with walls about 2 mm. thick and that the interior is filled with a 
blackish substance which under the microscope seems to be a mixture of 
fine clay and carbon black. The underside of the bottom bears a criss- 
cross pattern in relief, but the diamond meshes are uniform in size and 
shape, not irregular and casual as in the early pieces. The vessel is 
unique among the kuei of this type because the legs do not extend down 
the inner side of the foot. There are no brackets. There are also no 
holes in the side of the foot or in the side of the finial on the cover. No 
sign of chaplets can be seen inside or out. All the evidence suggests that 
the vessel is a late imitation and that it was not cast by the traditional 
piece-mold method. 

An inscription of 16 characters is cast in both the bottom of the vessel 
and the lid ; but because of some technical failure, the impression is very 
uneven and several of the characters are just barely legible. Another 
notable feature is that the inscription text in the lid is exactly reversed, 
a mirror image of that in the vessel. In the lid especially some of the 
characters are shallow, uneven in depth, and incomplete. 

268. Karlgren, Yin and Chou . . • , C80 on PI. XXXVIII. 



438 



NUMBER SEVENTY-NINE 



The surface of the vessel is smooth but irregularly mottled with 
cuprite and malachite and occasional patches of redeposited copper, and 
it has the appearance of having been ground and polished. The inside 
surface of the vessel, however, bears much warty and crusty malachite. 
There are no earthy residues; and the bronze bears no evidence of 
having ever been buried in the earth. 

Composition : Sample taken from underside of one leg. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 68.4% ; Sn 5.9 ; Pb 22.0 ; Zn 1 .5 ; Total 97.8. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 

Fe 0.09 ; Co 0.003 ; Ni 0.2 ; As 0.3 ; Sb 0.5 ; Bi 0.03. 

The high lead content and the presence of zinc in the alloy are note- 
worthy. 

INSCRIPTION 

This inscription which is cast-in with rather poor register has been a great 
favorite with forgers. It was first published in the Sung period and since 
then more than a score of copies are recorded. It reads : 

1. Lu-p'ang Ching-chii- 

2. fu made (for) Chung-chiang 

3. (this) kuei. Sons and grandsons forever 

4. value and use (it in the) sacrifices and in fihal reverence. 




Vessel 



Cover 



439 



NUMBER EIGHTY 



PLATE 80 



Kuei 
Recent 

Inscription of 12 characters inside base 
Height, 17.9 cm. (7 in.) 
Width, 36.2cm.(14i in.) 
Weight, 5.73 kg. (12 lbs., 10 oz.) 
Accession number 11.54 



Lacking its cover, this vessel is essentially like the last three but an 
even poorer imitation of the real thing. The convex "fluting" of the body 
is perhaps the most striking feature. On the surface is a coating of glossy 
cuprite encrustation which has evidently been polished. Mr. Freer got 
the piece from Lee Van Ching and considered it Chou. 



440 



PLATE 80 




NUMBER EIGHTY 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Only minor details of shape and decoration distinguish this piece from 
those mentioned above. The general form is somewhat squatter, the 
handles are simpler, and the casting is less sharp. The decoration of the 
shoulder is a less common variant of the "broad figured band"; here 
each unit or "animal" consists of a pair of horizontal C-shapes reversed 
and interlocked with a single eye enclosed by the locking "tails" of each 
pair. Although rare, it may be observed in a few published examples.'^^ 

The most striking feature to be noted is the treatment of the horizontal 
"fluting" that surrounds the body. In every case we have seen, and in 
almost all published examples, this is true "fluting"; that is, concave in 
profile. Here the reverse is true, and this is one of those rare examples 
where the horizontal bands are convex in section. A cursory check of a 
few of the major Chinese catalogues {Po-ku-t'u-lii, K'ao-ku-tu, Hsi- 
ch'ing-ku-chien-i-pieiu Ni/ig-shou-chien-ku, Shan-chai-chi-chin-lu) reveals 
something over 100 kuei with this decoration, and only five with convex 
bands. In some cases the drawing is so poor that the artist's intention is 
not clear. Among the published examples of this rare type is the vessel 
which must have served as a model for the maker of our kuei. The wood- 
block illustration in the Shih-liu-ch''ang-Io-t'ang-ku-ch'i-k'uan-shih-k'ao 
the catalogue of the collection of Ch'ien Tien published in 1796,"'^ 
shows the vessel with a lid. As noted below by Barnard, the inscription 
text is the same. Either our bronze was made in imitation of that in Mr. 
Ch'ien's catalogue sometime after the book was published, or Mr. Ch'ien 
himself was the victim of a forger of his own time and owned this very 
kuei. In either case the lid has been lost in the intervening years. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel, including handles, is cast in a single piece. Vertical join traces 
in the quadrants indicate a two-piece, four-division mold with the true 
joins showing plainly on either side of the joins of the handles and on the 
lower edge of the handle lobes. The handles, which are channeled on the 

269 Karlgren, and Chou Yin C143, PI. XLIX. 

270 Ch. 2.6. 



442 



NUMBER EIGHTY 



inside and filled with original clay core, also bear a center join line; but 
there are no division fines across the horns and forehead of the animal 
head. The three short legs extend upward on the inside of the foot in the 
form of a V-shaped buttress, and each shows vertical mold marks along 
the edge and across the bottom. No criss-cross lines show on the bottom 
nor were chaplets observed; if present, they are hidden by corrosion. 
Most characters of the inscription are well cast, clean and deep. Two of 
them are partially obscured by green corrosion crusts. 

The reddish tone of the surface is caused by much cuprite, and there 
are scattered knobby patches of malachite. There are no breaks, losses 
or evidences of repair. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of base (foot). 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 85.6% ; Sn 1 1 .0 ; Pb 0.2 ; Total 96.8. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry; Ag 0.09%; 
Fe 0.3 ; Co 0.01 ; Ni 0.02 ; Bi 0.2 ; Zn 0.03 ; Mg < 0.001 ; Si 0.02. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription reads : 

1 . Hsi-chung made (this) valuable 

2. kuei. May for a myriad years 

3. sons and grandsons forever value and use (it). 

This text is incorporated in eight different vessels or vessel+lid sets; 
all are probably spurious. Even Juan Yuan had doubts in regard to the 
earliest in the series, the lid inscription in particular {Chi-ku-chai 6.5b). 




443 



NUMBER EIGHTY-ONE 



PLATE 81 



Kuei 

Middle Chou dynasty (7th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 27.2cm.(10i in.) 

Width, 40.4 cm. (15 1 in.) 

Weight, 6.63 kg. (14 lbs., 10 oz.) 

Accession number 24.11 



This again is a standard Middle Chou kuei in both shape and decora- 
tion. The quality is indifferent, and the whole thing is so heavily covered 
with encrustation and earthy accretions that the surface is hardly visible. 
One of the three legs has been broken off. Carl Whiting Bishop acquired 
the piece while he was engaged in field work in China in 1924. On his 
return it was placed in the study collection; and Mr. Wenley added it to 
the Freer collection in the 1950's giving it a 1924 accession number 
retroactively. 



444 



PLATE 81 




NUMBER EIGHTY-ONE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Among the closest parallels to this kuei are some of those excavated at 
Hsin-cheng Hsien, Honan.^i Unfortunately that find provided no 
reliable clues to dating; and the range seems to extend from the eighth 
century down to the sixth or even the fifth century. The kuei are evi- 
dently from the earlier part of this long span, perhaps some time in the 
eighth or seventh century. Especially noteworthy is the treatment of the 
monster masks that top the handles; unlike any of the previous examples 
these have three rather heavy flange-like members sloping upward and 
back from the forehead in lieu of horns. The sides of these are decorated 
with conventional spirals in the broad Middle Chou manner. Inside the 
bottom of the circular finial is a coiled serpent surrounded by a scale 
band. Most of the decor is badly obscured by heavy corrosion, but where 
it is visible it seems closely related to that on the above mentioned Hsin- 
cheng pieces and also to that on the seventh century vessels from Shang- 
ts'un-ling.-^- Jt consists of longitudinally divided bands bent to form 
"animals," each with an eye in its center. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel was made by direct casting in a piece mold, but it is not clear 
if the usual formula, two-piece, four-division mold assembly, is applic- 
able. In spite of corrosion, four join traces are discernible on the lower 
part of the vessel; but none of the joins coincide with the zoomorphic 
legs which are cast with the vessel and which continue on as thickenings 
on the inside of the foot rim wall. The reason may be that, as on most 
vessels of this type, the handles are not cast in but are fixed to the vessel 
with hard solder; hence, they could have been located in any position. 
This hard solder forms a ribbon or shoulder of metal around each join 
and shows a distinct seam on either side. Because the condition of the 
vessel makes it unsuitable for exhibition, the nature of the solder join 
was carefully explored. Where the lower part of one of the handles was 

271 Sun Hai-p'o, Hsin-cheng-i-ch'i, Pis. 69-78 show a number of kuei, of closely related types, and rub- 
bings of some of the details including the monster heads and the coiled serpent which is identical with 
ours. 

272 Shang-fs'm-ling . . . , e.g. Pis. XXIV, 3; XXXIX, 1-2; LI, 3; LVI, 3; LXI, 3; etc. 



446 



NUMBER EIGHTY-ONE 



separated from the body a transverse cut was made with a saw to pro- 
duce a wedge-shaped section which could be Hfted out and examined. 
This revealed that the handle is hollow with walls about 2 mm. thick and 
that the interior is still filled with original clay core. It also showed that 
the hard solder has run on to the inside of the handle where it makes 
contact with the core. The hard solder is a distinct alloy; when polished, 
it can be seen with the naked eye that it is quite heterogeneous in struc- 
ture. Analysis shows Cu 60.4%; Sn 22.9; Pb 9.4; Total 92.7. It seems to 
contain much cuprite. The high tin content gives the solder a melting 
point considerably lower than the handle and vessel alloys which have 
higher copper content. At this point there is a distinct line between the 
handle metal and the hard solder and no sign of melting or fusion; and 
this may account for the separation here. Higher up, however, the 
handle seems to be firmly joined. (See Vol. II, Chs. IV and V.) 

The underside of the bottom is plain and without criss-cross marks. 
There is no evidence of chaplets, but they may be concealed under the 
crusts. There appears to be a mold join between the lower core and outer 
molds in the form of a slight shelf around the inside edge of the vessel lip. 

The vessel is heavily encrusted inside and out with green corrosion 
crusts bearing some atacamite and entangled with dull yellowish earthy 
residues. The interior surface also has crystalline deposits of azurite and 
cerussite. The corrosion crusts cleave easily to reveal the decor design in 
sharp detail beneath. One of the short legs is missing, apparently broken 
off from deep corrosion and lost. 

Composition : Sample taken from rim. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 65.8% ; Sn 7.2 ; Pb 22.8 ; Total 95.8. 

Sample taken from one handle: Cu 76.4%; Sn 8.0; Pb 12.4; Total 
96.8. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 
Fe 0.09; Co 0.01 ; Ni0.03; As 0.2; Sb 0.1; Mg 0.001; Mn < 0.001; 
SiO.l. 



447 



NUMBER EIGHTY-TWO 



PLATE 82 



Fan 

Middle Chou dynasty (7th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 15.0 cm. (5| in.) 

Width, 42.3 cm. (16| in.) 

Weight, 5.19 kg. (11 lbs., 7 oz.) 

Accession number 11.35 



The broad shallow basin has two loop handles attached to the side and 
turning upwards to rise above the rim. Underneath the lip outside is a 
crudely cast broad figured band. Around the flaring foot is a band of 
vertical scales; but these are almost invisible as the vessel is heavily en- 
crusted all over with malachite, azurite, and earthy accretions. 

The piece was purchased, according to the record, "from Pong, 
China." Mr. Freer's comment was, "Very fine in form, color, and con- 
dition. Genuine Shang specimen according to Mr. Pong." 



448 



PLATE 82 




NUMBER EIGHTY-TWO 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

An earlier version of this shape is the Shou-kung p'an, which both 
Kuo Mo-jo and Ch'en Meng-chia date to the latter part of the 10th 
century ji^g footring in that case, however, is straight like the feet of 
typical Shang and early Chou /7'fl/z;"4 the pronounced outward curve in 
the outline of the foot appears only in Middle Chou and later examples. 
The shape of ours is paralleled closely in three p'an from Shang-ts'un- 
lijjg 276 one of which, however, has short block-like projections down- 
ward from the footring, functioning as feet. A similar vessel with practi- 
cally the same two bands of decor but with more elaborate feet, is in the 
Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. 2" In connection with other vessels of 
the group, we have already discussed the reasons for assigning pieces 
with this kind of decor to the seventh century, and the parallels in shape 
among the Shang-ts'un-ling finds bear out this dating. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel was cast in one piece, and vestiges of mold marks pass 
vertically across rim and foot about 10 cm. to the left of each handle. The 
handles, which are solid, are engaged not only to the sides of the bowl 
but also to the rim by two short bars or links. The casting, especially 
around the handles, is quite crude and has left some rough flash pro- 
truding from the mold joins. Analysis of a sample of the handle metal 
shows: Cu 69.0%; Sn 7.8; Pb 20.1; Total 96.9. Since the handles and 
body are cast as one, the difference in composition is probably caused by 
differences in corrosion penetration and lead segregation in the areas 
sampled. On the underside of the bottom is a diamond-shaped criss-cross 
pattern of irregularly spaced lines on which is superimposed, in the 
center, a low ridge of metal about 5 cm. long, probably a cut-off sprue. 



Ch'en Meng-chia, Hsi-chou . . . , VI, pp. 1 14-115 and PI. 3. Kuo dates it on evidence in the inscription 
to the time of King I (907-898 B.C.); Ch'en believes it might be from the preceding reign of King 
Kung (927-908). 

£ g Jung, Shang chou . . . , No. 831. 

Qf Mizuno, /// shu . . . , typological chart. 

276 Shang-ts'un-ling . . . , PI. XVII, No. 5, PI. XLV, No. 3, PI. LIV, No. 3. 

277 Umehara, SKSIJ, II, 153. 



450 



NUMBER EIGHTY-TWO 



Also, near the edge of the bottom on both sides there is a crude repair 
patch, apparently to fill a casting flaw. One patch on the underside has a 
short stem which may also be a stump of the sprue used to pour the 
metal for the mend. No chaplets were observed but they could be hidden 
by corrosion. 

The surface is encrusted with dull green malachite mixed with some 
azurite; there is a considerable amount of earthy residue testifying to 
burial. The corrosion crusts cleave easily to reveal a smooth tin-oxide 
surface beneath. The only blemish is a horizontal break about 6 cm. 
long on one side with corresponding dent on the outside which may have 
been caused by an excavator's pick. 

Composition : Sample for analysis taken from edge of foot. 
Wet chemical analysis: Cu 71.6%; Sn 8.7; Pb 15-0; Total 95.3. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 
Fe 0.3 ; Co 0.01 ; Ni 0.02 ; As 0.2 ; Sb 0.2 ; Bi 0.05 ; Si 0.001 . 



451 



NUMBER EIGHTY-THREE 



PLATE 83 



Lei 

Middle Chou dynasty (9th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 29.9 cm. (11 fin.) 

Width, 31.1 cm. (121 in.) 

Weight, 6. 24 kg. (13 lbs., 12oz.) 

Accession number 15.104 



The whole surface of the vessel is covered with horizontal zones 
decorated in the bold style of the middle Chou with broad flat bands 
including S-curves, wavy bands, etc., and around the bottom are a 
series of hanging blades. Two ring handles stand erect on the shoulder 
and are topped with monster masks with bottle horns. The dark brown- 
ish patina is extensively covered with malachite encrustation and some 
areas of earthy accretions. 

The vessel was bought from Lai-yuan and Company of New York, 
and Mr. Freer's original notes read thus: "Fine. Early Chou and dis- 
playing unusual design and patina - even its repairs are interesting, i.e., 
light yellowish toned composition filled in small openings." 



452 



PLATE 83 




NUMBER EIGHTY-THREE (15.104) 



NUMBER EIGHTY-THREE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Some of the evidence for assigning vessels with the "wave pattern" in 
broad bands to the late Western Chou period has already been cited in 
the discussion of the hu Number 76. The designs on the two tripods 
mentioned there, the Shan-fu-k'o ting and the Ts'e-jui-kung ting, are 
especially close to the design in the principal zone of the present lei. The 
former is datable by inscription to the time of King Li; the latter is 
dated by Watson to the late ninth century.-'^ A third example with this 
design datable to the same period is the Yli ting, which bears an in- 
scription of 205 characters mentioning two people contemporaneous 
with Li."9 

Preceding this lei in a typological sequence would be the lei found at 
P'u-tu-ts'un in Shensi.'-^^" The find is generally datable, by an inscription 
in one of the vessels, to the mid- 10th century. That lei retains from earlier 
Chou styles the raised "string" markings on the neck, a flaring foot, and 
whorl-circles in the shoulder band. The loop handles are larger, and have 
rings pendent from them. In the stage represented by our lei, the handles 
are smaller and in the form of simple rings surmounted by the spiral- 
horned bovine masks common on kuei handles in the same period. There 
is a more pronounced break in the outline of the body between the 
shoulder and the lower portion, and the spreading foot has disappeared. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel was cast in a piece mold, but the vertical mold marks at the 
quarters have been mostly removed in the finishing operation. A mold 
mark runs around the inside of each of the ring handles which seem to be 
cast as on integral parts of the vessel. 

The surface is mostly covered with dull corrosion crusts containing 
much malachite and some cerussite. Tin oxide also seems to be an 



■^^^ It is apparently the same as the Jui-kung tiiig\ see Ku-kung tUmg-cti'i . . . , II, 49, the editors of which 
date it to the 'Mate Western Chou or Ch'un-ch'iu" period, i.e. 9th-8th century. Watson, Ancient 
Chinese bronzes, pi. 46a. 

^"9 Hsu, Yit-ting-ti 1959, no. 3, pp. 65-6, and PI. I. 

280 Watson, Archaeology in China, 68; also Ancient Chinese in-onzes, 49b. 



454 



NUMBER EIGHTY-THREE 



important component of the patina. The interior walls of the vessel are 
lightly covered with earthy accretions and this, in addition to traces of 
earth mixed with the patina products on the outside indicate the object 
was buried. On the sidewalls inside are two small squarish patches which 
seem to be ancient repairs. There are no breaks or losses, and the con- 
dition of the vessel is good. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of bottom. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 64.7%; Sn 6.1 ; Pb 25.9; Total 96.7. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.3%; 

Fe 0.3; Co 0.02; Ni 0.02; As 0.2; Sb 0.09; Bi 0.03; Mg < 0.001; 

Mn 0.001; Si 0.004. 
The high amount of lead in the alloy is noted. 



455 



NUMBER EIGHTY-FOUR 



PLATE 84 



Lei 

Middle Chou dynasty (7th century B.C.) 
No inscription 
Height, 35.6 cm. (14 in.) 
Width, 42.2 cm.(16f in.) 
Weight, 16.36 kg. (36 lbs., 1 oz.) 
Accession number 07.33 



This powerful vessel with contracted neck and flaring rim has two 
handles of elaborately interlaced dragon forms composing monster 
masks placed fiat on rings on the shoulder. The body is decorated in four 
main bands which consist of interlocking dragon forms, and which in 
the top-most band are associated with birds. All the dragon bodies are 
studded at intervals with nipples perforated on top which may have been 
set with semi-precious stones. Around the top of the shoulder is a narrow 
band of elongated dragon forms. The dark green patina is fairly evenly 
encrusted all over with malachite and azurite and some areas of earthy 
accretions. 



456 



PLATE 84 




NUMBER EIGHTY-FOUR (07.33) 



NUMBER EIGHTY-FOUR 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This, like the tsun Number 74, is a pivotal piece in the history of decor 
styles as represented on bronzes in our collection. It stands at the point 
when the abstract band decor of middle Chou begins to acquire once 
more a zoomorphic character in a development that culminates in the 
interlaced animal patterns of the "Huai style." The S-shaped band 
formations in the three broad zones of decor on the body of the lei have 
identifiable eyes, snouts, and horns at each end, and each has a leg 
reaching forward from a point below the head; thus, they anticipate the 
typical late Chou "band dragons." Most of the eyes are marked by 
raised, perforated bumps, or nipples, which also appear at the mid- 
point of each of the double animals. In the upper-most zone, the same 
creatures, flattened out and single-headed, are arranged in interlocking 
series, alternating between upward-facing and downward-facing. All 
these, although closely fitted together in a geometric pattern, are still 
separate bodies, with no overlapping. In the center zone on the shoulder, 
however, the animal forms are combined with more realistically ren- 
dered birds in a pattern that involves some overlapping, and thus fore- 
shadows in this respect the intricately interwoven designs of the sixth 
and fifth centuries. The outlines of the heads and bodies of the birds, 
and the pitted or spotted surfaces of their bodies, recall bird forms on 
hunting-style vessels and others of the Eastern Chou. The new style they 
display, along with the concept of interlacing, may have entered Chinese 
art proper from the stylistic repertory of the nomads of the steppe 
regions to the north and west. 

As pointed out by Watson,-^^ the ''double band bent in a square 
meander, terminating in a head which is half grittin, half dragon, and 
usually with more or less explicit clawed feet below" is part of the 
stylistic repertory of the seventh century bronze vessels of Shang-ts'un- 
ling, where we also find the beginnings of interlacing. A further stage in 
this development may be seen in a lei similar in shape to ours, formerly 
in the Seligman Collection, now in the Pillsbury Collection, Minne- 

281 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, p. 56. 



458 



NUMBER EIGHTY-FOUR 



apolis.282 On this, the interlacing has proceeded into greater complexity, 
covering the surface with a finer network of narrower bands among 
which it is all but impossible to distinguish the individual creatures. 
From this point, the decor evolves in two directions. One culminates in 
the interlacing of broad, textured bands in the Huai and Li-yii styles 
(e.g. the chien No. 94, and the ting No. 96). In the other, the interlaced 
dragons are forced into small rectangular units repeated in vertical and 
horizontal rows over the whole surface. The latter is exemplified by a 
later (fifth century?) lei vessel published by Jung Keng,^^^ ^nd, in 
degenerate form, by our p'ou Number 102 and the fu base Number 108. 
These two somewhat separate evolutions, with their aftermaths, dom- 
inate bronze styles for the remainder of the Chou period. 

Patterns similar to these may be seen on two other p'ou vessels which 
are not, however, datable: one excavated in Shensi Province,^^^ the 
other now in the Nanking Museum.'^^ Another of virtually identical 
shape and design is in the bronze vessels of the T'ai-pu-hsiang find in 
Honan Province, which is roughly dated to the early Ch'un-ch'iu period, 
i.e. the late eighth or seventh century .-^^ 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Four vertical mold marks indicate the vessel was cast directly in a four- 
piece mold. The two handles are centered in two opposing quarters mid- 
way between mold joins. Each handle is channeled on the inside and 
filled with residues of hard clay cores much like the handles on kuei. 
Where the handles join the body there is a low shoulder of metal which 
was first suspected of being hard solder, but scraping the join to bare 
metal shows there is a single narrow seam between handle and vessel 
directly above the shoulder. The metal of the shoulder is continuous with 
the vessel metal which indicates that the handles were precast and the 

282 Karlgren, . . . Pillsbwy . . . , No. 52, Po. 72. 

283 Jung, Shang chou PI. 903. 

284 Cfi'ing-t'iifig-cli'i t'u-sfiih, p. 30 and PI. 123 

285 Chan Hui-chiian, Ancient relics . . . , PI. XVU. 

286 Wen-wii . . . , 1954, no. 3, p. 60; also, better reproduced, Cheng, Ch"uan-kuo chi-pen . . . , PI. 145. The 
designs, not clear in the reproductions, may also be related to those on the lei under discussion. 



459 



NUMBER EIGHTY-FOUR 



vessel was cast to them. There is no evidence on the inside of the vessel 
to show where the handles were joined; but since the thickness here is 
about 0.5 cm., there appears to have been sufficient depth of metal for 
anchoring the handles. 

The surface is thickly and fairly uniformly covered with botryoidal 
malachite. In small areas the corrosion crust has cleaved off to reveal the 
metallic surface beneath. On the underside are patches of azurite and 
cerussite. There is no evidence of paint or repairs. The hollow centers of 
the many small bosses which dot the surface may once have held jewels 
or inlay, but if so, none remains. 

Composition: Sample taken from edge of bottom. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 66. 1 % ; Sn 5. 1 ; Pb 24. 1 ; Total 95.3. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

Fe 0.3; Co 0.03; Ni 0.02; As 0.3; Sb 0.03; Bi 0.03; Al 0.003; Mg 

< 0.00 l;Mn< 0.001; Si 0.03. 

The alloy has unusually high lead content. 



460 



NUMBER EIGHTY-FOUR 




NUMBERS EIGHTY-FIVE TO NINETY-TWO 



EIGHT MIDDLE CHOU VESSELS (7th century B.C.) 

The eight vessels illustrated on plates 85 and 86 share a number of 
characteristics that set them apart from the normal run of Middle Chou 
bronzes. Because of their homogeneous nature they are discussed here as 
a group. All are decidedly smaller than usual ; all are very poor in quality 
and cast very thin; all are heavily encrusted with corrosion products 
and also with earthy adhesions; none of them has an inscription. It is 
hard to escape the conclusion that they are niing-ch'i, that is to say that 
they were never meant to be used in the performance of any ceremony, 
but simply for burial with the dead as token ceremonial vessels. 

The group as a whole fits in very well with the bronzes excavated at 
the Cemetery of the State of Kuo at Shang-ts'un-ling; and as the Tso- 
chuan tells us that this state was annexed by the State of Chin in 655, we 
are dealing with bronzes of the first half of the seventh century or earlier. 
The date of the founding of the State is still uncertain.^^^ Some of the 
vessels in our group are relatively unusual. The p'ou (No. 85) still has 
no exact parallel though a vessel similar in basic form but lacking 
handles may be seen on Plate XLV, No. 1 of the publication. There are a 
number of hu of related types among the illustrations; and an equally 
crude and awkward example is published elsewhere.^^s 

The kuei (No. 88), does not occur in this shape at Shang-ts'un-ling; 
but two very similar pieces are published by Tang'-^^^ who describes 
them as ming-clfi. The curious little flat huo that look like pien-hu to 
which spouts and handles have been added are not altogether un- 
known ;"9° and a single example from Shang-ts'un-ling is illustrated 
though it has a very slightly diflferent foot. As a matter of fact, there are 



^^'^ Shang-ts'un-ling . . . , passim. 

288 T'ang, Cli'ing-t"ung-ch'i . . . , p. 1 14, No. 120, and text p. 29. 

289 Op. cit., p. 95, nos. 98-99. 

290 Shang-ts'img-ling . . . , Pi. LVI, 1 ; Loehr, Relics . . . , p. 81, no. 51 ; Umehara, SKSjJ, IV, 333; a similar 
vessel in the Ch'ien-lung Collection was described as a pien-hu and assigned to the Han dynasty. Cf. 
Hsi-ch'ing . . . , ch. 20, p. 28. 



462 



NUMBERS EIGHTY-FIVE TO NINETY-TWO 



minor differences between our own three examples as is noted in the 
Technical Observations where the structure of the pieces is described. 

Stylistically they all hold together with patterns of broad figured 
bands dominating the decor and sometimes covering the whole surface 
of the vessel; in places these bands cross one another in a way that 
anticipates the interlocking patterns of later times. This development is 
actually seen on the last huo (No. 91 ), and on the p'an (No. 92). On both 
vessels the bands are narrower and the interlocking is tighter; and they 
suggest a later date than the other six pieces, though not necessarily very 
much so. Even with these last two, there is no reason to believe they need 
be later than the seventh century. An an with closely related design 
carries an inscription which Kuo Mo-jo relates to the reign of King Hui 
in the second quarter of the century .-^^ 



■'91 Kuo, Liang-chou . . . , fig. 163, and text vol. p. 230. 



463 



NUMBER EIGHTY-FIVE PLATE 85 

Height, 7.0cm. (2| in.); width, 12.7 cm. (5 in.) ; weight, 0.37 kg. 
(13 oz.) 

The small globular vessel has a slightly flaring lip and no foot. 
Annular handles topped with monster masks protrude from the sides; 
and the whole vessel is covered with two zones of broad spiral bands. 
Apparently the same design is repeated inside the recessed base. The 
smooth, copper-colored patina is largely covered with heavy encrusta- 
tions of malachite and earthy accretions. 



NUMBER EIGHTY-SIX 
Ting (11.60) 

Height, 16.8 cm. (6| in.); width, 18.5 cm. (7i in.); weight, 1.87 kg. 
(4 lbs., 2 oz.) 

The shallow bowl has two handles rising from the rim and is decor- 
ated on the outside with two bands of typical Middle Chou pattern. The 
legs with their bulbous tops and slightly flaring feet are plain. 



NUMBER EIGHTY-SEVEN 
7/w (11.59) 

Height, 19.7 cm. (7i in.); width, 11.5 cm. (4| in.); weight, 1.08 kg. 
(2 lbs., 6 oz.) 

A small rectangular vessel with a lid. Two angular handles topped with 
horned monster heads protrude from the sides at the top. The surface is 
covered with three bands of crudely cast decoration: scale pattern 
around the lid and two zones of interlocking dragons on the body. 

NUMBER EIGHTY-EIGHT 
Kuei{n.5S) 

Height, 14.0 cm. (5 J in.); width, 20.0 cm. (7| in.); weight, 1.76 kg. 
(3 lbs., 14 oz.) 

This kuei has a low circular finial on the lid, and no feet raise the base 
off" the ground. In other respects it falls perfectly into the group. 



464 



PLATE 85 




NUMBER EIGHTY-EIGHT (11.58) 



NUMBERS EIGHTY-FIVE AND EIGHTY-SIX 



TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

No. 85 This crudely made vessel was cast in one piece, probably in a two-piece 
mold. There are no visible mold marks. A scraping made at the base of 
one handle revealed a seam where it joins the vessel, suggesting that the 
handles were precast and the vessel cast to them. No chaplets are visible. 

Small areas of the surface have coppery metallic lustre, but most of 
the exterior is covered with ugly gray crusts, mostly cerussite with 
scattered patches of malachite and azurite. There is much cuprite under- 
neath the carbonate mineral, especially in the valleys of the decor. Some 
earthy residues mixed with corrosion products indicate the vessel was 
buried. A wedge-shaped break in the rim has been repaired. 

Composition : Sample taken from bottom. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 80. 1 % ; Sn 8.3 ; Pb 3.8 ; Total 92.2. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

Au 0.01; Fe 0.01; Co 0.002; Ni 0.02; As 0.1; Sb 0.2; Bi 0.03; 

Al < 0.001 ; Mg < 0.001; Si 0.2. 
The low total figure for wet analysis indicates the metal is deeply 
corroded and that no fair sample of original metal is available. 

No. 86 Mold marks denoting the casting divisions cannot be seen because of 
the heavy corrosion and earthy accretions, but the vessel was probably 
cast in a three-piece mold. The legs, which appear to be cast as one with 
the body, are channeled on the inside and filled with dark gray baked clay, 
apparently original clay core. The handles are cast solid. One leg has 
been plugged or capped underneath with a second pour of metal with 
high copper content: Cu 92.0; Sn 1.8; Pb 2.8; Total 96.6. This plug 
seems to be an ancient repair. Another leg has broken off about half 
way and has been repaired with soft solder, obviously a modern repair. 
Much malachite and cerussite appear in the corrosion crusts. 

Composition: Sample taken from middle of upright of one handle. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 76.5% ; Sn 6.4 ; Pb 1 5.3 ; Total 98.2. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

AuO.Ol; Fe 0.003; Co < 0.001; Ni 0.02; Sb 0.2; Bi 0.03; Al 0.007; 

Mg 0.001; Si 0.07. 

466 



NUMBERS EIGHTY-SEVEN AND EIGHTY-EIGHT 



TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

No. 87 The vessel appears to have been cast directly in a two-piece, four- 
division mold with joins at the corners. The two animal head handles, 
which are clay cored, apparently were cast separately; but on account of 
deep corrosion, the mode of attachment is not apparent. The surface on 
the inside opposite the handle joins is smooth and uninterrupted. The 
underside of the bottom is plain except for a squarish depression extend- 
ing inwards, the purpose of which is not clear. No chaplets were ob- 
served. The lid, which is deeply recessed, is crudely and imperfectly cast. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 77.3% ; Sn 1 2.4 ; Pb 8.4 ; Total 98. 1 . 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

Au < 0.01 ; Fe 0.03 ; Co 0.002 ; Ni 0.02 ; As 0.05 ; Sb 0.2 ; Bi 0.03 ; 

Al 0.002; Mg 0.003; Mn < 0.001; Si >1.0. 

No. 88 The vessel and lid are crudely cast apparently in a two-piece mold 
assembly. A single prominent mold join runs vertically down one side 
midway between the handles, but there is only a trace of a corresponding 
join on the opposite side. The two handles are made separately and are 
joined to the vessel with soft solder. Probing at the join discloses no 
evidence of stumps or old breaks; hence, the handles were probably 
added in modern times. They are channeled on the inside and the channel 
is filled with hard clay core; join traces can be seen only along the lower 
stems. In the center of the bottom underneath the vessel is a sharp ridge 
3.5 cm. long, 3 mm. wide, and 4 mm. high, which appears to be the 
stump of a sprue. There are no criss-cross marks or brackets. The lid, 
which has the same decor as the vessel, does not fit into a recess or over a 
flange in the vessel rim but just rests on top. Like the handles it might be 
from another vessel. There are no squarish openings in the side of the 
circular lid or finial in the side of the foot of the vessel. If chaplets are 
present, they are concealed by corrosion. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 72. 1 % ; Sn 1 1 .8 ; Pb 1 3.4 ; Total 97.3. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: AgO.2%; 

Au <0.01; FeO.Ol; Co 0.002; Ni 0.03; As 0.2; Sb 0.2; Bi 0.03; 

Al < 0.001; Si < 0.001. 457 



NUMBER EIGHTY-NINE PLATE 86 

Huo{\\Al) 

Height, 17.8 cm. (7 in.); width, 14.3 cm. (5f in.); weight, 1.05 kg. 
(2 lbs., 5oz.) 

A small flattened vessel on a high rectangular foot. At one end was a 
false spout, now missing; and this is balanced by a rectangular loop 
handle topped with a monster mask. A small bird in the round sits on a 
rectangular tenon which served as a lid. The flat sides are decorated with 
interlocking dragons in relief. 

NUMBER NINETY 

//wo (16.248) 

Height, 17.8 cm. (7 in.); width, 21.3 cm. (8| in.); weight, 1.56 kg. 
(31bs., 7oz.) 

The vessel is similar to the last but has a spout with a feline head on 
top. Heavily encrusted with malachite, cuprite, and earthy accretions 
and considerable remains of textile impressions. 

NUMBER NINETY-ONE 
Hiw{\\ .46) 

Height, 11.5 cm. (4i in.); width, 14.0 cm. (5| in.); weight, 0.31 kg. 
(11 oz.) 

Like the above two vessels but smaller. 

NUMBER NINETY-TWO 
P'an{\\ .44) 

Height, 6.7 cm. (2| in.); width, 21.3 cm. (8§ in.); weight, 0.77 kg. 
(lib., lloz.) 

The small, thinly cast vessel has two handles protruding from the 
lower part of the shallow flat basin and curving upward above the rim. 
Each is attached to the rim by two small buttressing members. On the 
outside is a single narrow band of interlocking dragons. 



468 



PLATE 86 




NUMBER NINETY (16.248) 



NUMBER NINETY-TWO (11.44) 



NUMBERS EIGHTY-NINE AND NINETY 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

No. 89 The vessel is cast in one piece in a two-piece mold ; but unlike the other 
two it has only faint mold marks, principally at the base of the handle; 
and it is better finished. The bottom is open; the spout is broken off; 
and the depression in the center of the stump reveals that it was prob- 
ably hollow, but there is no hole through into the vessel. The bird stopper 
is a separate casting and appears to be cored with clay. 

Small areas of the surface still have metallic luster, but most of it is 
encrusted with lead and copper mineral crusts. On the back of the 
stopper there is a green blister of malachite broken open at the top to 
reveal lustrous colorless crystals of cerussite beneath. In ultra-violet 
light the areas of the surface rich in cerussite exhibit weak pinkish 
fluorescence, but there is no evidence of paint or repairs. 

Composition : Sample taken from lower edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 73.0% ; Sn 1 1 .8 ; Pb 1 0.8 ; Total 95.6. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: AgO.2%; 

AuO.Ol; Fe 0.02; Co 0.007; Ni 0.03; As 0.2; Sb 0.09; Bi0.05; 

Al 0.01 ; Mg 0.007; Mn < 0.001; Si 1.0. 

No. 90 This vessel is essentially a composite made from odd fragments. The 
spout and the handle are attached with soft solder; and examination of 
the lower join of the latter shows it does not even seem to belong to this 
vessel. On the interior of the vessel there is a depression opposite the 
spout; but if there was originally an opening here, it is now plugged 
either with solder or with earth. The bird stopper was shaped apparently 
from another old fragment of bronze and given a false patina. The spout 
and the handle show traces of mold marks, but the vessel itself does not. 
Unlike the other two vessels in this group, this has a closed bottom and 
also lacks the short neck around the opening at the top. The interior 
contains much of its original clay core. 

Although tin and lead are low the gray corrosion is mostly cerussite and 
tin oxide. Traces of fabric pattern are in part of the crust. 

Composition : Sample taken from lower edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 87. 1 % ; Sn 5.3 ; Pb 3.4 ; Total 95.8. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0-3%; 
AuO.Ol; Fe 0.009; Co 0.002; Ni 0.01; As 0.2; Sb0.07; Bi 0.05; 
A10.002;Mg0.001;Si0.07. 

470 



NUMBERS NINETY-ONE AND NINETY-TWO 
TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 



No. 91 A single mold mark which runs around the narrow side of the vessel 
indicates it was cast with spout and handle in a simple two-piece mold. 
The vessel and the flared base are hollow and open. On the inside of the 
open foot where it meets the body is a narrow horizontal ridge which 
seems to mark the juncture of upper and lower mold cores. The four 
small holes which pierce one side seem to be functional but do not 
appear to have contained chaplets. The hollow spout does not appear to 
open into the body, and the small bird stopper is hollow cast. Much of 
the surface is covered with thin, dull- gray-green corrosion, a mixture of 
malachite and cerussite entangled with earthy residues. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 75.3% ; Sn 9.9 ; Pb 9.7 ; Total 94.9. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: AgO'2/o; 

Au <0.01; Fe 0.01; Co 0.01; Ni 0.03; As 0.1; Sb 0.3; Bi 0.03; 

Al 0.002; Mg < 0.001 ; Si 0.05. 

No. 92 Like the larger p'aii (No. 82) this vessel appears to have been cast 
in one piece including the two bars that join each handle to the rim. The 
handles are solid but thin and like the rest of the vessel are crudely cast. 
Three vertical mold marks show, however, that it was probably cast directly 
in a three-piece mold. The decor band is not continuous under the 
handle. 

The surface is fairly deeply encrusted with dull green, red, and grayish 
deposits. The large whitish deposit on the underside is made up mostly 
of crystals of cerussite tinged in places with a dull reddish impurity 
which is not cuprite but is probably litharge or lead monoxide. In ultra- 
violet light the cerussite patches fluoresce faintly pink, but there is no 
evidence of paint or repairs. Some earthy residues are mixed with the 
rough patina. There are no breaks or losses. 

Composition : Sample taken from side of one handle. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 72.5% ; Sn 7.9 ; Pb 1 6.8 ; Total 97.2. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0-1%; 

Au <0.01; Fe 0.02; Co 0.02; Ni 0.03; As 0.1; Sb 0.3; Bi 0.03; 

A10.002;Mg0.001;Si0.03. 

471 



NUMBER NINETY-THREE 



PLATE 87 



/ 

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Meyer 
Middle-late Chou dynasty (6th century B.C.) 
No inscription 
Height, 20.5 cm. (8 J in.) 
Width, 32.0 cm. (12| in.) 
Weight, 3.01 kg. (6 lbs., 10 oz.) 
Accession number 61.31 



The covered vessel stands on three short legs with bulbous tops and 
flaring feet. Around the upper rim is a finely cast band of interlocking 
dragon forms from which hangs a row of small triangles; below this are 
three broad fluted bands. The dragon motif is repeated around the lid. 
Lying over the spout is a finely cast monster mask in relief. The handle at 
the back has an elaborately conceived monster mask at the top, and the 
sides are covered with interlocking dragon forms with small rounded 
studs at frequent intervals. The vessel is covered with a uniform glossy 
black patina on which there are minor areas of encrustation. 



472 



PLATE 87 




NUMBER NINETY-THREE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

While this is the only example of the / vessel in the collection, the type is 
not uncommon. It seems to have been limited to a period extending from 
around the late eighth century to the fifth century. For the earliest stage, 
we might cite the Ch'u-ying / in the Sedgwick Collection, London; the 
inscription on this led Yetts to date it to the year 704. -9- A very similar / 
was among the seventh century bronzes found at Shang-ts'un-ling,''^^ 
and other pieces of similar shape are in other collections.'^^ These differ 
from ours in several features: they have four legs which are straighter 
and take the forms of dragons ; there is no bridge over the pouring spout ; 
the lids (supposing they were present) presumably continued all the way 
to the lip; and the bodies are generally shallower, more boat-shaped. The 
decor on these is of the type we have discussed in assigning other vessels 
to the seventh century (e.g. Nos. 83 and 84). Another example, similar in 
shape, features the angular-band "dragons'' with raised, socketed eyes 
like those in the upper decor band of the lei Number 84.- The present / 
retains from the seventh century stage the division of the body surface 
into a decor zone above and horizontal fluting below, but the four 
dragon legs are replaced by three of cabriole shape, and the spout is 
covered. In a still later period, the lower portion of the body is un- 
decorated, and the spout takes on a more tubular shape.-^^ 

The position of our / within this series suggests a date in the sixth 
century, and the style of the decor bears this out. A piece very useful for 
comparison is the Keng-jen ting, found at Hou-ma in Shansi Province.^^'^ 

292 Yetts, A ch'ii bronze; cited, and the piece reproduced by Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, p. 76 and 
PI. 49a. Also in Lion-Goldschmidt, Chinese Art, vol. I, pi. 35; along with a p'an vessel bearing the 
same inscription (pi. 36). In this inscription, the ruler of the Ch'u state is referred to as "the King," 
and since the Ch'u prince usurped that title in 887 and again in 704, Yetts ascribes the vessel to the 
latter year. 

293 Shang-ts'im-ling . . . , PI. XXXIX, No. 1. 

294 Umehara, SKSU, IV, 337-9. 

295 Huang, Tsun ku-chai . . . , III, 17. 

296 Shou-hsien Ts\ii-hon . . . , PI. 17, No. 5, missing its legs, probably fifth century; Mizuno, //; shu . . ., 
PI. 149 with a beast's head on the spout, three cabriole legs (the single one at the back), and decor of 
a type suggesting a date in the same century, the fifth; Umehara, Sengoku . . . , PI. XII, from Li-yu, 
also probably fifth; and Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. 62b, somewhat later than these. 

297 Kaogn, 1963, No. 5, pp. 270-272, and PI. I, no. 1; rubbings of the decor in PI. VII, p. 235, figs. 3, 
5, 8, and 1 1 . The inscription indicates that the vessel was cast by a prince of the Hsii state, which was 
destroyed by Wu in 512. In the opinion of the excavators, the Hou-ma find as a whole covers a period, 
from the late Western Chou or early Ch'un-ch'iu period through the middle of the Chan-kuo period, 
i.e. 8th to 4th century. 



474 



NUMBER NINETY-THREE 

The main band of decor is almost identical with that on the present /, and 
very similar triangular designs, presumably survivals of the archaic 
"hanging blade" motif, appear below.^^^ On the handle are serpent-like 
creatures rendered as raised bands with diagonal striation and long- 
snouted heads at one end; these are closely paralleled on the horns of the 
creature that forms the handle of the /.^^^ The probable date for this ting, 
on the evidence of the inscription, is during the time of Hsiang, Duke of 
Lu (572-542). Another piece with related decor, although closer to the 
earlier type seen (e.g., on the huo No. 91), is the Ch'in-kung kuei, dated 
by different authorities to the end of the seventh or the sixth century .^oo 
The decor of the main band is also paralleled on vessels found at Liu-li- 
ko, a find that is not, however, securely datable.^oi 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The legs are solid and are cast as one with the vessel. The handle, how- 
ever, is precast full-round with a clay core, and was apparently fixed in a 
mold so that the body was cast on to it. The spillage of metal at the joins 
is from the body over onto the handle; and this can best be seen where 
the mouth of the animal bites the rim of the vessel. The legs of ting 
tripods are attached to the bodies in a similar way. The open-work mask 
which surmounts the animal heads of the handle shows no vestiges of 
mold marks either on the outer or inner edges; and moreover, owing to 
high finish of the metal surface no signs of mold-join traces now remain 
in the undecorated areas. In the broad decor band around the upper part 
a parting line may be seen somewhat off center under the pouring spout, 
and another is at the back approximately 1 cm. to the right of the handle 
( see fig. 45 ). Under the vessel and along the legs, however, there are no 
signs at all that piece molds were used. A seam along both sides of the 
pouring spout cover indicates it was separately cast and close examina- 
tion reveals that the join was made with hard solder. 

298 Op. cit., p. 235, fig. 3. 

299 Op.cit.,p. 235, fig. 11. 

300 Kuo Mo-jo, Liang choii . . . , fig. 127; Karlgren, Yin and chou . . . , C176, p. 71, where the identification 
of the Prince of Ch'in in the inscription with Huan-kung (603-577) is judged to be "most plausible;" 
and Mizuno, In sfnl . . . , PI. 175c, dated by him to the period 576-537. 

301 Kuo Pao-chiin, Slian-piao-clien. . . , PI. 57. 



475 



NUMBER NINETY-THREE 




Figure 45 



There are no signs of chaplets except for a metal plug in the center of 
the lower inside surface of the handle. 

The loop handle on the lid is precast and the thin flat lid is cast onto it, 
a join that was made possible by a slight thickening of the lid directly 
under the handle. The lid fits poorly in spite of the notch in back and the 
tongue in front that act as guides. It seems odd that the designer chose to 



476 



NUMBER NINETY-THREE 



make the division between the vessel cover and the spout cover directly 
across the t'ao-t'ieh muzzle. 

The all-over impression is that the decor was made from some master 
pattern, die, or stencil; but the small "snouted" dragons, differ in detail 
as do the small decorative triangles. 

Each side of the handle is decorated with 21 circlets set with small 
round jewels of banded malachite, of which about half are missing. It is 
quite likely that the deep-set eyes of the animal, the square depression in 
the forehead, and also the eyes of the two t'ao-t'ieh on the cover of the 
pouring spout were also originally inlaid with malachite. 

The surface is covered all over with glossy mirror-black patina; but in 
many places it is slightly lifted and scaled by tiny local corrosion centers. 
This same phenomenon is often seen on early Chinese bronze mirrors 
and seems to be characteristic of sub-surface corrosion on highly 
polished metals. The inside surface also is glossy black and little cor- 
roded. There are vertical cracks in the thin walls in either side which is 
further evidence of deep corrosion. 

Composition: Sample taken from left hind leg. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 79.7% ; Sn 1 7. 1 ; Pb 0.7 ; Total 97.5. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 

Fe 0.2; Co 0.02; Ni 0.03 ; Sb 0.01 ; Mg < 0.001 ; Si 0.01 . 

The alloy is notably high in tin and low in lead, and resembles the 
composition of mirror metal. 



477 



NUMBER NINETY-FOUR 



PLATE 88 



Chien 

Late Chou dynasty (5th century B.C.) 
Inscription of six characters on the inside 
Height, 22.8 cm. (9 in.) 
Width, 51.7 cm. (20| in.) 
Weight, 9.27 kg. (20 lbs., 7 oz.) 
Accession number 39.5 



The large basin has four handles topped by monster masks, and loose 
flattened rings with intaglio decoration depend from two of them. The 
surface is divided into three principal bands; each decorated with highly 
stylized interlocking dragon forms depicted in broad bands covered with 
fine spirals and triangles in intaglio. The principal decorative zones are 
separated by braided rope bands in relief, and a third such band sur- 
rounds the foot. Around the outer edge of the lip is a band of cowries. 
The surface is covered with an even, pale green patina with a moderate 
amount of granular encrustation. 



478 



PLATE 88 




NUMBER NINETY-FOUR 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Since the inscription refers to the Chih family of the state of Chin, which 
was extinguished in 453, the vessel must have been made prior to that. 
Evidence for a closer dating is offered by the famous pair of Huang- 
ch'ih hii in the Cull Collection, on which the "Huai style" decor in the 
broad zones, separated by bands of braid pattern, is strikingly similar to 
that on our chien. Yetts, in his long study of the Cull hu, offers the year 
482 as the most likely date, and the Chin State as the probable locality 
for their manufacture.^"'" 

The fillings in the flat bands that make up the "bodies" of the animals, 
fine designs composed of triangles and spirals, are to be seen also in the 
intertwined animals of the Li-yu style (e.g. on the ///?gNo. 96 and the tun 
No. 103). The Li-yu bronzes are not, however, precisely datable. The 
origin of the "Huai style" as seen in the present chien, with raised bands 
that end in curls rising still higher from the surface, is equally hard to 
date. If Karlgren is correct about the date of the Piao Bells, it must be as 
early as 550 but this is far from certain, and the alternative date of 
398 advanced by Yetts fits better with other evidence, especially as the 
decor on the bells seems a debased, and, therefore, later, form of that on 
the Cull Im and our chien. More relevant, and of more value in dating, is 
the Wang-sun I-che chung, with an inscription that makes it, according 
to Loehr, "safely datable before 512."-'^"^ We may suppose this style, 
then, to have been current from the late sixth century through much of 
the fifth, and even (if the date 398 is correct for the Piao Bells) into the 
early fourth. In a somewhat degenerate form it occurs on bells and other 
bronze objects from the Great Tomb (No. 1) at Shan-piao-chen, now 
dated generally to the middle or later fifth century. The same tomb 
produced two chien vessels similar in shape to ours but decorated with 
battle scenes.=^"5 

Yetts, The Cull . . . , pp. 45-75 and PI. XVI 

303 Karlgren, . . . the Piao bells, 1 934, pp. 1 37-149. The bells are reproduced in White, Tombs of old Loyang, 
PI. CLXVII-CLXIX 

304 Loehr, Review of Yetts, The Cull . . . , p. 424. The bell reproduced in Jung, Sluing cliou . . . , No. 956. 
Jung orters no evidence for dating, and the basis of Loehr's statement is not clear; perhaps his reference 
should rather be to the similar bell formerly in the Tuan Fang Co\\tcC\on(T\io-chai chi -chin hsii-lu,l.5) 
which as Karlgren states {op. cit., pp. 148-9), can be safely placed before 512, the date of the annihilation 
of the State of Hsij where it was cast. 

305 Kuo Pao-chiin, Shan-piao-chen . . . , PI. 3-7, 12, 15-16; pis. 19-20. 



480 



NUMBER NINETY-FOUR 



TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Mold marks or join lines indicate that the vessel was cast directly in a 
four-piece mold. The four handles are cast separately and fixed on with 
hard solder directly over the vertical join lines. Additional unevenly 
spaced join lines, which seem to be pattern joins, can be seen in braided 
rope bands. Although the fine concentric lines of the braid pattern look 
engraved, they actually are cast. This is shown by the fact that they do 
not cross the join marks, and they fail to register perfectly where they 
meet. Moreover, these fine lines are covered over irregularly by the edges 
of the shoulder formed by the hard solder around each handle join. The 
fine decor, however, must have been cut or engraved into the material 
that was used for the model. It is possible that clay master patterns in 
positive rehef were employed in duplicating the repeated elements of the 
decor and that clay negative impressions from these were incorporated 
directly into the molds which were constructed around a plain core. 
Examples of master patterns for this type of decor have been excavated 
from the Chan-kuo period bronze foundry site at Hou-ma.^o^ 

A sprue remnant about 7.5 cm. long and 0.3 cm. high crosses the 
center of the bottom. There are no criss-cross lines or brackets, and the 
inside of the foot is left unfinished and is lined with hard clay residues 
from the original mold. Irregular ridges on the bottom were probably 
formed by molten bronze seeping into cracks in the mold {fig. 46). 

The inside is plain except for the wide shoulder beneath the rim. No 
vestiges of chaplets can be seen inside or out. 

Perhaps the most unusual features are the handles which are cast 
separately, each with a core of grayish clay. The composition of one of 
the handles {vide infra) appears to be close enough to the composition of 
the vessel metal to indicate they were cast from the same alloy melt ; hence, 
they are no doubt contemporary with the vessel. The join of each handle 
is run around with an irregular ribbon of hard solder which secures it 
firmly to the vessel. On one side of each handle just above the join of the 
upper branch with the vessel appears a small blob of hard solder metal 

306 Chang Han, Hou-ma . . . , No. 10. 



481 



NUMBER NINETY-FOUR 



which seems to fill a perforation at this point. The technique of joining 
these handles appears to be similar to the technique employed in joining 
the animal heads on yu Number 50 and tsu/i Number 16. The positions 
of the handles do not show on the inside. This method of attaching 
handles would easily permit the addition of the loose rings which them- 
selves show no sign of a join. 




The inscription appears to be incised, probably in antiquity. The 
strokes are sharp and finely executed, and chatter marks and doubled 
grooves from repeated passes of the incising tool can be seen. The 
grooves have a long, thin taper at the ends from the lead-in and lead-out 
of the incising tool. The corrosion layer of the body continues uniformly 
into the grooves, and the tool marks have been somewhat softened by 
corrosion. 



482 



NUMBER NINETY-FOUR 



Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 70.8% ; Sn 1 2.8 ; Pb 14.7 ; Total 98.3. 

Sample taken from handle without ring to left facing inscription 

(single analysis) : Cu 69.2% ; Sn 1 4.3 ; Pb 14.2 ; Total 97.7. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2% 

Au<0.01; Fe 0.1; Co 0.01; Ni 0.07; As 0.3; SbO.l; Bi<0.03; 

Cr 0.002 ; Mg 0.002 ; Mn < 0.00 1 ; Si 0.0 1 . 

INSCRIPTION 

A single line of six characters is incised inside the vessel wall - the sister 
vessel in the Pillsbury Collection is similarly incised. It is not uncommon 
to find incised inscriptions in Chan-kuo period bronzes. Most are 
authentic but occasionally spurious examples appear. The inscription 
reads: 'The esteemed chien of the son of the ruler of Chih." Other slight 
variations in interpretation are noted in Volume III. Some useful 
historical background is noted by Mr. Lodge in the old Freer catalogue. 




483 



NUMBER NINETY-FIVE 



PLATE 89 



Chi en 

Late Chou dynasty (late 6th-early 5th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 28.0 cm. (11 in.) 

Width, 61.0 cm. (24 in.) 

Weight, 12.76 kg. (28 lbs., 2 oz.) 

Accession number 15.107 



The large basin has four loop handles attached to the upper part. Each 
has a monster mask at the top and a loose flat ring with designs in 
intaglio hanging below. The main decoration is in three horizontal bands 
showing human beings and animals and chariots arranged in hunting 
scenes. In each band the same scene is repeated seven times around the 
vessel. A single row of animals appears on the top of the lip, and on the 
outer edge of the lip and on two main broad bands that divide the 
hunting scenes are stylized patterns of volutes and triangles. A single 
braided rope band surrounds the foot. On the inside are geese, fish, and 
turtles in relief arranged in rows. The whole surface of the vessel inside 
and out is covered with a dark greenish patina with some areas of 
malachite encrustation. The basin has been slightly damaged and shows 
occasional small breaks in the surface. 



484 



PLATE 89 




NUMBER NINETY-FIVE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Two hu with related designs are known ; one is in the former Werner 
Jannings Collection, now in Peking, the other in Paris.^^^ Both seem 
more advanced than our chien in some respects, especially in the extent 
to which the scenes of hunting and battle are composed pictorially, 
instead of being products of the chance juxtaposition of barely related 
motifs. Mrs. Consten, discussing the Jannings hu, considers it to be 
somewhat later than ours, although she avoids assigning a precise date to 
either. The two related chien in the Shan-piao-chen find were mentioned 
in connection with Number 94.308 Unfortunately, there are no solid 
grounds for a positive dating of thai find though it is generally ascribed 
to the fifth century. 

The best clue to both the date and the provenance of our chien is its 
affinities with bronzes from Li-yii. The geese, fish, and tortoises repre- 
sented in low relief-like applique on the interior surface of the vessel are 
found also in examples matching so closely as to suggest that the same 
stamp may have been used to impress them in the mold, on bronzes from 
Li-yii or in the Li-yii style.'^o^ There they occur in combination with the 
typical Li-yii decor of richly ornamented, intertwined bands. On our 
chien this kind of decor appears only on the highly formalized monster 
masks that top the handles. As will be noted in the Technical Observa- 
tions below, these handles are attached to the vessel with soft solder and, 
therefore, are not necessarily contemporary. 

The design on the narrow zones separating the hunting scenes, com- 
posed of open triangles with hooks and spirals at the open ends, is 
common on bronzes of the "hunting style." A variant of it is to be seen 
on the chien from Shan-piao-chen. It is surely related to, and presumably 
precedes, the more elaborate diagonal-and-curl patterns of the later fifth 
and fourth centuries. 

307 Consten, A hu . . . ; and Vandier, Note sur im vase Chinois .... Since the latter article was written the 
piece has been transferred to the Musee Guimet where it is No. A. A. 73. 

308 Kuo Pao-chiin, Shan-piao-chen . . . , pp. 18-19 and 23 for description and discussion, pp. 20-22 and 
47-48 for rubbings and drawings of the designs; the pieces (1 :28 and 1 :56) on PI. 19-20. 

309 A fragmentary p'an from Li-yii, published by Umehara (Sengoku . . . , PI. XIH), and a Am now in the 
Norfolk Museum, Norfolk, Virginia. 



486 



NUMBER NINETY-FIVE 



In view of these indications, we assign the chien to the same period as 
the bronzes of the Li-yii style, the late sixth or early fifth century. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The mold join marks are plainly visible under the overhanging rim, and 
faintly visible where they continue down through the decor areas to the 
foot. The band of rope decor around the foot shows a number of 
irregularly spaced joins. There are several rather large chaplets in the 
vessel wall and bottom of which some have loosened and fallen away. A 
long sprue ridge appears on the bottom ; and there are no criss-cross lines 
or brackets. Some original mold clay is still lodged in the recess under 
the overhanging rim and also just inside the foot. The four handles are 
separately cast, but they do not seem to be original with the vessel 
because they are fixed on with soft solder ; and the joins are evened up with 
plaster and concealed with modern paint which contains Paris green 
pigment. The handles are hollow. The ends that make contact with the 
vessel are irregular which suggests they are broken fragments from 
another vessel joined on in recent times. As shown by X-rays they are 
fitted over stumps of the original handles which in turn seem to be fitted 
over a boss which projects from the side of the vessel. This also could 
explain why so much solder and fill is needed at the joins. One of the 
handles appears to be a forgery because the modeling is cruder and the 
surface lacks the fine sunken decor of the other three, which appear to be 
genuine and contemporary. All four rings are also probably later addi- 
tions. Another reason for doubting the handles is that they are fixed 
directly over the shallow sunken decor of the vessel side. The small 
figures of the hunting scene appear at first glance to be engraved into the 
surface; but close examination shows that in places the three mold join 
traces appear to pass directly through some of the figures and in other 
places to interrupt the decor. This suggests strongly that the shallow 
decor is cast-in rather than engraved. The sunken decor, furthermore, 
appears to have a whitish filling or inlay. Close examination indicates 
that this white is cerussite, which is a corrosion product of lead; and this 
recalls the fact that the alloy has a lead content which amounts to one 



487 



NUMBER NINETY-FIVE 



quarter of the whole. It is difficult to explain why the cerussite concen- 
trates in the sunken areas, but it might result from all-over mechanical 
cleaning and abrasion of the surface which swept off cerussite in the high 
areas and permitted it to remain in the low. It has been suggested that 
the sunken areas might originally have been inlaid with silver, but if so 
none now remains. 

The outer surface of the vessel is fairly uniformly covered with a dark 
green patina, mainly a mixture of cerussite and malachite which seems 
genuine, and the added handles have been toned to match. One long 
crack underneath has been filled with plaster and concealed with paint. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 63.7% ; Sn( + Sb) 7.9; Pb 26.0; Total 97.6. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.3%; 

Au <0.01; Fe 0.02; Co 0.02; Ni 0.09; As 0.7; Sb >1; Al 0.001; 

Mg < 0.001; Si 0.004. 

This is one of the most highly leaded bronzes in the collection; and 
it is one of the few that have antimony content greater than 1 percent. 



488 



NUMBER NINETY-FIVE 




489 



NUMBER NINETY-SIX 



PLATE 90 



Ting 

Late Chou dynasty (6th-5th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 38.7 cm. (15i in.) 

Width, 49.2 cm. (19f in.) 

Weight, 20.67 kg. (45 lbs., 9 oz.) 

Accession number 47.20 



The large covered vessel is decorated in a series of horizontal bands of 
interlocking dragons; and the two main bands on the body are separated 
by a strip of braided rope pattern. Two handles, rectangular in section, 
spring from the top edge of the bowl and curve gracefully upward to a 
point higher than the top. On the lid stand three small rings which serve 
as feet when inverted. The three heavy legs with bulbous tops and flaring 
feet are plain. The vessel is evenly covered with malachite encrustation 
over most of its surface. 



490 



PLATE 90 




NUMBER NINETY-SIX 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This tripod is one of the most monumental examples of what is known 
as the Li-yii style, so-named after the hoard of bronzes discovered in 
1923 at that town, located Southeast of Ta-t'ung in Shansi Province.^io 
One ting of similar shape, though much smaller and more elaborately 
decorated, was found there,3ii and a number of others are associated 
with the Li-yii bronzes by their shapes and decor. Three closely related 
to ours are in the National Palace Museum, Taiwan, the Rhoss 
Museum in Gothenburg, Sweden, and the Fujii Yurinkan, Kyoto. A 
smaller ting of this type with slenderer legs is in the Buckingham Col- 
lection, Chicago Art Institute the designs on this, while related, are 
composed of narrower dragons with only diagonal striation as their 
filling, instead of the rich variety (spirals, triangles, striation, pseudo- 
granulation) in the creatures on ours and the others. Bachhofer takes this 
more limited decorative repertory as an indication of earlier date, and in 
view of the closer affinities of the designs on the Buckingham ting with 
sixth century and still earlier designs (e.g. that on the / No. 93), his sug- 
gestion is probably correct.^i^ A ting formerly in the collection of Mrs. 
Christian Holmes illustrates what is probably a later stage in the 
development of this style.^^s Here there is still more separation of levels 
in the decor; and also clearly evident is the division of the ornament into 
paired units, each symmetrical about a vertical axis, which has been cited 
as characteristic of a late stage in the Li-yii style. 

These are, however, only hints for relative dating, and the actual 
historical period they cover is still uncertain. Watson surmises that the 
style was created around the middle of the sixth century, and was aban- 
doned by 500. We may note, however, its occurrence on the lid of a tou 
from Tomb I at Shan-piao-chen, along with an all-over pattern of 

310 Salles, . . . Li-yii. 

311 Op. cit., PI. XLHIc; Umehara, Sengoku . . . , PI. I. 

312 Ku-kung t'lmg-ch'i . . . , II, 101 ; and Jung, Wuying tien . . . , 28-9. Umehara, Sengoku . . . , Pi. XXIX. 
Umehara, SKSjJ, V, 358. 

313 Kelley, Chinese bronzes from the Buckingham Collection, PI. LIV-LVI. 

314 Bachhofer, A short history . . . , pp. 43-4. 

315 Umehara, Sengoku. . . , PI. XXX-XXXIII. 

316 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, p. 59. 



492 



NUMBER NINETY-SIX 



curls rising from a ground of pseudo-granulation, a type of decor 
ordinarily associated with the middle and later fifth century ."^i^ This 
suggests a survival of the style into the fifth century, and the more 
cautious dating for our ting given above. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The legs and handles, all of which are clay cored, were first cast separ- 
ately and then the vessel was cast to them. The method is revealed by the 
presence of a seam at the join of each leg and handle to the body and also 
by a narrow irregular overlap of metal from the vessel to the attached 
member. Presumably the precast legs were arranged symmetrically in a 
three-piece mold and the vessel cast to them in such a way that vessel 
metal flowed in and around the leg tops, and on cooling all members 
were securely locked together. There is no evidence of the use of hard 
solder. Vertical mold marks appear on either side of each leg indicating 
they were cast in two-piece molds. There are no openings on the inner 
flat faces of the legs into the core. The handles which are clay cored and 
cast full square are attached in the same way as the legs. A small rect- 
angular hole opens into the core on the inner flat face of each handle, 
about 1 cm. from the joins to the vessel but small thin rectangular spacer 
openings appear along the inner surfaces. On the underside of the vessel 
is a low circular ridge from which three symmetrically placed narrow 
ridges, apparently mold marks, radiate up the sides of the vessel and pass 
through the decor bands. There is faint evidence of chaplets in the plain 
band about the vessel middle, but elsewhere none. 

The lid shows no signs of mold joins. It was probably made in a two- 
piece mold with parting lines around the rim. The three loop handles 
appear to be cast as one with the lid. X-rays reveal that the lid casting is 
full of blow holes ; also, that there are a number of chaplets in the plain 
circular bands that divide the decor bands. 

Much of the surface of the vessel is covered with smooth gray-green, 
tin-oxide patina. Other areas bear thin scattered crusts of malachite and 
azurite. 

^l'' Kuo Pao-chiin, Shan-piao-chen .... PI. 12. 



493 



NUMBER NINETY-SIX 



That the vessel has been extensively repaired was first revealed by a 
pinkish fluorescence in ultraviolet light and by probing the surface with 
a stout needle. This shows that a breakout and loss on the lower side of 
the vessel has been replaced with a piece of sheet copper held in with soft 
solder and covered over with false patina. It will be observed in the 
photo detail of the underside that one of the three radiating mold marks 
is missing in the area of the repair. X-rays show that the center of the lid 
was crushed in and broken into six fragments which have been joined 
together with soft solder. No damage was done to the lid rim. These 
mends are likewise concealed with painted patina. (See Ch. VII, Vol. II.) 

Composition : Sample taken from rim. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 74.8% ; Sn 13.7 ; Pb 10.0; Total 98.5. 

Sample taken from underside of leg: Cu 73.6%; Sn 11.7; Pb 11.4; 
Total 96.7. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 
Fe 0.2 ; Co 0.03 ; Ni 0.09 ; As 0.05 ; Sb 0.09 ; Mn < 0.001 . 



494 



NUMBER NINETY-SIX 




Detail of decor on upper outside of handle (x 1.5) 



495 



NUMBER NINETY-SEVEN 



PLATE 91 



Hu 

Late Chou dynasty (5th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 44.8 cm. (17f in.) 

Width, 26.6 cm. (10^ in.) 

Weight, 9.38 kg. (20 lbs., 1 1 oz.) 

Accession number 57.22 



The tall graceful round vessel has two animal handles in the shape of 
stylized tigers with heads turned backward and tongues protruded. The 
animals are richly decorated in intaglio and the dark patina set off by 
copper inserted in the fossae. There are four main decorative bands all 
consisting of interlocking dragon forms executed in broad strokes 
covered with volutes and spirals in intaglio. These bands are separated by 
five braided rope patterns in relief. Similar decoration is arranged in 
ogival panels extending above the top-most rope pattern and hanging 
below the lower one; related decorations surround the foot. The vessel is 
exceptionally finely cast and covered with a uniform dark brownish 
patina interrupted only occasionally by malachite encrustation on one 
side. 



496 



PLATE 91 




NUMBER NINETY-SEVEN (57.22) 



NUMBER NINETY-SEVEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

A probable date of manufacture for this vessel is immediately suggested 
by its close similarity, in all important respects, to the pair of Huang- 
ch'ih hu in the Cull Collection, which Yetts ascribes, on the evidence of 
their inscriptions, to the year 482 or very shortly thereafter.^^^ The decor 
of the main zones, along with the bands of braid separating them, are all 
but identical; the beasts (tigers?) that form the handles are smaller on 
ours, and slightly different in formation, but of similar style. The Cull hu 
have simple, flaring bases, while ours is raised and richly ornamented 
with decor of the same type as that on the body {fig. 47). An approximate 
parallel for our base, but with a braid pattern in place of the dragons in 
the lowest band, is to be seen on the two hu vessels from Li-yii.^^^^ Our 




Figure 47 
Details of body decor 

318 Yetts, The Cull . . . , pp. 45-75, Pis. XVI-XVII. 

319 Umehara, Sengokii . . . , fig. 5 and PI. VI, no. 1. See also Chan Hui-chiian, Ancient relics . . . , Pis. 87 
and 89. 



499 



NUMBER NINETY-SEVEN 



vessel may have been provided with a hd, and perhaps with a fohated 
circlet of the type seen on the Cull hu. The extraordinary fineness and 
precision of decor, combined with the unusually good state of preserva- 
tion, make it one of the outstanding monuments of this style. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel, except the handles, is cast in one piece. Just to the left of 
each handle a vertical low sharp ridge cuts across all of the decor bands. It 
is not certain that these lines are the joins of a two-piece mold because in 
each of the horizontal braid pattern bands there are similar join marks, 
two to six in number and unevenly spaced. There are no corresponding 
joins in the wide bands of entwined hook and volute decor between the 
rows of braid. This suggests that the vertical ridges are not joins of a 
piece mold but joins of the pattern or model assembly. 

Under the bulge may be observed marks that are perhaps tool marks 
made in the model material when leveling of the relief to the plain surface 
was done. On the inside wall of the vessel and corresponding to the 
lower edge of the third rope pattern from the top is a distinct circular 
raised "join line" which may indicate juncture of a two-part model.^^o 
This is quite unusual. No chaplets are in evidence. 

The two animal handles, which are cast separately, are fixed to the 
vessel in a peculiar manner. They are not solid metal but contain baked 
clay cores which are completely surrounded by metal except for the 
small holes that pierce completely through the cheeks of the animal 
heads, and another hole through the curl of the tail. The paired feet of 
the animals provide but small contact area between handle and vessel. 
At the join juncture there is irregular overflow of metal from vessel to 
handle which indicates the handles were prefabricated and the vessel was 
cast to them. There is no evidence of hard solder at the join {fig. 48). 
Inside the vessel opposite the handle joins the surface is smooth and un- 
interrupted. Another unusual feature of the handles is the presence of 

320 On June 27, 1964, through the kindness of Mr. and Mrs. A. E. K. Cull, I had the opportunity to 
examine the two famous Im at their home, Warfield House, Bracknell, Berkshire, England. There is 
no trace of the horizontal join so clearly evident inside our hu. Both the Cull hu are completely 
smooth inside. On the outside, vertical mold-join marks are clearly seen under each handle. — J. A. P. 



500 



NUMBER NINETY-SEVEN 




Figure 48 

metallic copper inlaid in the deeply modeled lines of the sunken decor. 
This seems to be in the form of flat strips which in places are double 
strand and folded or looped back. The inlay is coppery in color and 
little corroded. 

The surface of the vessel is covered mostly with dark gray lustrous 
patina splotched irregularly with bright green pebbly malachite. There 
are no earthy accretions in the sunken decor, but a ring of hard clay 
inside the foot may be residue of the original clay core. In general the 
condition of the piece is excellent. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 68.8%; Sn 10.5; Pb 18.3; Total 97.6. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

Fe 0.1; Co 0.03; Ni 0.07; As 0.5; Sb 0.2; Bi <0.03; Al < 0.001; 

Mg 0.001; Si 0.002. 



501 



NUMBER NINETY-EIGHT 



PLATE 92 



Fang-hu 

Late Chou dynasty (5th-4th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 37.2cm.(14f in.) 

Width, 22.5 cm. (8i in.) 

Weight, 4.03 kg. (8 lbs., 14 oz.) 

Accession number 56.15 



The rectangular vessel on a high foot is decorated all over with hunt- 
ing scenes in horizontal bands in low relief on a flat ground. On the neck 
are four pairs of confronted birds with snakes in their mouths, and on 
the base are four pairs of volutes and triangles in vestigial dragon form. 
The flat bands separating the zones are decorated with swastikas; on the 
shoulders on two sides are animal masks in relief from which depend 
loose ring handles. The surface is covered with an even grayish green 
patina marred only by small areas of corrosion. 



502 



PLATE 92 




NUMBER NINETY-EIGHT (56.15) 



NUMBER NINETY-EIGHT 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The "hunting-style //w" of which this vessel is an example comprise a 
large family. Their dating has not yet been precisely established. 
Pictorial designs composed of figures and animals in silhouette arranged 
in flat patterns, with the individual units repeated many times presum- 
ably by stamp or stencil, are found on vessels otherwise attributable to 
around 500 (see the discussion of the chien No, 95). Apparently the 
"hunting hu" appeared about that time and extant examples date from 
the fifth and fourth centuries; and one excavated at T'ang-shan Shih in 
Hopei Province is assigned to the early fifth century,^^! a convincing 
suggestion in view of its similarity to hu from Li-yii, of that date or a bit 
earlier.322 On the piece from T'ang-shan Shih, the design elements are 
more widely spaced and freely arranged than on the commoner, prob- 
ably later, type of which ours is representative. On vessels of this later 
type, the design areas are tightly composed, but rather with a sense of 
horror vacui than of any true pictorial organization. The silhouette 
figures conform more rigorously to a pervasive style with emphasis on 
undulating contour. 

At least three known hu have virtually identical designs in all zones 
from top to bottom.=^23 however, are round rather than square in 
section. Several hu featuring some of the same motifs, although in 
diff"erent arrangements and with different decorative patterns in the 
intervening bands, were found at Liu-li-ko though unfortunately not in a 
context that provides any clue to their date.^'-^ 

The significant fact about the decorative patterns accompanying the 
hunting scenes on all these vessels is that for the most part, they do not 
belong to the Chinese repertory of bronze ornament. On ours, the band 
of open triangles and curls around the foot, rendered in broad, longi- 
tidinally divided bands, is obviously a survival of middle Chou style. 

321 Watson, Archaeology in China, p. 27-8, and PI. 86. 

322 Umehara, Senfoku . . . , PI. XVII and PI. XVIII, no. 1. 

323 In the Pillsbury Collection, Minneapolis (Karlgren, . . . Pillsbury . . . , No. 53, pp. 142-3 and PI. 73); 
the Kunstindustrie Museum,, Copenhagen (Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, PI. 70a) ; and the Virginia 
Museum of Fine Arts, unpublished. The designs are described in detail by Karlgren. 

824 Kuo Pao-chiin, Shan-piao-chen Pis. 91, 93, 103. 



504 



NUMBER NINETY-EIGHT 



But the vertically opposing V-shapes at the corners, and the swastika- 
like designs in all the other bands, are foreign to traditional Chinese 
style. Karlgren's statement that the latter is ''merely a corruption of the 
well-known whorl circle" is unconvincing; both the gap of centuries 
separating them from the disappearance of the whorl circle in Western 
Chou, and their lack of real likeness to that motif, argue against it. 
Watson has pointed out that several hunting-style vessels are associated, 
either by provenance or by inscription, with the ancient state of Yen in 
Hopei Province, which was in early contact with the nomadic tribes 
living farther north.='-'5 These alien-look ingdesigns, peculiar to the hunting- 
style vessels, as well as the hunting scenes themselves, are probably 
influenced by or partly derived from the art of those northern nomads. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast, but there are no vestiges of mold marks. Around the 
edge of each t'ao-tieh escutcheon is slight evidence of a join indicating 
these were separately cast and joined on. The handle rings appear to be 
continuous. The bottom is a sheet of metal with neat ribbons of locking 
overflow of the vessel metal visible on both sides. There appears to be a 
seam where the body metal meets the bottom. This construction suggests 
that the vessel might have been cast on to the bottom. At the square 
corners, there are V-shaped motifs, which straddle the corner; but they 
show no sign of join or register. There is a rough edge on the inside of 
the rim, and the edges around the ring hole of the escutcheons are 
rough and unfinished. Scratch marks of finishing tools are prominent. It 
should be noted that, while the main decor is in low relief, the swastikas 
of the horizontal bands are cast in intaglio. 

Some of the surface is covered with genuine thin gray-green patina of 
copper and tin alteration products, but large areas bear artificial painted 
patina applied probably to conceal metallic surface. Some earthy 
residues, however, remain in the recesses. Except for a small hole about 
0.5 cm. in diameter near the middle of one side, the vessel is in good 
condition. 

325 Watson, Archaeology in China, pp. 27-8; cf. also Ancient Chinese bronzes, p. 60. 



505 



NUMBER NINETY-EIGHT 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 78.0% ; Sn( + Sb) 7.2; Pb 12.6; Total 97.8. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

Fe 0.009; Co 0.03; Ni 0.2; As 0.1; Sb > 1 ; Bi 0.03; Al 0.002; 

Mg < 0.001; Si 0.03. 



506 



NUMBER NINETY-EIGHT 




NUMBER NINETY-NINE 



PLATE 93 



Hu 

Late Chou dynasty (late 5th-4th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 26.1 cm. (lOi in.) 

Width, 18.1 cm. (74 in.) 

Weight, 1.81 kg. (4 lbs.) 

Accession number 24.12 



The round vessel with two small loop handles high on the shoulder is 
decorated with two bands in intaglio and low relief. Around the shoulder 
on a ground of tightly drawn rectangular lei-wen are three pairs of con- 
fronted birds. The left-hand one of each pair has a snake in its mouth; 
and on all birds the eye, the wing joint, the leg joint, and the tail carry 
raised sockets inlaid with turquoise. The lower band consists of tightly 
interlaced dragon forms, and from this depend a series of hanging 
blades each decorated with interlocking dragons. A single annular loop 
is fastened near the bottom on one side between the two handles above. 
The brassy metal is covered with an even dark green patina with a dull 
surface on which are areas of malachite and cuprite encrustation and 
some earthy accretions. A large repair on the base of one side seems to 
have been made in ancient times. 



508 



NUMBER NINETY-NINE (24.12) 



NUMBER NINETY-NINE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Hu of this general shape seem to range in date from the seventh through 
the third century; the present example is from the latter part of this 
period although not the very end. Earlier pieces have, for one feature, 
more markedly flaring tops. Three examples, predecessors of ours, are 
in the National Palace Museum, Taiwan.^^e All have bird-dragon 
creatures, similar in style, represented on their shoulders rendered, 
however, in sunken line, on a bare ground, whereas ours are raised 
slightly above a ground of lei-wen. One of the vessels shares the inset 
discs of turquoise in the eyes and on the flanks of the creatures. Another 
is still fitted with a chain handle, attached to the shoulder rings; all 
presumably had handles of this type in their original condition. 

The decor in the zones of these three vessels appears at first sight to be 
virtually the same as that on ours, but proves on closer examination to 
differ from it significantly. Here the designs are completely abstract, 
densely packed rectangular spirals in the upper zones and interlocked 
angular S-forms in the lower. On the earlier pieces, the similar all-over 
patterns still retain vestiges of their origin in interwoven "dragon" 
designs, the bands crossing each other and ending in highly simplified 
heads with eyes. The same is true of the ostensibly similar patterns on 
bronzes from Hsin-cheng^^' and the tomb of the Marquis of Ts'ai at 
Shou-hsien.3''^8 The dating of the former site is still very problematic; 
objects from the latter are believed to range from the late sixth into the 
fifth century .329 The decor on the present hu indicates a date somewhat 
later than these, perhaps the later fifth or fourth century. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel was cast in a single piece, apparently in a three-piece, six- 
division mold. The vertical mold marks on the thirds show plainly, but 
those between the confronted birds are faint. The ring handles on the 

326 Ku-kimg t'ung-ch'i. . . , H, B. Nos. 291, 292, and 293. The first also in Jung, Pao-yiin-lou . . . , 86, 
and the second also in Wu-ying-tien . . . , 113. 

327 Sun Hai-p'o, Hsin-cheng-i-ch'i, pp. 82-3. 

328 Shou-hsien Ts'ai-hou . . . , e.g. Pis. 80, 81. 

329 xhe dating of Ch'en Meng-chia, accepted as most plausible by Soper, . . . Marquis of Ts'ai, p. 156. 



510 



NUMBER NINETY-NINE 



neck and the single extra ring handle at the bottom appear to be cast in, 
but show no mold marks. The most interesting feature is the rather crude 
"cast-on" repair on the lower side. The patch was made to mend either a 
large casting flaw or a long crack that occurred after casting. The repair 
is simply a ribbon of bronze metal which has been caused to flow into 
the crack and to lock in place by overflowing the edge inside and out. 
The upper end of the repair metal terminates in a flattened blob of metal 
which bears the stump of a small sprue. On the inside opposite the sprue 
is another corresponding flattened blob of metal. The repair is crudely 
made with no attempt at concealment or fine finish, which perhaps 
indicates that the repairs were made long after fabrication. There are, in 
addition, two smaller crude repairs on the bottom. 

The turquoise jewels, which were 24 in number, are held in sockets or 
bezels cast in the vessel. Each jewel is 3.5 mm. in diameter and is set 
nearly flush with the edge of the bezel. Some of the jewels are lost. 

The surface is covered with thin dull green patina, mostly malachite 
and cuprite mixed with earth and limy deposits. Much loessy earth still 
clings to the inside. There is a dent in the side which might have been 
caused by a blow or a fall in antiquity. 

Examination in ultraviolet light revealed an area about 10 cm. across 
on the upper part of the vessel that is painted with modern paint which 
has since been removed with organic solvents. Beneath it the metal 
surface is bright and lustrous and apparently had never corroded. The 
paint was probably applied in the market to give the surface a uni- 
formly old appearance. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of bottom. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 73.0% ; Sn 9.8 ; Pb 1 5.6 ; Total 98.4. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

Fe 0.03; Co 0.02; Ni 0.05; As 0.2; Sb 0.1 ; Bi 0.05; Al 0.002; Mg 

< 0.001; Si 0.05. 



511 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED 



PLATE 94 



Fang-hu 

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Meyer 

Late Chou dynasty (4th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 52.6 cm. (20f in.) 

Width, 27.8cm.(10| in.) 

Weight, 10.12 kg. (22 lbs., 5 oz.) 

Accession number 61.32 



The large square vessel with cover has animal mask escutcheons with 
pendant loose rings on two sides. The whole surface is elaborately 
decorated with a broad bold geometric pattern the flat areas of which are 
broken up by an arrangement of extremely fine spirals, hooks, volutes, 
etc. This pattern appears to have been executed by cutting out the 
surface of the bronze and inlaying it with copper and silver and bits of 
malachite. On the lid are four standing rings to serve as feet when 
inverted. The whole surface has been polished in the Chinese manner. 



512 



PLATE 94 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED (61.32) 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Following the decline and virtual disappearance of relief decor during 
the fifth and fourth centuries, flat, hnear patterns came into fashion, 
either rendered in quasi-engraved, sunken fine, or inlaid in copper, 
silver, and gold. In addition, crushed malachite is occasionally used as a 
filling for some areas. Decor in zones around the vessel body gives way 
to designs that cover the entire body, often divided diagonally into 
lozenges and triangles. 

The fang-hu or square hu is a form limited to the middle and late 
Chou periods. Our other example, the "hunting-style" hu, has already 
been described; it is similar in shape to the present piece and probably 
not far separated from it in time. 

The design is one of extraordinary complexity and sophistication. It is 
not composed in the traditional manner with distinct forms set against 
a ground, but is made up of interlocked shapes of equal value, the 
intervals between areas of inlay calculated as carefully, in dimensions 
and shape, as the inlay itself. Spirals and hooks dominate; the line 
moves with a swinging rhythm, proceeding only a short distance in any 
direction before being compelled by the inherent rules of the style to 
curl upward, double back, curl again, and so on through elaborate 
permutations of a basic set of movements, producing a pattern as 
intricate and formal as a dance. The elements of this stylistic repertory 
derive ultimately from the dissolution of the dragons of earlier stages, 
and suggestions of horns, eyes, and snouts may still be recognized in 
them, even though they are by now essentially abstract. 

Of related vessels, the most famous, and justly so, is in the University 
of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia.^^o It is graced with a design of 
even higher sophistication, featuring a complex play of diagonals set at 
varying angles, which end in curls and spirals as on the present piece. 
The design is less clearly partitioned in the Philadelphia fang-hu, con- 
tinuing without interruption onto the neck. It is rendered in raised, flat 

330 Umehara, SKSIE, III, 213; Andersson, The goldsmith . . . , pp. 24-29 and PI. XIX. A similar fang-hu 
was among the bronzes reportedly found at Chin-ts'un; see White, Tombs of old Loyang, PI. CIX. 



514 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED 



ridges, with the spaces between filled with chips of malachite. An in- 
scription on the base probably refers to a military expedition that took 
place in the year 279;33i this inscription is engraved, however, and the 
vessel could be somewhat older. Similar in technique but likewise lack- 
ing the inlay of precious metals is the square hu in the Pillsbury Collec- 
tion; the fossae of the design, now empty, presumably held crushed 
malachite as on the others.332 ^ design more closely related to that on 
the present fang-hu, although simpler, is to be seen on a well-known 
tm in the Winthrop Collection, at the Fogg Art Museum.^^a These 
pieces are commonly dated to the fourth century, and considering their 
position in the evolution of late Chou bronze styles, and the terminus 
ante quern provided by the inscription on the Philadelphia piece, this 
seems the proper dating. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast with walls about 3 mm. thick. Absence of parting lines 
at the corners or elsewhere may indicate that it was not cast in piece 
molds. Like many other bronzes of this type, there is a low irregular 
ridge on the underside which appears to be the stump of a sprue. The 
inside of the foot has a turned-over rim, and the recess of the foot is 
partially filled with hard clay residues of the original upper mold core. 
Fracturing of this clay material apparently occurred before or during 
casting, and into the fissures thus formed flowed the molten metal of 
which the corroded remnants now remain. Chaplets are visible in the 
plain areas just above the foot, and along one side of the vessel three 
chaplets have loosened and fallen away. Other chaplets may be hidden in 
the inlay grooves. 

The finely modeled t'ao-t'ieh mask escutcheons, were separately cast 
on to the already fabricated vessel. On the inside, opposite the nose 
loops of each escutcheon is a boss or short stump crossed vertically by a 
low ridge. The wall of the vessel must have been perforated to permit 
mechanical locking. The masks do not seem to have fused with the 

331 Andersson, op. cit., p. 27. 

332 Karlgren, . . . Pillsbury . . . , No. 54, PI. 74. 

333 Umehara, SKSIE, III, 215. 



515 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED 



vessel wall, hence the mechanical join is the principal means of attach- 
ment. One of the handle rings is decorated, and there is evidence of a 
join; but how it was made is not certain. The other ring is undecorated 
and appears to be a replacement. 

Inside of the four rings on the lid are clear mold marks, and under- 
neath the hd is a single depression which coincides with one of the rings. 
These features might suggest that the rings were cast separately, but at 
the juncture of the rings to the top there is no evidence of a seam or join 
so the rings and Hd appear to have been cast integrally. 

The surface of all sides and of the cover are inlaid with copper wire or 
strips and with small chips of malachite which show the typical banding 
of that mineral. Where scattered bits of malachite are missing the 
channels are seen to be about 1 mm. deep. The copper inlay is in the 
form of parallel strips turned at the ends of the channels and looped 
back as many as six or seven times. The deeper channels for the strips 
appear to be cast in, not cut. The copper inlay goes underneath the edges 
of the t'ao-t'ieh escutcheons indicating that the escutcheons were fixed in 
place after the copper. Unlike the copper, the malachite inlay stops 
short of the masks which indicates it was put in place later to avoid 
damage from heat of casting. 

Except for a thin tarnish over the bronze surface and the copper inlay, 
there is hardly any corrosion on the exterior. There is heavy malachite 
encrustation, however, on the inside of the cover and to some degree on 
the inside of the vessel and foot. That inside the cover is distinguished by its 
fibrous structure which is not rare in nature but seldom seen on artifacts. 
On one side the vessel is creased and caved in, and there is a small 
triangular loss on the edge of the foot and a break at one corner which 
has been repaired with soft solder. 

Composition : Sample for analysis taken from edge of foot. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 78.0% ; Sn 1 5.3 ; Pb 2.4 ; Total 95.7. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 
Fe 0.03 ; Co 0.02 ; Ni 0.07 ; As 0. 1 ; Sb 0.03 ; Si 0.02. 



516 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED ONE 



PLATE 95 



Pien-hu 

Late Chou dynasty (late 4th-early 3rd century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 31.2 cm. (12i in.) 

Width, 30.5 cm. (12 in.) 

Weight, 5.24 kg. (1 1 lbs., 9 oz.) 

Accession number 15.103 



This flat type of vessel is known as a pien-hu, and in style and decor- 
ation it is very much like the preceding. The geometric pattern that 
covers the surface is inlaid in silver, and the bronze is evenly covered 
with a dark brown patina showing some areas of malachite encrustation. 
It appears to have been polished by earlier Chinese collectors as in the 
previous case. 



518 



PLATE 95 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED ONE (15.103) 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED ONE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The pien-hu or flat hu, of which this is a notable representative, does not 
make its appearance until near the end of the Chou period, probably not 
before 400.=^34 jj^g majority of pubhshed examples have the two oval 
faces of the body divided into rectangular areas, staggered on successive 
levels like brickwork, and each of these rectangular areas filled with a 
form of the ''teeming hook and volute" design.^^s jj^j^ (jesign is clearly 
an outgrowth of that seen on the famous chien formerly in the Oeder 
Collection and the Berlin Museum, a vessel datable by its inscription 
(which mentions the same King Fu-ch'ai, reigned 495-473, as the 
inscriptions in the Cull hu) to the first half of the fifth century .^^e it is 
hard to imagine that the pattern as it appears on the pien-hu can be 
separated from this by much more than a century. 

On the neck of one of these pien-hu with relief decor (the one in the 
former Pilster Collection) there is inlaid in gold and silver a design of a 
type extremely popular during the last two centuries of the Chou 
dynasty, the so-called diagonal-and-curl motif, it is commonly used in 
friezes on inlaid vessels. A variant of it appears on the neck of the 
present piece, and the main decor of the body is in fact an expansion of 
the same motif, freed from the restraints imposed by horizontal bound- 
aries, over a larger surface. Like the design on the previous hu Number 
100, it is intricate and highly sophisticated; the only easily definable 
principle behind its composition is that of bilateral symmetry. A squatter 
vessel, round in section, with silver-inlaid decor so closely related as to 
suggest that the two pieces belonged originally to a single set, was 
formerly in the possession of C. T. Loo, Paris.^^^ Here, however, the 
design is of a simpler nature, repeating at intervals around the body, as is 
characteristic of decor in continuous zones; the more elaborate patterns 
with less of discernible repetition are permitted by the broader, bounded 

334 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, p. 35, PI. 67b, in the Mount Trust, England. 

235 Other examples in the Tenri Museum, Nara (Mizuno, //; shu . . . , PI. 147); the former Pilster Collec- 
tion, Berlin (Sullivan, An Introduction to Chinese art, PI. 19); and the Verburgt Collection, The Hague. 
(Umehara, SKSjE, UI, 187.) 

336 Karlgren, Yin and chou . . . , C183, PI. LII, and p. 72. This chien has not been seen since it was removed 
from Berlin by the Russians in 1945. 

337 Umehara, SKSjE, III, 220. 



521 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED ONE 



faces of the fang-hu and pien-hu, and so appear chiefly on those vessel 
types. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel, except for the handles and escutcheons, is cast in one piece, 
probably not in a piece mold. There is no evidence of mold marks on the 
vessel proper. On the underside is a low ridge with rough upper edge 
which seems to be the stump of a sprue (see also lien No. 121). Also the 
underside bears a peculiar criss-cross in low relief, its meaning unknown. 
The handle escutcheons with the loops for the rings are cast separately, 
but are fixed so flush and tight to the vessel that the join and seam are 
barely visible. There is no evidence of hard solder or other means of 
attachment on the outside, but on the inside an irregularity in the metal 
surface opposite the upper stem of each nose loop indicates a perforation 
and stem-locking device. The handle rings are solid, not split. No chap- 
lets are visible but some could be concealed under the broader areas of 
silver inlay. 

Most of the pattern is inlaid with thick silver foil. There is so little 
loss of inlay it is hard to tell how it is secured, but presumably the edges 
of the silver are set into grooves and undercuts chiselled into the bronze. 
The inlay on the base is made of fine silver strips also set into narrow 
grooves. The silver inlay runs under the handle escutcheons indicating 
they were attached after the vessel was decorated. The vessel is fairly well 
finished on the inside, although the surface here is encrusted with earthy 
residues. 

The bronze was apparently buried and formerly much corroded, but 
the surface has been scraped and abraded to uncover the silver. There is 
a considerable amount of malachite and cuprite under the silver. The 
smooth whitish deposit on one side below the neck is calcite. There is an 
irregular crack and break on one side as if the object had been struck a 
hard blow; a small bit of the inlay in this region is displaced and lost; 
otherwise, the object is in excellent condition. 

Composition: Sample taken from base. 



522 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED ONE 



Wet chemical analysis : Cu 8 1 .8% ; Sn 2.5 ; Pb 1 1 .7 ; Total 96.0. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 

Fe 0.006; Co 0.06; Ni 0.1 ; Sb 0.005; Bi 0.2; Al 0.001 ; Mg 0.001 ; 

Si 0.002. 

The low tin content of the vessel is noteworthy. 



523 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWO 



PLATE 96 



P'ou 

Late Chou dynasty (5th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 27.0 cm.(10| in.) 

Width, 32.0 cm. (12| in.) 

Weight, 5.19 kg. (11 lbs., 7 oz.) 

Accession number 09.280 



Around the shoulder are two bands of decoration, a series of hanging 
blades above a band of highly stylized interlacing dragons. Four round 
bosses are symmetrically placed around the vessel in the middle of the 
two bands; these are hollow on the inside and decorated with inter- 
locking dragons on which are small, circular, socket-like areas which 
may once have contained malachite or turquoise or some other decor- 
ative material. The whole vessel is evenly covered with a heavy greenish 
encrustation that makes the design almost illegible in many areas. 



524 



PLATE 96 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWO 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

A similar p'ou was found at Hsin-cheng; it diflfers chiefly in the number 
of raised roundels in the shoulder band, and in minor details of decor, 
and must be approximately contemporary .^^s As noted in connection 
with the kuei. Number 82, Hsin-cheng provides only the most general 
kind of dating; the earliest pieces go back probably to the eighth 
century, while the latest are of fifth century. The p'ou in question fits 
better into the later part of this period, with its band of decor con- 
sisting of close-packed rectangular units, each formed from the com- 
pression of a strap-work dragon. This decor, also seen here, is associated 
with bronzes of the fifth century, among them those from Shan-piao- 
chen; two more p'ou of related shape were found in the Marquis of Ts'ai 
Tomb.339 Like the example from Hsin-cheng, they have eight shoulder 
roundels, but have in addition on their shoulders loop handles sur- 
mounted by masks of horned beasts, as well as pairs of rings to which 
chain handles are attached. All three have lids, as ours presumably did 
originally. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast in one piece; mold marks just under the lip indicate it 
was probably directly cast in a four-piece mold. Join traces are evident as 
disparities through the decor bands. The four large bosses on the 
shoulder of the vessel have corresponding depressions on the inside. 
There is no evidence of seams at the edges of the bosses, hence they 
appear to be cast as integral parts of the vessel. The bottom is slightly 
depressed underneath; otherwise it is featureless. There is slight evidence 
of chaplets but corrosion makes their detection difficult. 

The center of the small circlets in the decor of the bosses and some 
lines of the sunken decor are filled with a black material which may be 
residues of an inlay or filling. The rather uniform layer of dull green 
corrosion tests strongly for lead although lead content of the alloy is not 

338 Sun Hai-p'o, Hsin-cheng-i-ch'i, No. 86. 

339 Shou-hsien Ts'ai-hou Nos. 21 and 28.1, PI. XII. 



526 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWO 



high. The metal of the vessel, both sides and bottom, has a number of 
blow holes and other casting flaws; a few of these are plugged with soft 
solder and painted over. They are obviously modern repairs. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 79.4%; Sn 8.9; Pb 7.6; Total 95.9. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 

Fe 0.07; Co 0.001; Ni 0.009; As 0.3; Mg <0.001; Mn <0.001; 

SiO.l. 



527 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED THREE 



PLATE 97 



Tun 

Late Chou dynasty (late 6th-early 5th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 15.5 cm. (6 J in.) 

Width, 16.2 cm. (6f in.) 

Weight, 1.05 kg. (2 lbs., 5 oz.) 

Accession number 32.13 



The oval shaped covered vessel has three ducks in the round sitting on 
the lid and two annular handles protruding from the long sides. Around 
the neck and the main part of the body are two bands of interlocking 
dragons. Four very small monster masks are cast at the four quarters of 
the lid and hang down over the edge to hold the latter in position on the 
vessel. The grayish metallic patination is covered with patches of azurite, 
malachite, and cuprite inside and out. 



528 



PLATE 97 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED THREE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This handsome small vessel was reportedly found at Li-yii in Shansi 
Province, and was published as such by Umehara and Mizuno.^^o it may 
be the "incense burner" {bride parfums) mentioned as being in the Freer 
Gallery in George Salles' article on the Li-yii find.^'^i Another piece 
related in shape but without rings appears among the Li-yii bronzes 
photographed at the site by the dealer Charles Wannieck.^"^ A tripod 
from the same find has on its lid three similar ducks, and the main bands 
of decor on the two vessels appear to be virtually identical.^^s 

As noted in the discussion of the ting Number 96, the bronzes of Li-yii 
cannot be dated very precisely. The most likely date for them is the late 
sixth century, but the style may extend into the fifth. A piece of similar 
shape is in the Brundage Collection (B60.B75); the decor, a degenerate 
form of the Huai style, would lead to a dating in the fifth century. 
Another example, evidently with openwork on the base and the disc- 
shaped handle on top, was published by Umehara.^^^ Apart from these, 
no other examples are known to us of vessels in this shape, which was 
apparently short-lived. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel and lid each appear to be cast in a single piece, but the method 
used to cast them is not certain. The engaged ducks on the lid each bear 
mold marks along the median line under the tail and biU, but they show 
no seam where they join the lid. The small lid-edge stops in the form of 
animal heads are cast as integral parts of the lid. Likewise, the ring 
handles appear to be cast as integral parts of the bowl since exploration 
of the joins discloses no evidence of seams or spill-over metal. There are, 
however, parting lines, more in the nature of mold join marks along the 
edge of each handle, and there is evidence of a mold join line along the 

340 Umehara, Sengokii . . . , PI. VH; Mizuno, In shil . . . , PI. 132. 

341 Salles, . . . Li-yi;, p. 158. 

342 Op. cit., PI. L, center right. A similar piece - or the same, with handles added? - in Umehara, Koddki 
. . . , Pi. V, No. 10. 

343 Salles, op. cit., PI. XLIII, top. 

344 Umehara, op. cit., PI. XXVI, No. 2. 



530 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED THREE 



outer edge of the foot rim. The vertical lines at the bowl ends which 
divide the decor bands in halves appear to be joins in the pattern, not 
mold join mari^s. No chaplets are visible. 

Outwardly the low sunken decor has an engraved look but under low 
magnification it appears truly cast; the finish and polishing down 
produces sharp edges with resulting engraved appearance. In places the 
sunken lines are filled with a black substance which is quite hard; it is 
neither niello nor carbon black, but may be dark cuprite. Much of the 
surface retains a dull pewter-like metallic lustre. On the inside the bronze 
surface has an untarnished and satin-like finish, as it must have had when 
it left the hands of its maker. The exterior surface and some of the 
interior is irregularly splotched with corrosion products including 
malachite, azurite, cerussite, and cuprite. The lid has suffered more from 
corrosion inside and out than has the vessel; also it is damaged along 
the rim where a piece about 7 cm. long and 3 cm. wide has broken away. 

Composition: Sample taken from rim. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 70.2%; Sn 14.3; Pb 13.0; Total 97.5. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

Fe 0.03 ; Co 0.02 ; Ni 0.05 ; As 0.3 ; SbO.2 ; Bi 0.03 ; Al 0.002 ; MgO.005 

Mn < 0.001; Si >1. 



531 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED FOUR 



PLATE 98 



Tun 

Late Chou dynasty (late 6th-early 5th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 15.0 cm. (5| in.) 

Width, 22.2 cm. (8 J in.) 

Weight, 2.66 kg. (5 lbs., 14 oz.) 

Accession number 38.7 



This covered vessel has four monsters on the lid which serve as legs 
when the latter is inverted. Two animal mask escutcheons hold pendent 
rings on the sides. Lid and vessel each have three horizontal bands of 
decoration consisting of elaborately interlaced scroll forms inlaid in 
silver. A similar band surrounds the foot. A smooth, gray-green patina 
covers the whole vessel; and there are some areas of malachite encrusta- 
tion. 



532 



PLATE 98 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED FOUR 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The shape is one that appeared only late in the Chou period. A covered 
vessel formerly in the Oppenheimer Collection, a probable predecessor, 
is decorated with a pattern sufficiently similar to the Li-yii style to 
suggest a date for it in the late sixth or early fifth century .^45 Its top is 
surmounted by four simple rings, which on our piece are elaborated 
into the heads of beasts with curling crests. These bronze vessels are pro- 
bably based on simple, low-footed, covered bowls of pottery, such as one 
excavated from a Warring States tomb at Chung-chou Lu near 
Lo-yang.346 

The inlaid design on this ///// belongs to the first style of the two that 
appear to be the main innovations of fourth century bronze decor, that 
in which "the units of the pattern are arranged symmetrically about a 
vertical or diagonal axis. They are drawn in straight lines with spiral 
ends, continuous with wider scrolled elements. "^^v Within this broad 
stylistic scheme, endless variations were possible so that resemblances, 
but seldom exact correspondence, occur in the decor on numerous 
vessels of the period. That on the present piece, for instance, resembles 
designs on inlaid hu vessels of around the same date,348 1^^^ less emphasis 
is placed on diagonal compartmentalization, presumably because the 
surface to be covered was smaller, and the need for strong, rigid design 
accordingly less. A hu published by Umehara, on the other hand, has 
decor arranged in zones, as on this tun, and the designs agree more 
closely .349 ji^e derivation of these designs from animal ("dragon") forms 
which is by no means readily apparent in the end-products of the trans- 
formation, can be observed through transitional stages in which the 
elements, while on the verge of total abstraction, still retain some vestigal 
animal attributes. Examples include another hu published by Umehara,35o 
and the tou that follows. Number 105. 

345 Umehara, SKSIE, HI, 189. 

346 Lo-yang chung-chou-lu, PI. 77, no. 7. 
Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, p. 64. 

348 E.g. one in the Pillsbury Collection, Karlgren, . . . Pillsbury . . . , PI. 74. 

349 Umehara, SKSU, V, 388. 

350 Op. cit., V, 386. 



534 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED FOUR 



TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

There are no visible mold marks or sprues on the vessel proper, and the 
t'ao-t'ieh escutcheons are cast into the already completed vessel. 
Strangely enough the nose rings are from a second pour of metal which 
overflows the t'ao-t'ieh masks, and enters a perforation through the 
vessel wall to form a rivet-like locking plug on the inside. Both the 
handle rings are split. The ornate monsters on the lid have sharp ridges 
along the median lines that are clearly mold joins and are likewise cast in 
two-piece molds affixed by a similar locking cap of metal on the under 
surface which is clearly visible in one case although partially concealed 
by corrosion crusts. The underside of the bottom is featureless except for 
slight evidence of a mold join along the edge of the foot. The presence of 
these mold join marks underneath, the separate manufacture of handle 




Figure 49 



535 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED FOUR 



escutcheons and lid monsters and the considerable thickness of the vessel 
walls suggest that the vessel was piece-mold cast. One chaplet under the 
body-bulge is plainly visible. 

The entire surface of the cover and vessel is lavishly decorated with 
narrow inlaid silver strips now tarnished black. The silver is accentuated 
by cut-out areas which bear remnants of inlay made from chips of 
turquoise. The silver inlay runs completely under the escutcheon handles 
showing that the inlay was applied before the handles were fixed ( fig. 49). 

The surface is covered with gray-green tin-oxide patina, and scattered 
patches of malachite and cerussite, some of it covering silver inlay. The 
inside of both vessel and lid is covered with earthy residues mixed with 
copper green in which ghosts of a fine weave fabric pattern are visible. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 74.3%; Sn 12.0; Pb 8.9; Total 95.2. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

Fe0.03; CoO.OOl ; Ni 0.02; Sb0.03; A10.002; Mg0.002;Mn < 0.001 ; 

Si 1.0. 



536 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED FOUR 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED FIVE 



PLATE 99 



Tou 

Late Chou dynasty (4th century B.C.) 
No inscription 
Height, 15.5 cm. (6 J in.) 
Width, 18.7 cm. (7f in.) 
Weight, 1.56 kg. (3 lbs., 7 oz.) 
Accession number 39.41 



The lid has a low widely flaring finial which can serve as a foot when 
inverted; two vertical rings protrude from the sides, and the vessel rests 
on a high stem with flaring foot. Both vessel and cover are decorated 
with horizontal bands of vestigial dragon forms inlaid in gold, and a 
similar band surrounds the flaring part of the base. The surface is 
evenly covered with encrustations of malachite and some azurite. 



538 



PLATE 99 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED FIVE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

A tou of virtually the same shape was found in the Great Tomb (Tomb 
1) at Shan-piao-chen, the contents of which are generally dated to the 
middle or later fifth century .^^i The main decor on that piece is a degen- 
erate form of the Huai style, but the top of the lid handle features decor 
of the type associated with the Li-yii bronzes. No examples of tou of this 
shape with decor in styles earlier than that of Li-yii are known. The 
form persists through the remainder of the Chou period, and goes out 
of fashion at the beginning of Han. 

Of special interest in the gold-inlaid design is its clear derivation from 
the intertwined animal patterns that dominate bronze relief decor of the 
sixth and fifth centures. A comparison of the principal decor band on 
this tou with, for instance, that on the tun Number 103, reveals that the 
gold design is a translation of the latter into a new medium, with the 
main configurations preserved but the elaborate fiUings and other 
ornaments eliminated in a drastic simplification imposed in part, no 
doubt, by the limitations of the inlay technique. The snouts, eyes, and 
horns of the dragons are recognizable, but the rest is a play of lines and 
curls that retain the basic rounded-angular movement. This closer 
affinity with the Li-yu and other relief styles of bronze ornament sets the 
vessel apart from the more common inlaid pieces with completely 
abstract patterns, and suggests for it a slightly earlier date than, for 
example, the tun Number 104. A piece that represents a stage one step 
further on, where the decor preserves much of the same general character 
but has lost all animal traits, is a bronze tripod reportedly, found at Lo- 
yang, dating probably from the fourth century.^^a Mizuno states that 
our tou was excavated at Hui-hsien, Honan Province, and assigns it to the 
middle of the Chan-kuo period.^^^ 



•^51 Kuo Pao-chiin, Shan-piao-chen . . . , PI. 12. 

352 E.g. Mizuno, In shu . . . , PI. 136. 

353 White, Tombs of old Loyang, PI. CII. 

354 Mizuno, In shu . . . , p. 137 and p. 31 of the Japanese text. 



540 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED FIVE 



TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Neither of the two members of the vessel shows evidence of mold marks, 
and apparently they were not cast in piece molds. The two ring handles 
seem to be cast as part of the vessel. There is no sunken decor, but the 
vessel and cover are lavishly decorated with intaglio designs inlaid with 
cut-outs of heavy sheet gold 0.3 to 0.5 mm. in thickness. The inlay is 
completely intact in spite of mechanical removal of the heavy corrosion 
crusts that apparently originally concealed it. It is impossible now to say 
whether the inlay grooves were cast in or incised after casting. The 
pedestal underneath is plain but clay core material still fills the interior 
of the stem. 

Apparently the surface was heavily encrusted with copper corrosion 
products much as the interior surface is now. On the inside the corrosion 
crusts are formed in thick tilted rings which indicates that during the 
corrosion cycles, the vessel, lying at an angle, was intermittently parti- 
ally filled with water. On the exterior most of these crusts have been 
cleaned away by former owners to reveal the gold inlay and the cuprite 
underlayer in which the inlay is now embedded. Much of the uncovered 
cuprite surface has been concealed once more by a kind of paint made 
from a mixture of coarse azurite and malachite mineral particles. In the 
gold-decorated area along the set-back of the rim this artificial encrusta- 
tion has in turn recently been cleaned away to show the true condition. 

Composition : Sample taken from rim of base. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 93.3°o ; Sn 1.7; Pb 2.3 ; Total 97.3. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 
Fe 0.05 ; Co 0.001 ; Ni 0.09 ; Sb 0.03 ; Mg < 0.001 ; Si < 0.001 . 



541 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED SIX 



PLATE 100 



An 

Late Chou dynasty (5th century B.C. ?) 
Inscription of two characters 
Height, 10.2 cm. (4 in.) 
Width, 15.9 cm. (6i in.) 
Weight, 0.85 kg. (1 lb., 14 oz.) 
Accession number 11.45 



The elongated oval vessel has a vertical ring handle on one side and 
two small loops on the shoulder at the ends. A single band of tightly 
interlocking scroll patterns arranged in triangular fields surrounds the 
entire vessel. The surface is rough with malachite and cuprite encrusta- 
tion, and there is considerable earthy accretion. Mr. Freer bought this 
piece from Sato of Nagasaki; and his comment was, "Beautiful and un- 
doubtedly early; learn if Shang." 



542 



PLATE 100 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED SIX 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The shape is uncommon, but belongs to the relatively large repertory of 
simple, practical vessels made by the late Chou bronze-casters. Shapes in 
this period were evidently governed by less rigorous canons than were 
those of the ritual bronzes of earlier centuries. An example with decor of 
an earlier style (6th century?) was published by Jung Keng, who calls it 
a chih rather than an.^^^ Several cups of similar form but differing in the 
size and placement of the ring handles were among the Hsin-cheng 
bronzes.356 Another, in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, lacks the 
smaller rings. None of these provides any clue to dating. 

The linear pattern in the band around the body is one of the myriad 
variants of the pervasive diagonal-and-volute mode that appear on late 
Chou bronzes. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is probably cast by the direct method ; but there are no visible 
mold marks except on the inside of the larger loop handle, which appears 
to be cast as one with the vessel. There is some evidence of chaplets. The 
inscription is in a peculiar location on the underside. This seems to be 
the clearest example we have of a genuine ancient bronze in which an 
inscription has been incised. The strokes of the characters are cut through 
the corrosion layers. Each scale of the fish appears as a separate plateau 
on which a top layer of cerussite with chipped edges lies over a layer of 
malachite. The sides of the stratified plateau and the bottoms of the 
strokes reveal the marks of a tool through a light coating of malachite. 

The dull and rough corrosion crusts, which seriously obscure the fine- 
line sunken decor, are mostly copper and lead carbonates mixed with 
some earthy residues. There are no breaks, losses, or repairs. 

Composition: Because of deep corrosion no sample suitable for wet 

analysis was available. 
Elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Sample taken at the 

355 Jung, Sung-chai . . . , 95. Shang-chou . . . , no. 808. Cf. also Po-ku-t'u-lu, ch. 16, 8-9. 

356 Sun Hai-p'o, Hsin-cheng-i-chU, 126-128, and Kuan Po-i, Hsin-cheng . . . , 34. 



544 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED SIX 



joint of handle to body : Cu principal ; Sn > 1 ; Pb > 1 ; Ag 0.2 ; Au 
<0.01; Fe 0.2; Co 0.03; Ni 0.03; As 0.3; Sb 0.07; Bi 0.2; Mg 
< 0.001; Si 0.04. 

INSCRIPTION 

The inscription is incised and spurious. It comprised the t'ien-kan 
cyclical graph / (No. 2) and the character ''fish.'' As the calligraphy and 
content is clearly Shang in style, the anomaly of a Shang style inscrip- 
tion in a late Chou style vessel proves immediately the hand of the faker. 




545 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED SEVEN 



PLATE 101 



Fu 

Late Chou dynasty (5th-4th century B.C.) 
No inscription 
Height, 16.5 cm. (6J in.) 
Width, 27.3cm.(10f in.) 
Weight, 2.49 kg. (5 lbs., 8 oz.) 
Accession number 13.14 



The rectangular vessel consists of identical base and cover with the 
finial of the cover serving as a foot when that part is inverted. The only 
thing to distinguish one part from the other is a flange set inside the rim 
of the base to hold the cover in place; and this is apparently a later 
addition. The entire outer surface is covered with tightly drawn inter- 
locking dragon patterns which completely fill areas separated by plain 
bands at the corners. Diagonal and volute patterns surround the two 
vertical areas above and below the lip. The whole vessel is covered with a 
greenish-black patina, moderately encrusted in some areas. The piece 
was bought at the Prince Kung sale at the American Art Association in 
New York. Mr. Freer wrote, ''May be a Ming copy, but 1 think it Han." 



546 



PLATE 101 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED SEVEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The fine pattern of serpent-dragons (sometimes, in this form, referred 
to as "worms'") on this fu is matched closely on the fu from the Tomb of 
the Marquis of Ts'ai referred to previously. Another point of affinity 
between the two vessels is in the outer contours of the legs, which are 
nearly straight, with only a slight break, quite diff'erent from the pro- 
nounced concavities of the legs on the fragmentary /// described below. 
Our fu, on the other hand, differs from most others in that it now lacks 
both handles and the small beast heads that project downward from the 
rim to facilitate the seating of the lid. Also, the bands of diagonal-and- 
volute pattern along the rims of cover and base on our bronze have no 
parallel on the Marquis of Ts'ai vessel. Such patterns, in their fully 
developed form, are found most commonly on bronzes of the fourth and 
third centuries. In this relatively plain and simple form, however, it may 
well belong slightly earher, especially in view of the relationship to the 
Marquis of Ts'ai fu, which presumably dates with the rest of the find, to 
the late sixth or early fifth century. Other examples of patterns that seem 
to anticipate the typical diagonal-and-volute bands may be seen on fifth 
century bronzes from the same tomb and from Tomb 1 at Shan-piao- 
chen.358 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel and the lid were each cast directly from four-piece molds. 
Vestiges of join traces can be seen along the corners where there is also 
slight evidence of imperfect register where decor units oppose each other. 
Two dark spots in the center of the end panels of the lid indicate that 
handles might originally have been located here, but apparently they 
were broken off and the stumps smoothed down to the level of the sur- 
face. Located in the plain area of both units are numerous squarish 
chaplets more or less symmetrically disposed. Some are also located in 
the decor areas which are unusual in that they lack pattern-joins. 

A strip of brass, obviously a relatively recent addition or repair, has 

357 Shou-hsien Ts'ai-hoii . . . , Pis. 81-82. 

358 Kuo Pao-chiin, Shan-piao-chen . . , PI. 39, nos. 1 and 2, P. 46 no. 2, PI. 50 nos. 2 and 3. 



548 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED SEVEN 



been joined with soft solder to the inside of the rim as a flange to hold the 
lid securely in place. The surface is covered quite uniformly with olive- 
green-stained tin-oxide patina, but there are also scattered patches of 
malachite and azurite. 

Composition : Sample taken from cover. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 67.8% ; Sn 7.0; Pb 22.0; Total 96.8 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

Fe 0.1; Co 0.03; Ni 0.03; As 0.1; Sb 0.02; Bi 0.05; Al < 0.001; 

Mg 0.003 ;Mn < 0.001 ; Si 0.04. 



549 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED EIGHT 



PLATE 102 



Fu (base of a similar vessel) 

Late Chou dynasty (late 6th-early 5th century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 3.2 cm. (IJ in.) 

Width, 26.3cm.(10| in.) 

Weight, 0.91 kg. (2 lbs.) 

Accession number 09.336 



This fragment has a finer and more regular surface decoration of inter- 
locking dragons drawn in intaglio. On the underside of the base some- 
thing has gone wrong with the casting and much of the design is barely 
legible. One side of the upper part of the foot is badly corroded, and the 
whole vessel is heavily covered with pale malachite and dark azurite 
patination. Mr. Freer described it as, "Very beautiful and genuine Han." 
It came from Count Tanaka, through Samurai Shokai of Yokohama. 



550 



PLATE 102 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED EIGHT 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

A good example of the type of fu to which this is the base is in the 
Buckingham Collection in the Art Institute of Chicago.^^^ Both have the 
same vermiculated pattern solidly covering the surface {fig. 50). 




Figure 50 

The fu probably did not exist before the Eastern Chou period, and the 
earhest examples seem to be those with decor characteristic of the 
seventh century .^^o Kuo Mo-jo publishes the lower part of one which 
he dates, from its inscription, to the middle Ch'un-ch'iu period (i.e. the 
7th century).36i Two more related pieces, one from Hsin-cheng, are 

•^59 Kelley and Ch'en, Chinese bronzes . . . , PI. XLVIII. 

360 E.g. Jung, Shang chou . . . , PI. 352-7. 

361 Kuo Mo-jo, Liang chou . . . , I, fig. 139, text 187. 



552 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED EIGHT 



assigned by Watson to the late sixth or early fifth century,362 ^ dating 
born out by the fu of the Marquis of Ts'ai mentioned in the discussion of 
Number 107 above. The fine pattern on the Marquis of Ts'ai fu is made 
up of intertwined dragons with distinct eyes and snouts, while on the 
Freer and Buckingham pieces, along with another found at Liu-li-ko,363 
the pattern has become purely geometric. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Although the inside edges of the arches of the base have a wide over- 
hang, there are vestiges of mold marks along the corner edges which 
indicate the use of piece-molds. The wall of the flat bottom is only about 
1 mm. thick, and the thickened rims of the feet are only about 5 mm. 
There are no signs of chaplets, and, if present, they are hidden by deep 
corrosion. In many areas corrosion is so complete that no metallic core 
remains, and this no doubt has caused the breaking away of the vessel 
body. The corrosion in this case is a good example of pseudomorphic 
replacement of copper with tin oxide. In the tin oxide surface on the feet 
the lines of the fine and deeply cut decor are still deep, and the edges are 
sharp. In certain areas on the underside, the mineral layer has been 
abraded away to leave a ghost pattern of the decor in the rough metal 
surface. There are scattered patches of malachite and azurite overlay and 
of earthy residues. There are no repairs or paint touch-ups. The object 
is probably in much the same condition as it was when found. 

Composition: Sample taken from edge of flat bottom. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 64.7% ; Sn 9.2 ; Pb 23.8 ; Total 97.7. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.07%; 

Fe 0.09 ; Co 0. 1 ; Ni 0.05 ; Sb 0.02 ; Al < 0.00 1 ; Si 0.009. 

The alloy has an unusually high lead content. 



Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes. Pis. 56b and 57b; the date in the caption to the latter, "6th or early 
7th century B.C.," is surely a misprint. 
Kuo Pao-chiin, Shan-piao-chen . . . , PI. 67. 



553 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED NINE 



PLATE 103 



A rectangular deep tray 
Recent 

No inscription 
Height, 14.0 cm. (51 in.) 
Width, 28.3 cm. (Ill in.) 
Weight, 1.78 kg. (3 lbs., 15oz.) 
Accession number 11.66 



A vessel with straight sides leaning outward and inturning lip has 
two upright ting type handles attached to the ends. On all four sides are 
panels showing crested birds in somewhat early Chou style. A rough 
greenish patina covers the whole surface. Mr. Freer bought it from Riu 
Gu Sai, China, and described it as, "Interesting form and design, but 
probably a copy." 



554 



PLATE 103 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED NINE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The shape is unknown in ancient times, and does not even imitate an 
early vessel type. The low-relief designs in the trapezoidal areas on the 
sides are based very loosely on bird forms of the early to middle Chou 
transition, freely drawn in a manner that suggests a possible derivation 
from woodblock-printed designs. They are set against a crudely ren- 
dered lei-wen ground. A clue to the dating of vessels with decor in this 
style is provided by the recent discovery in Inner Mongolia of several 
archaistic bronzes of the Yiian dynasty .^^^ 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is apparently cast in one piece. There is little or no evidence 
of mold marks. The handles are joined at four points of contact; and 
although there is evidence of seams at the lower contacts, there is none 
at the upper joins, hence they appear to be cast as an integral part of the 
vessel. The absence of mold marks, the thinness of the vessel walls, and 
the wide inward overhang (about 1 cm.) of the lip seem to deny the use of 
a piece mold in the casting. 

The entire surface is uniformly coated with a rough but thin layer of 
dark green corrosion crust which obscures the detail of the low relief 
decor. To make the designs more readable, one side of the vessel was 
treated with dilute formic acid, which stripped away much of the corro- 
sion layer and revealed many details formerly hidden. The vessel is in 
good condition; there is no evidence of paint or repair. 

Composition : Sample taken from underside of the one leg. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 77.4% ; Sn 10. 1 ; Pb 9.8 ; Total 97.3. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

Fe 0.003; Co0.01;Ni0.2;As0.1;Sb0.3;Bi0.03;Zn0.1;Mg < 0.001; 

Mn < 0.001; Si < 0.001. 

The presence of a small amount of zinc is noted. 

i^ei Meng-ku, pis. 159-163, espec. pi. 163. 



556 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED NINE 




End view 



557 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TEN 



PLATE 104 



Huo 

Late Chou or early Han dynasty (3rd century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 28.5 cm. (Hi in.) 

Width, 29.9 cm. (Hi in.) 

Weight, 3.29 kg. (7 lbs., 4 oz.) 

Accession number 1 1 .630 



This vessel is difficult to classify, but is here considered a huo because 
of its hd and pouring spout. The shape is that of an inflated bird stand- 
ing on three feet, and the spout is designed as a monster mask. On the 
small circular lid is a backward-facing standing bird with wings spread, 
executed in the full round ; and to its breast is attached a chain the other 
end of which is held by a kneeling man. Flanking this group are six 
Ordos-style tigers executed in intaglio (perhaps incised?). A smooth, 
greenish-brown patina covers the entire vessel and is interrupted by 
occasional areas of malachite and cuprite encrustation. The piece came 
from Samurai Shokai of Yokohama, and Mr. Freer called it "genuine 
Han. Rare, and of unusual form." 



558 



PLATE 104 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

Aside from a fragmentary related vessel in the Royal Ontario Museum, 
Toronto, nothing quite like this bizarre creation is known. There are, 
however, other late Chou pouring vessels with which it shares some 
features. The canine-type beast's head that terminates the spout resembles 
that on a round-bellied / that Mizuno assigns to the fourth or third 
century and the creatures with S-shaped bodies executed in sunken 
lineament on the upper surface are fairly common on late Chou 
bronzes.^^*'*^ The curious mode of attachment of the lid, with one of two 
double links of a chain held by a kneeling human figure and the other 
joined to a loop on the breast of a bird, is perhaps unique, but can be 
compared to that on another huo pubhshed by Umehara, where one hnk 
is held in the beak of a bird on the lid, and the other encircles the neck of 
a tiger on the body.^^^ Otherwise Umehara's vessel is more conventional 
than ours, its shape following a type known in at least one example 
assigned to the fifth century.^^s xhe present piece exemplifies the free 
and fanciful spirit that the late Chou bronze-casters were apparently 
permitted to indulge. 

The motif of "the kneeling man" is worthy of study per se and has not 

received the attention it deserves. Janse called attention to it when it 

turned up in the course of his excavations in Indo-China. His most 

striking example is the bronze lampadary found in Tomb 3, "The tomb 

of the kneeling person" at Lach-tru'o'ng.^ea The dating of those finds 

is still not very precise, but in a general way they seem to relate to 

Han China, Another group of kneeling figures purporting to have been 

found at Chin-ts'un, Honan, was pubhshed by Umehara some years 
earlier.3^0 

365 Mizuno, In shu . . . , PI. 149. 

366 cf. e.g. Umehara, Sengoku . . . , Pis. LXXVII, LXXXIV-VI. 

367 Op. cit., PI. LXII. 

368 Watson, Ancient Chinese bronzes, 51b. 

369 Janse, Archaeological research . . . , vol. I, pis. 9-10, see also pis. 1 1-12, 55-57 for related material. 
In the same tomb was a bronze vessel which to judge from the drawing on p. xxvii, fig. 10, of the 
same volume is very close in shape and decoration to our No. 118. The animal band around the belly 
seems to resemble that on the lien No. 120. Cf. also, Bachhofer, Bronze figures . . . , XXlll. 

370 Umehara, Rakiiyo kinson . . . , Pis. XXXIII-XXXVIII. 



560 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TEN 



TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Technically this is an interesting and unusual piece. Although there is a 
join mark under the body, head, tail, and wings, seem to be cast in one 
piece. On the inside at the join of neck to body there is a ridge or stric- 
ture, which suggests that the head and neck are cast on, but careful 
examination using strong illumination and mirrors on the inside and 
moderate scraping at the base of the neck outside revealed no sign of a 
seam. Moreover, there is no break in the external modeling at that point. 
The small kneeling man figure also seems to be cast as one with the 
vessel. The three feet, however, are cast separately and cast on to the 
body. A seam shows plainly at each leg join, and on the inside an 
irregular patch of metal above each leg shows that the leg metal was 
cast through a hole in the side of the body, and it was locked there on 
solidification of the metal. Both front legs are fiat on the inside; the right 
leg is clay cored, but the left one is filled with metallic lead which is 
obviously a modern repair concealed with brown paint. The single hind 
leg has a prominent mold mark facing the inside. The stepped ridges on 
the underside of each leg probably indicate the location of the pouring 
gates at time of casting. On the inside of the vessel there is a depression 
opposite the join of each wing. No evidence of chaplets was found. 

An especially interesting feature is a fiattened area on the underside of 
the bird's body. Close examination shows there is a sort of patch or insert 
in this area delimited by a seam around its outside edge and a corres- 
ponding ridge or overlap on the inside. This oval piece (about 12x8 cm.) 
appears to be after-cast or cast on to complete the bronze. 

The bird on the lid, unlike the man to which it is linked, appears to be 
cast on. There is a seam at the join and underneath a little blob of metal 
indicates the bird was cast through a hole and locked on. The double 
chain links and the loops of both bird and man show mold join marks 
around the inside. The parallel decor grooves of the wings and of the 
small animals are rather crudely done, and they seem to have an incised 
character but close examination indicates they were cast. 

Although mineralization of the metal is fairly deep, many areas of the 
surface are smooth and unblemished. Other areas are pocked with little 



561 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TEN 



blisters and crusts formed mostly from natural malachite and cerussite. 
Composition: Sample taken from tail. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 72.8% ; Sn 7.8 ; Pb 1 8.0 ; Total 98.6. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

Fe 0.07; Co 0.003; Ni 0.03; As 0.2; Sb 0.1; Bi 0.03; Al < 0.001; 

Mg < 0.001; Si 0.002. 



562 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TEN 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED ELEVEN 



PLATE 105 



Huo 
Recent 

No inscription 
Height, 22.2 cm. (8f in.) 
Width, 27.3cm.(10f in.) 
Weight, 3.91 kg. (8 lbs., 10 oz.) 
Accession number 09.254 



The squat-shaped, covered vessel on three feet has a bird-like spout 
and a heavy handle of elaborately interlocking rods that give it the 
general shape of a quadruped with head and tail. The principal surface 
consists of tightly interlocking scroll forms, and the bands between are 
inlaid in silver and some gold forming the volute and triangle pattern. 
The three legs consist of birds apparently sitting on the shoulders of 
crouching humans with bears heads. A small rat-like figure crouches on 
the bird's head on the spout. The vessel is evenly covered with a dark- 
brown patina which shows areas of cuprite and malachite encrustation. 



564 



PLATE 105 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED ELEVEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

A series of vessels of this type appears in Po-kut'u-lu.^'^^ Parallels can be 
found for most features of the present piece among the woodcut illus- 
trations there, although no single example corresponds exactly. Perhaps 
because of this strong representation in a work so highly respected by 
Chinese antiquarians, the vessel type has been a favorite with forgers and 
makers of archaistic pieces. An example that is more convincing as a 
work of the late Chou period is in the Buckingham Collection 
nature of its surface decor suggest a date in the fifth or fourth century. 
Another, quite similar in form to ours but lacking both relief and inlaid 
decor, was in the collection of Charles Vignier.^^s jj^g openwork handle, 
the spout, and the legs are roughly paralleled in a huo vessel in the 
Palace Museum, Taiwan.^^^ jj^ their elaborate and unexplainable 
iconography, the vessels of this group stand apart both from the pre- 
vailing style of geometric abstraction and from the new pictorial motifs 
of the ''hunting-style" bronzes of the same period, and may pertain to 
religious beliefs current in some particular region of China. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel including spout and legs was cast in one piece apparently 
not in a piece mold. The complicated open-work handle is cast separately 
and is joined on with soft solder. On the inside opposite each handle 
contact is a small pin-like projection which seems to belong to the 
handle. The underside of the vessel bears a low circular ridge with three 
radiating spokes which look like mold marks but may be divisions in the 
model or pattern. There is no continuation of these radiating lines up- 
wards into the decor bands. 

The silver inlay of the middle circular band includes also eight small 
triangular inserts of gold, and the eyes of the beast are gold inlaid. The 
edges of the wider elements of gold and silver inlay are ringed with a 

371 Ch. 19, pp. 40-47 (edition of 1752). 

372 Kelley and Ch'en, Chinese bronzes . . . , PI. LXII. 

373 Umehara, SKSjE, HI, 191. 

374 Ku-kungt'ung-ch'i.. . , II, F.319. 



566 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED ELEVEN 



narrow ribbon or wire of the same metal. This may be the turned-up 
edge of the silver crimped into grooves prepared to secure the inlay 
metal. This technique is similar to that employed on the vessel of the 
type kuang which is also in this series (No. 46). The spout is open into 
the vessel but residues of original core material still lodged there indicate 
the vessel was probably cast for ornamental not functional purposes. 

The vessel shows no evidence of burial, although the tarnished surface 
has scattered patches of natural azurite and malachite. In addition to 
natural patina, there are scattered areas of artificial patina made of 
coarsely powdered malachite which in some way is made to adhere to the 
surface. Many of the fragments of crushed malachite show the typical 
banding of malachite mineral, but the orientation of the banding is 
broken and irregular as would be expected in particles strewn at random; 
furthermore, they are rounded and worn as if the surface has been 
pohshed over a long period of time. 

Composition : Sample taken from the right front leg. 
Wet chemical analysis: Cu 68.9%; Sn( + Sb) 3.8; Pb 21.8; Zn 3.5; 
Total 98.0. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 
Fe 0- 1 ; Co 0.002 ; Ni 0.09 ; As 0.3 ; Sb > 1 .0 ; Bi 0.05. 

The composition of this bronze is somewhat unusual as compared with 
vessels accepted as being much earlier in date. The lead content is high 
and content of tin low. It is one of the few bronzes with antimony content 
estimated to be greater than 1%. The zinc content is among the highest 
in the entire series of vessels analysed. 



567 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWELVE 



PLATE 106 



Tsun 

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Meyer 

Late Chou dynasty (5th century B.C.) 

Inscription of four ( ?) characters inlaid in gold 

Height, 26.5cm.(10i in.) 

Width, 20.0 cm.(7|in.) 

Weight, 2.55 kg. (5 lbs., 10 oz.) 

Accession number 61.30 



This vessel in the shape of a bird has a detachable head fixed with a 
locking mechanism which makes it impossible to remove when the head 
is in its proper position. The whole thing is extremely finely cast simulat- 
ing feathers and with areas on the breast done in the broad interlocking 
dragon style seen on such vessels as Number 94 and Number 97. The 
surface is covered with a very fine shiny dark brown patina. 



568 



PLATE 106 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWELVE (6L30) 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWELVE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The tsun in owl form has been known since the An-yang period, and a 
number of Shang and early Chou examples have been published.^^s Such 
early Chinese texts as the Chou-U and the Shih-chi refer to sacrifices per- 
formed with bird-shaped vessels, and the owl is sometimes specifically 
designated.3'6 

The decoration of the body, composed mainly of intertwined dragons 
richly ornamented with fine spirals, striation, and pseudo-granule, is in a 
style current in the sixth and fifth centuries as has been noted in the 
discussion on the chien Number 94 and the hu Number 97; and this 
vessel may be considered contemporary with those pieces. There is a 
parallel to the curious hinged cover on the spout in a late Chou hu of 
vaguely bird-like shape in the Nara Museum; and a bird head very like 
this one has been transposed onto a bronze beast in the collection of the 
Peking Palace Museum.^" 




Figure 51 



Mizuno, In-shu . . . , p. 36, refers to one found in tomb No. 1885 at Hsi-pei-kang, Hou-chia-chuang. 
Related examples are illustrated on his plates 57 and 72; and another is illustrated by Jung, Shan-chai 
. . . , no. 135. 

376 Tch'ou To-yi, Bronzes antiques . . . , refers to this practice in his discussion of the owl now in the 
collections of Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, pp. 9-10, pis. I-II. 

377 Umehara, SKSjJ, vol. V, 383; and the latter is shown in Ku-kung-chou-k'an, no. 15. 



570 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWELVE 



TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel appears to be cast in a two-piece, four-division mold assem- 
bly with what seem to be true mold joinsalong thecentersof the breast and 
back (fig. 51). The pre-assembly joins are placed in rather unexpected 
locations, and the divisions are dictated as far as possible by the ana- 
tomical features of the bird and nature of the decor which are well con- 
cealed in the finishing. The two legs are precast each with a clay core, 
and the body of the bird is cast to them as is indicated at the well- 
concealed seams by traces of spillage or flash metal from the body onto 
the leg. The decor of the body is quite different from that of the legs and 
does not cross over the join between them. Two rectangular depressions 
in the bottom of the vessel coincide with the two legs. The surface inside 
is smooth except for the narrow space in the tail which is still filled with 
original clay core. A small square boss on the underside of the tail may 
be the stump of a casting sprue. There is evidence that several small 
squarish chaplets were concealed by the finishing. 

There are no mold join traces on the head. This member fits onto the 
body by means of an inside collar slotted to engage a set-in lug on the 
inside of the neck resembling a bayonet lock (fig. 52). The curved upper 
beak of the bird is hinged on a simple pivot to permit the beak to be 
raised, but not to stay open. 




Figure 52 



571 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWELVE 



The decor is especially interesting because it was apparently done with 
stamps or dies carved with all the decor elements present. 

The upper part of the bird required one stamp, the scale-like edge 
probably two and the feathered part possibly two. Faint traces of joins 
on both wings indicate the use of two stamps here which rendered with- 
drawal of each stamp possible without damaging the fine intaglio lines 
(Jig- 53). 

The eyes are inlaid with a gold ring encircling a gold pupil. There is 
also a four-character inscription in gold on the crest. 

The surface is uniformly covered with glossy black patina. There are 
no eruptive corrosion products inside or out and no sign that the vessel 
was ever buried in the earth. There are no breaks or losses or evidence of 
repairs and paint. 

Composition: Sample taken from underside of the proper right foot, 
which is cast separately from the body. 




Figure 53 



572 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWELVE 



Wet chemical analysis : Cu 74. 1% ; Sn 1 3.6 ; Pb 10.8 ; Total 98.5. 

Sample taken from edge of tail: Cu71.87o; Sn 12.8; Pb 13.7; Total 
98.3. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 
Fe 0.007 ; Co 0.02 ; N i 0.07 ; As 0.2 ; Sb 0.2 ; Bi < 0.03. 

INSCRIPTION 

This gold inlay inscription reads: "The gentleman's esteemed bird." 




573 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED THIRTEEN 



PLATE 107 



Tui 

Recent 

No inscription 
Height, 25.1 cm. (9 J in.) 
Width, 27.6 cm. (10| in.) 
Weight, 4.51 kg. (9 lbs., 15oz.) 
Accession number 11.81 



The egg-shaped vessel has three legs and three identical members on 
top which serve as legs when inverted. Two lugs protrude from the sides 
at the top of the body. Horizontal bands of various scroll patterns boldly 
inlaid in copper, malachite, and silver cover the whole surface. The 
bronze has taken on a brownish patination showing a few areas of 
malachite encrustation. 



574 



PLATE 107 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED THIRTEEN (11.81) 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED THIRTEEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

A very similar vessel, with inlay in the same materials, is in the Brundage 
Collection.3'8 The inlaid patterns are based on late Chou geometric 
decor styles but lack the fanciful, swinging movement of line and the 
complex play of diagonals characteristic of pieces made in that age. This 
is immediately apparent if the two vessels are compared with late Chou 
examples of the type that served as models : the well-known piece in the 
Winthrop Collection at the Fogg Art Museum,^'^^ or one in the Shanghai 
Museum.380 The more rigidly compartmentalized and static designs on 
the Freer and Brundage tui agree rather with those on inlaid vessels 
commonly ascribed (although without positive evidence) to the Sung 
period.381 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Each member, vessel and cover, including handles and legs, is cast in one 
piece, probably not in a piece mold. There is no evidence of joins or mold 
marks. The rim of the vessel is deeply recessed so that the cover fits quite 
perfectly to give the appearance of an ovoid sphere. 

The entire surface is lavishly inlaid with a mosaic design outlined with 
strips of silver and copper set into the bronze and further enhanced by 
the inlay of small rectangular tesserae of malachite which show the 
typical banding of that mineral. A few pieces of silver inlay have been 
lost, but the malachite is intact. The green inlay of the projecting mem- 
bers is different and is a filling of ground malachite mineral probably 
mixed with some organic binder. There is no evidence of burial and the 
bronze metal is only slightly tarnished. The vessel has recently been 
partially cleaned to reveal in greater contrast the silver and copper inlay 
and to uncover the green paste inlay of the handles. 

Composition : Sample taken from underside of one leg. 

^'^^ Cahill, The art of Southern Sung China, no. 37. 

379 Umehara, SKSjE, III, 215; also Mizuno, In-shu . . . , PI. 131. 

380 Shang-hai po-wu-kuan . . . , no. 89. 

381 Watson, Sung bronzes, PI. 83, nos. 234 and 239. 



576 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED THIRTEEN 



Wet chemical analysis : Cu 69.2% ; Sn 5.9 ; Pb 2 1 .5 ; Zn 0.9 ; Total 97.2. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 

Fe 0.07 ; Co 0.007 ; Ni 0.07 ; As 0.2 ; Sb 0.2 ; Bi 0. 1 ; Mg < 0.00 1 . 
The proportion of lead to tin is high, about 4:1. The presence of 
nearly 1 % of zinc is noted. 



577 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED FOURTEEN 



PLATE 108 



Tui 

Han dynasty (late 3rd-early 2nd century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 16.5 cm. (6J in.) 

Width, 29.2 cm. (Ill in.) 

Weight, 1.87 kg. (4 lbs.,2oz.) 

Accession number 24.13 



The thinly cast bowl with low foot rim stands on three legs in the 
form of human beings. A plain band surrounds the upper part of the 
vessel, and on it are two monster mask escutcheons holding loose rings 
in their beaks. The surface is roughly covered with malachite encrusta- 
tion and earthy accretion. 



578 



PLATE 108 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED FOURTEEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

At first glance we are tempted to classify a bowl shaped vessel on three 
legs as a ting, but a group of pieces published by Jung Keng shows the 
wide range allowed within the category of tui and reminds us at the same 
time that the characteristic ting handle is missing in this case.^^s An 
examination of those vessels further raises the possibility that ours may 
once have had a lid. Jung places this group in the Ch'un-ch'iu and Chan- 
kuo periods (i.e. between 770 and 222) which, like most of his dating is far 
too general and none too accurate. Umehara places a very similar piece 
to ours in Western Han,^^^ and an early date within that period seems 
like a reasonable attribution. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel, including the t'ao-t'ieh handles, is cast in one piece. Deep 
probing about the juncture of legs to the body shows no evidence of 
seams or cast-on joins. The small human-form legs show slight evidence 
of mold marks along their sides. The thinness of the walls, the absence of 
mold marks on the vessel suggest, however, that it was not cast in a piece 
mold. It is possible that the legs served as sprues. Both of the ring handles 
are split. There is some evidence of chaplets in the vessel walls. 

The surface is thinly covered with dull-green malachite mixed with 
some atacamite. Scattered patches of loess indicate the vessel was 
recovered from burial. There are several small crude repairs in the side- 
wall, which were made, apparently, at an early time to conceal casting 
flaws. 

Composition: Sample taken from rim of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 85.9% ; Sn( + Sb) 4. 1 ; Pb 7. 1 ; Total 97.1. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.3%; 
Au < 0.01 ; Fe 0.01 ; Co 0.03 ; Ni 0.2 ; As 0.3 ; Sb > 1 ; Bi 0.05 ; Mg 

< 0.001; Si 0.006. 

The presence of antimony in amount greater than 1 % is noted. 

382 Jung, Shang chou . . . , vol. II, nos. 377-396 all fall in this group. 

383 Umehara, SKSU, VI, 446. 



580 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED FOURTEEN 





Detail of leg 



581 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED FIFTEEN 



PLATE 109 



Ting 
Recent 

Two inscriptions totaling some 50-odd characters on the outside 

of the bowl 
Height, 19.7 cm. (7| in.) 
Width, 26.3cm.(10f in.) 
Weight, 2.66 kg. (5 lbs., 14 oz.) 
Accession number 09.333 



The covered vessel without decoration has the form of a late Chou 
ting. Two concentric circles in relief and three ring handles standing on 
edge on the lid break the monotony of the otherwise plain surface. One 
of the two handles has been broken off, and the thin bronze of the other 
has been damaged. 



582 



PLATE 109 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED FIFTEEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

In shape, this piece is based loosely on a type prevalent from the end of 
Chou into the Han period,3 84 but no very close parallel appears to be 
known. The short, stubby legs are unusual ; on most other ting of that age 
the legs are proportionately longer and attached higher on the body.^^s 
This is not in itself cause for suspicion, and the vessel might be seen 
simply as a variant of the standard type, were it not for the anachronistic 
inscription and the fact that the alloy metal contains a measurable 
amount of zinc as noted below. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The two members, vessel and lid, are each cast in one piece. The thin 
walls, absence of mold marks and absence of seams at the joins, suggest 
that both vessel and lid were not cast in piece molds. The legs which are 
cast as one with the vessel are hollow, open on the inside, and the hollow 
is filled with original clay core [fig. 54). On the underside a triangle is 
formed by low ridges which connect the legs. These may be the imprint 
of an outer-leg core section. The handles were also cast hollow and 
presumably with clay cores, but holes in the walls of the handles, either 
casting flaws or damages caused by corrosion have permitted the core 
material if any to fall out. One handle has broken off showing the 
presence of an old break which has been crudely repaired. There is no 
evidence of chaplets. 

The lid and two of the rings appear to be cast as one, but the third ring 
is part of an old repair area which was cast on. Underneath the lid a 
small sprue ridge lies in the center of the repair patch. 

The stepped-back rim of the vessel is a separate piece, a hoop of 
bronze joined with soft solder and the join concealed with paint. In fact 
most of the interior and exterior surface of both vessel and lid are 
covered with artificial patina. 

384 Cf. Jung, Shang chou . . . , nos. 118 and 119, called "Han" and "Late warring States" respectively 
by the author. No. 1 19 resembles the present example in shape of body and lid ; no. 118, in the ring 
handles on the lid and the cabriole legs - which are set, however, higher on the body. 

385 Pottery ting with similarly stubby legs were, however, found in the Han tombs at Shao-kou near Lo- 
yang; see Lo-yang shao-kou Han-mu, PI. XVIII no. 5, Pis. XXVI and XXVH. 



584 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED FIFTEEN 




Figure 54 



The almost illegible inscription around the outside appears to have 
been cast. There is no evidence on the inside to indicate mechanical 
working as might be expected in such thin metal. Had thin metal been 
worked mechanically from the outside raised areas or distortions would 
inevitably have appeared on the inside. 

Composition : Sample taken from underside of one leg. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 84.6% ; Sn 3.5 ; Pb 7.9 ; Zn 2.3 ; Total 98.3. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 

Fe 0.3 ; Co 0.00 1 ; Ni 0.03 ; As 0.3 ; Sb 0.2 ; Mg < 0.001 ; Si 0.04. 
This is one of the few vessels in the collection in which zinc content is 
greater than 1 percent. 



585 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED FIFTEEN 



INSCRIPTION 

The inscription which is cast-in the outer wall surface of the vessel com- 
prises a string of 40 to 50 characters. Very few of these can be deciphered. 
A Shang-style clan sign together with the posthumous title, Fu-i, is 
located in a central position. The vessel is a style very much later than 
the inscriptions and thus obviously a forgery. It is one of the few examples 
of such chronological confusion. As it was mainly in the late 18th 
century and the early half of the 19th century that forgers erred so 
naively, we may perhaps date its manufacture accordingly. It has not, 
however, been previously published. 



586 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED FIFTEEN 




587 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED SIXTEEN 



PLATE 110 



Pien-hu 
Recent 

No inscription 
Height, 32.8 cm. (125 in.) 
Width, 32.3 cm. (12| in.) 
Weight, 2.61 kg. (5 lbs., 12 oz.) 
Accession number 09.335 



The overall shape is soft and has a squashed-down look; the mouth 
flares out and then contracts again to form a lobed bulb just below the 
low straight rim which is capped by a small lid of matching shape. 
Escutcheon masks hold loose ring handles at the shoulders; and the only 
decoration on the surface consists of two broad depressed bands follow- 
ing the curve of the body on each side. The vessel stands on a rect- 
angular spreading foot. Over the smooth brown corrosion of the surface 
are areas of malachite encrustation. 



588 



PLATE 110 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED SIXTEEN (09.335) 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED SIXTEEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

There is little comparative material available for the study of this type; 
and we may assume that museums and collectors who may have them do 
not consider such weak and uninspired bronzes worth publishing. 
Among the few illustrations that come readily to hand are those in the 
Ch'ien-lung catalogue and the four pieces shown there between them 
have a number of the features displayed by ours. One has the lobed bulb 
on the neck, another has the depressed bands matching the side curves, 
etc. All those Ch'ien-lung pieces are ascribed to the Han dynasty; and 
in view of the fact that none has an inscription and there is no real 
evidence of any kind, we can only regard the attribution as traditional. 
Another hu of generally similar type is published by Umehara^^^ who 
places it as late as Eastern Han; but neither that nor the following piece 
in the same book are very convincing specimens, and there is no evidence 
that they may not be later imitations like ours. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel proper is cast in one piece and the escutcheons appear to be 
cast integrally with it. The two ring handles are not split, however, 
hence the mode of fixing the rings is still a matter of question. There are 
no visible mold marks on the exterior but on the inside of the neck two 
vestigial mold marks extend downwards on opposite sides in the plane of 
the long axis. On the underside is the remnant of a long narrow pouring 
gate. The ring-topped cap which extends down into the neck for 3.3 cm. 
is cast and appears to be an original component part. Much of the 
surface is covered with an enamel-like patina of malachite. The con- 
dition is good. 

Composition : Sample taken from under edge of foot. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 66.9% ; Sn 8.6 ; Pb 2 1 .9 ; Total 97.4. 

Spectrometric analysis: none. 

386 Hsi-ch'ing . . . , ch. 21, pp. 64-67. 

387 Umehara, SKSU, VI, 474. 



590 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED SIXTEEN 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED SEVENTEEN 



PLATE 111 



Pien-hu 
Recent 

No inscription 
Height, 30.0 cm. (1 If in.) 
Width, 22.6 cm. (8 J in.) 
Weight, 2.81 kg. (6 lbs., 3 oz.) 
Accession number 1 1 .56 



The sides of the vessel are perfectly circular and flat while the edge is 
roundly bulging. The tall neck spreads into a lobed bulb just below the 
top as on the previous vessel. Archaistic handles vaguely recaUing the late 
Chou dragon style join the shoulders to the bulb on the neck. The 
smooth brown patination of the surface is heavily encrusted with rough 
areas of malachite and cuprite. 



592 



PLATE 1 1 1 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED SEVENTEEN (11.56) 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED SEVENTEEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This vessel is even poorer and weaker in conception than the last; and, 
as will be seen in the technical observations below, it appears to be a 
pastiche made up of sundry scraps of metal. There are no styhstic data 
to connect it with anything; and we pubhsh it only for the record and in 
the hope that the fact of its existence may in the long run be of some use. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is a forgery made up of various pieces of old and new metal. 
The shell around the edge is sheet brass, and the two flat discs that form 
the sides are thin heavily corroded bronze that appears to be old. On the 
shoulder are two cast handles that may likewise be of some age. Two 
sheets of metal form the double bottom. All these pieces are joined with 
soft solder and the joins are covered with a plaster-like substance in 
some places; and with false patina made in part of Paris green. The 
entire surface has an insoluble brownish coating, probably oriental 
lacquer. 

Composition : No analyses made. 



594 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED SEVENTEEN 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED EIGHTEEN 



PLATE 112 



Hu 

Han dynasty (late 2nd- 1st century B.C.) 

No inscription 

Height, 29.8 cm. (Hi in.) 

Width, 18.2 cm. (71 in.) 

Weight, 1.25 kg. (2 lbs., 12 oz.) 

Accession number 66.14 



The swelling belly of this vessel is supported by a slightly flaring foot, 
and the shoulder curves gracefully into a tall almost cylindrical neck. 
The decoration all over is incised rather than cast. On the neck and 
shoulder broad bands of feather tips are bordered by triple bands con- 
sisting of diamond diaper with sawtooth above and below. On the 
shoulder this pattern is interrupted by two broad bands of perfectly 
plain concave fluting. The main decoration of the body consists of 
diamond shaped lozenges interlocked horizontally and each framing a 
vertical double-diamond shaped device. The whole surface is uniformly 
covered with a smooth metallic patina showing scattered patches of 
malachite encrustation. 



596 



PLATE 112 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED EIGHTEEN (66.14) 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED EIGHTEEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

This hu and the three lien that follow belong to a group of bronzes all of 
which have incised decoration in a very distinctive style. Some 20 related 
pieces have been pubhshed.^ss The technique, which evidently consisted 
of cutting into the surface of the cold bronze with a burin or chisel, is 
itself a departure from the normal Chinese mode of decorating bronze. 
And the designs thus executed, whether animal or abstract, seem to be 
wholly unrelated to the main lines of development illustrated by the 
history of Shang and Chou bronzes. Evidently they belong to a separate 
tradition. In his discussion of a Po-shan-lu in this style,^^^ Umehara 
states that a number of related bronzes were excavated at a single site in 
1923, but he fails to say where; and other writers have likewise been 
silent on their provenance. Word of mouth information current among 
dealers and collectors, however, has for some time attributed these 
pieces to Ch'ang-sha, Hunan Province, in the ancient state of Ch'u; and 
there is some evidence to support this view. 

Most striking is a bronze bowl with simple geometric decoration 
incised in a style related to that on the more elaborate vessels mentioned 
above.39" It was among the finds in a tomb dated to the latter part of 
Western Han which the authors define as the period from the reign of 
Han Wu-ti to the usurpation of Wang Mang(i.e. 140 to 8 B.C.). The 
small diamond diaper pattern occurs on this bowl as it does on our hu 
and the similar use of the sawtooth pattern is striking. The diaper and 
sawtooth patterns appear on a vase of similar form, and with the same 
broad horizontal fluting around the shoulder, excavated by Janse in 
Indo-China.391 Instead of the feather tips and lozenges, however, 
Janse's vase seems to have bands of animals in landscapes related to 

388 Umehara, SKSjJ, VI, illustrates 15 between no. 463 and no. 506 including the famous Buckingham 
hu also published by Kelley and Ch'en, PI. LXXXIII. Karlgren illustrates three in Some bronzes in 
the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Pis. 40-41 ; there is one in Sekai, Chugoku . . . , I, p. 86, fig. 22; 
and there are two in the Hsi-ch'ing-ku-chien, ch. 26, 51, and ch. 27, 19; and one in the Hui Tsung, 
Po-ku-t'u-lu (1752 ed.), ch. 13, 3. 

389 Op. cit.. No. 502. 

390 Ch'ang-sha-fa-chiieh . . . , pi. 64, 2; and text pp. 109-110, fig. 86. 

391 Janse, Archaeological research . . . , vol. I, p. xxvii, fig. 10. 



598 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED EIGHTEEN 



those on our Hen Number 120. The latter, in fact, seems to be one of the 
characteristic motifs for it appears frequently on both painted and 
incised ceramics from the same find.^^s Another motif shared by many 
members of this group is the quatrefoil that appears on the tops of our 
two lien (Nos. 119 and 120) and on a good number of the other pieces 
cited above. The same thing is also commonly found on some of the 
Ch'ang-sha mirrors and lacquers.^^^ Shou Chou, Anhui Province, which 
produced mirrors with related designs was also in the state of Ch'u at 
that time. It is also worth noting in this connection that a lien with the 
same quatrefoil executed in the same technique was among the finds at 
Lo-lang in Korea, but there is no evidence that it was made there. 

As will be seen in the discussion of the two lien (Nos. 120 and 121), it 
is in this group of bronzes that we encounter some of the first attempts 
at the representation of landscape; but in the present vessel and the next, 
the most striking feature of the decor is that which we have named 
"feather tips." It appears on the tH-liang-yu in the Ch'ien-lung Collection 
and the an in the Sumitomo Collection exactly as we see it on our two 
pieces.395 while we may never know what the designer had in mind 
when he drew it, the feathery look is undeniable, and it is hard to resist 
the suggestion that a peacock feather was intended.^^^ Artistically the 
problem is even more bafiiing because the motif seems to appear full 
blown on this group of bronzes for the first time in Chinese art and also 
for the last. So far nothing seems to lead up to it, and it leaves no trace in 
the centuries that follow, a most unusual phenomenon in the history of 
design and decoration. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast in one piece, presumably by direct casting in a piece 
mold, but there are no visible mold marks. Centered on the underside is 

392 Op. cit., pis. 54-55. 

Op. cit., pi. 68, 1 ; and Ch'ang-sha-ch'u-t"u-Ch"u . . . , illus. 39 ( which is FGA 54.19); it is also seen on 
the top of a stone vessel in the above named excavation report, pi. 89, 3. 

394 Sekino, Rakuro . . . , pis. 32-33 and Umehara, op. cit., 481. 

395 Hsi-ch'ing.. . , 27, 19; and Umehara, SKSjJ, VI, 476. 

396 Schafer, The Golden peaches . . . , pp. 96-99, gives notes on the history of the peacock in China. 



599 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED EIGHTEEN 



a low ridge about 6 cm. long and 0.5 cm. wide, obviously the stump of a 
pouring gate. The top of the stump bears marks as if it were hacked off 
with a chisel. Also underside are six squarish chaplets roughly symmetri- 
cally spaced. No chaplets are visible on the sides or under the body bulge. 
All of the fine geometric decor is engraved or traced. 

The surface is quite uniformly covered with smooth, greenish-gray 
tin-oxide patina, but there are scattered small patches of malachite and 
azurite. Although the shape is generally quite symmetrical, there are 
irregularities along one side of the neck which seem to be partly original 
casting flaws and partly repair. On the same side on the upper body 
bulge is a patch of new metal about 4 cm. long and 2.5 cm. wide secured 
with soft solder and painted over. There is a remote possibility that at 
one time a handle connected body and neck. On the foot directly 
opposite the patches on neck and vessel is a small hole filled with soft 
solder and concealed with paint. 

Composition : Sample taken from edge of foot. 
Wet chemical analysis : Cu 66.6% ; Sn 1 1 .3 ; Pb 1 8.8 ; Total 96.7. 
No spectrometric analysis made, except specifically for Zn which was 
found to be absent. 



600 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED EIGHTEEN 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED NINETEEN 



PLATE 113 



Lien 

Han dynasty (late 2nd-lst century B.C.) 
No inscription 
Height, 14.3 cm. (5| in.) 
Width, 15.5 cm. (61 in.) 
Weight, 0.96 kg. (2 lbs.,2oz.) 
Accession number 51.2 



The circular covered vessel has a loose ring attached to the center of 
the lid. Inside is a shallow removable tray about an inch deep. The 
decoration is incised over the surface of the vessel. On the top is a 
quatrefoil pattern with birds and animals between the four points. 
Surrounding this are two bands of geometric patterns. The main surface 
of the body has a broad band of overlapping "feather tips." Above and 
below this are two bands of geometric patterns hke those on the lid. 
Three low round feet lift the vessel just off the ground. An even grayish 
patina covers the whole surface, and there are small areas of malachite 
encrustation. 



602 



PLATE 113 




NUMBER ONE 



HUNDRED NINETEEN (51.2) 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED NINETEEN 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The notes under this heading on the preceding /zw pretty well cover what 
there is to say about the group as a whole; but this lien introduces an 
additional feature that is worth mentioning. Where the cover joins the 
body of the vessel an animal has been incised in such a way that the head 
and most of the upper part of the body are on the lid while the legs and 
lower part of the body are on the vessel. Evidently this is an orientation 
device to make sure the cover is put on in the right position by co- 
ordinating the upper and lower halves of the animal. A similar animal is 
seen on the already mentioned fi-liang-yu in the Chien-lung Collec- 
tion ; and Umehara illustrates three instances of the same device, one of 
them using a bird.^^' 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The three members, vessel, lid, and tray were probably not cast in piece 
molds. There are no exterior mold marks; but a single distinct line, 
apparently caused by a join in the mold or pattern, runs vertically down 
the inside surface of the wall of the vessel. Along the outer surface is a 
vertical line of small pits coinciding with the inside vertical line. The loop 
for the split ring handle of the lid is cast with the vessel as are the three 
short feet on the underside. A small depression on the underside of the 
lid coincides with the loop and ring handle above. It may be caused by 
shrinkage of the thicker metal of the loop at time of casting. A number of 
symmetrically placed chaplets are set around the lower portion of the 
cylindrical side and on the bottom which seems to be a common feature 
of vessels of this period. Those on the bottom are placed on either side of 
each leg knob and three more form a triangle around the center area. 
Other chaplets can be seen in the tray and around the walls. A few have 
loosened and fallen away. No chaplets are visible on the lid. 

The bottom of the tray is thinly cast being barely 0.5 mm. thick. Three 
vertical deep scratch or "file" marks on the rim of the tray correspond 
to three similar marks on the edge of the stepped rim of the vessel. They 

397 Op. cit., nos. 476, 477, 482. 



604 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED NINETEEN 



were placed there perhaps to indicate the correct position of the tray for 
proper fit. 

As on the similar lien Number 120 described below, the sunken decor 
is cut or engraved into the surface. The stitches made by the engraver's 
tools are plainly visible. The horizontal lines encircling the vessel and lid 
appear to have been cut while the parts were turned on a lathe or perhaps 
more simply by a graver held parallel with the vessel edges. 

The entire surface is covered with one of the finest quality tin oxide 
patinas in the collection, it is an excellent example of pseudomorphic 
replacement of copper by tin oxide with retention of the fine details of 
the original surface. In places the sharp edges of the oxide layer are 
chipped and crumbled by the deep penetration of the corrosion. In spite 
of the fine natural patina interrupted with small patches of malachite 
and azurite, the surface of the vessel bears a considerable amount of 
artificial patina applied for reasons not known. This false patina is 
found in patches on the side, but principally on the inside of the lid. It is 
made up chiefly of coarse but evenly sized green and blue particles 
which outwardly resemble coarsely ground malachite and azurite, but 
microscopically they seem to be agglomerates of fine colored particles in 
a glassy matrix. These agglomerate pigments which seem to be a Japanese 
invention are modern imitations of ancient pigments. The areas of 
artificial patina are well delineated by their pinkish fluorescence in 
ultraviolet light. 

Composition : Sample taken from one of the short legs. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 67.4%; Sn 10.1 ; Pb 20.0; Total 97.5. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.1%; 

Fe 0.09 ; Co 0.001 ; Ni 0.05 ; As 0.2 ; Sb 0.04 ; Bi 0.2 ; Si 0.01 . 
The lead content of the alloy is unusually high. 



605 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWENTY 



PLATE 114 



Lien 

Han dynasty (late 2nd-lst century B.C.) 
No inscription 
Height, 12.2 cm. (4f in.) 
Width, 15.2 cm. (6 in.) 
Weight, 1.02 kg. (2 lbs., 4 oz.) 
Accession number 46.11 



This vessel is similar in size, shape and construction to the last, and 
the rattling pieces of loose metal inside suggest that it had a similar tray. 
In this case the proper orientation of the lid is indicated by two diamond 
patterns overlapping the join, but the lid has been frozen on an inch or 
so out of line. On the cover the four-petal lotus pattern is repeated; this 
time without animals between the points. Surrounding this is a band of 
dragon forms among waves, and on the main zone of design on the 
vessel itself are fabulous beasts in a landscape. A smooth, greenish 
patina covers the entire surface, and the metal of the vessel is evidently 
almost completely corroded. There are some areas of malachite en- 
crustation. One side has been damaged and partly repaired. 



606 



PLATE 114 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWENTY 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

In addition to the characteristic features of this group that have been 
mentioned in discussing the preceding two vessels this hen introduces the 
subject of landscape. The scene covering the principal zone of the body 
shows dragons, tigers, bears and fabulous beasts running in a landscape. 
The lieu illustrated in Sekai bijutsii taikei^^^ is very close to ours, and 
similar animal scenes appear on the vase excavated by Janse and referred 
to under Number 118, and also on the hu in the Po-ku-t'u-lu cited 
above,=^''^ and also on the two pieces illustrated by Umehara.^'^o These 
crowded compositions with simple overlapping to indicate planes of 
perspective are among the earliest surviving evidence of the beginnings of 
landscape representation in China. On this lien the hills are merely 
suggested by a double wavy line at the base of the zone, and the spaces 
between the animals are filled with hatching that probably need not be 
understood as representing anything at all. On the two pieces in Japan, 
however, the animals are set against unmistakable ranges of hills, and on 
the Hakutsuru Po-shan-lu fungus shaped clouds rise above the peaks. 
The absence of human figures and the very different treatment of the 
animals place these vessels in an entirely different category from the 
"hunting style" Im family that has already been discussed (No. 98); and 
there is evidently no connection between them either chronologically or 
geographically. The present group apparently represents an independent 
development, perhaps in the Ch'u region, that had for its central theme 
the demon-world of folk mythology that underlay popular Taoism in 
Han times. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Presumably both members, the box and cover, were cast without the use 
of piece molds, although the lack of a seam at the base of the small loop 
handle on the cover and the thinness of the vessel walls are the only 
evidence of the mode of fabrication. Seen from the underside the 

398 Sekai, Chugoku . . . , p. 86, fig. 22. 

399 Op. cit., ch. 13, 3. 

400 Op. cit., 482 and 502. 



608 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWENTY 



bottom is not quite flush with the lower edge of the cyHndrical sidewaUs, 
but is sHghtly elevated as if made separately and set in. Unfortunately, 
because the cover is frozen in place by corrosion, the vessel cannot be 
examined from the inside. The most remarkable feature is the frieze of 
running animals which is sharply and deeply engraved into the metal. 
There is only slight evidence of stitches or chatter marks even along the 
wider and more deeply cut lines. Unlike those on the similar lien 
Number 119 just described, the horizontal encircling hues here are not 
straight and precise but wavy and of uneven depth. Also, chaplets do not 
seem to be present. Position indicators that are incised on the lid and 
vessel do not match, which may have caused a tight fit and be partial 
reason why vessel and lid do not separate. 

The entire surface is quite uniformly covered with greenish-gray tin- 
oxide patina. There are only small patches of granular azurite. Scattered 
patches of earthy residues are found, especially on the underside. On one 
side a small area has been crushed in and crudely mended. 

Composition: Sample taken from underside of one of the ball feet on 
the bottom. 

Because of extensive corrosion, no fair sample for wet analysis was 
available. 

Elements estimated by emission spectrometry : Cu principal ; Sn > 1 % ; 
Pb >1; AgO.2; Fe0.03; Co0.03; Ni0.09; AsO.3; Sb >1; BiO.03; 
Mg < 0.001; Si 0.07. 



609 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWENTY-ONE 



PLATE 115 



Lien 

Han dynasty (2nd-l st century B.C.) 
No inscription 
Height, 17.8 cm. (Tin.) 
Width, 25.4 cm. (10 in.) 
Weight, 3.77 kg. (8 lbs., 5 oz.) 
Accession number 51.5 



The cylindrical vessel supported by three feet in the shape of crouch- 
ing bears is lacking its lid. The surface is covered with two horizontal 
bands showing fabulous beasts and birds in a mountainous landscape. 
The entire design is incised in moderately high relief in the metal. An 
even grayish-green patina covers the whole surface with only slight 
areas of encrustation. 



610 



PLATE 115 




NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWENTY-ONE 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

The closest relative to this remarkable bronze is the Hen published by 
Umehara (No. 482) and cited in the discussion of the preceding piece. It 
is likewise raised on three bear legs; the main body zone features the 
same stalking or running animals, with the same lozenge pattern, in the 
narrow bands above and below. The similarity suggests that ours 
probably was furnished originally with a hill-shaped lid. 

The main decor on the other piece, however, is executed in the stand- 
ard manner for the Ch'ang-sha bronzes, incised into the smooth surface. 
That on the present Hen, by contrast, is in fairly high relief, evidently cast 
in the rough and then finished with tooling, chiseling, and incising of 
exceptional skill. The designs are also of greater complexity and refine- 
ment than any others in this group, although they would seem to derive 
from the type seen on our Number 120, the Yamanaka lien, and the 
Po-shan-lu in the Hakutsuru Museum, also referred to above. In a 
hypothetical stylistic series. Number 120 would be the earliest of these, 
with its simple wavy-line rendering of hills at the base; the Yamanaka 
and Hakutsuru pieces would follow, with a single row of animals in each 
zone set against ranges of three-peaked hills. On the present piece, 
which would logically conclude the series, the animals and demons are in 
several levels, or registers, which appear to indicate, ambiguously, both 
height and distance. The overlapping of planes is more elaborate and 
more effectively managed, with animals emerging from behind hills at 
several points. There is also a greater variety of creatures, including 
humanoid demons. 

Among objects of Han date that offer comparisons with this composi- 
tion are a group of hill-censers, ox Po-shan-lu, the finest of which, in the 
Freer Gallery of Art, was published by Archibald Wenley.^oi Their 
designs, like that on ours, are in what Sullivan terms the "compart- 
mented style," in which the contour lines of slopes and hills, five-peaked 
now, form compartments enclosing animals, along with, in the cases of 
the censers, human figures and trees. The hill censers seem more ad- 
vanced, or perhaps more allied with the tradition that produced the 

401 Wenley, The question of the Po-shan-hsiang-lii, pp. 5-12. 



612 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWENTY-ONE 



hunting-style bronzes of late Chou, in one regard: on them, the pictorial 
elements are juxtaposed so as to form scenes, or tableaux: a man shoots 
at an animal in a tree, a human with a spear attacks a bear, etc. On the 
lien, there is little attempt to suggest any relationship between the 
creatures. Also, as Wenley points out, the geometric designs inlaid in 
gold and silver have obvious affinities with late Chou designs of the 
style seen in objects from Chin-ts'un near Lo-yang,""'- although, one 
must add, they betray the later period by being more static, lacking the 
fanciful character of late Chou designs. 

Other indications, however, connect the censers with the group of 
bronzes we have been considering. A pottery example with an identical 
design, now in the Yale Art Gallery, New Haven, was found at Ch'ang- 
sha.4»=^ This is not in itself sufficient evidence for associating the whole 
group with that provenance. But we may note also that bronze examples 
other than ours, without the gold and silver inlay and inset stones, were 
apparently made by the same distinctive technique as the present lien\ 
i.e., casting followed by tooling and incising.'*"^ A search for antecedents 
also brings us to Ch'ang-sha; just as the present lien can best be under- 
stood as a further development of the type seen in the Yamanaka lien, as 
suggested above, so can these hill-censers be seen as end-products of a 
parallel development from the Ch'ang-sha style hill-censer in the 
Hakutsuru Museum.^"^ 

If these bronzes belong to a southern (or properly central) Chinese 
tradition, originating in the Ch'u state and carried on in the same area 
for some two centuries (or longer?) after the Han reunification, an even 
stronger case can be made than has been done previously for the primacy 
of the Ch'u area artists and artisans in the evolution of a more natural- 
istic art, with more effective use of landscape elements to provide a 
setting, in late Chou and Han. The likelihood of such a separate tradi- 
tion is emphasized when we contrast the designs we have been treating 

402 Wenley, op. cit., p. 8. 

403 Wenley, op. cit., p. 7 and PI. 2c. 

404 Examples in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, and the Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge; see 
Trubner, Arts of the Han dynasty, nos. 43 and 44. 

405 Umehara, SKSU, VI, 502. ' 



613 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWENTY-ONE 



with renderings of similar subjects in gold and silver inlay, the technique 
of decoration more favored by northern artisans, the heirs of Chin-ts'un. 
Examples are the inlaid bronze tubes in the Hosokawa Collection and 
the Tokyo Art School.^"*^ The former places birds and animals within an 
abstract pattern of typical Han cloud-scrolls which can only in the 
loosest sense be said to "represent" landscape forms, although they 
certainly stand for them. The latter, while far closer to the designs on the 
lien and censers and sharing some motifs with them (notably the natural- 
istically drawn animals), is far more a matter of linear pattern, confined 
to the surface, concerned with swift movement and decorative effect. 
The forms have none of the solidity and bulk, the scenes have none of 
the implied depth, of the lien and censer relief designs. These differences 
are not to be accounted for purely by the differing media, but rather in 
terms of separate, although sometimes interacting, development. (The 
FvQQY Fo-shan-lu, for instance, might well be seen as the hybrid product 
of such interaction.) Further study, and the discovery of more pieces of 
known date and provenance through controlled excavations, should 
clarify this question of regional traditions, and may well lead to some 
modification of that concept of the early evolution of landscape art in 
China which sees it as a movement "from formal abstraction toward an 
ever-increasing naturalism, "^ov revealing these contrasting qualities 
to have been the properties of separate, contemporaneous developments, 
rather than of stages in a unlinear evolution. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The vessel is cast, but no mold marks are visible. It has some unusual 
features. The inside walls of the bronze are slightly undulating. Two 
vertical narrow sunken lines show in the inside, on opposite sides, but 
not at all on the outside. They look like lap joins in some plastic material 
used for the model. The escutcheons for the two split handle rings are 
cast integrally with the vessel, but the three legs, which are solid, are cast 
separately. There is a narrow seam around each leg join, and in some 

406 former in Mizuno, In-s/ul . . . , 166 and 167; the latter in Harada 

407 Sullivan, The birth of landscape painting in China, p. 59. 



614 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWENTY-ONE 



places it is possible to insert a thin blade to a depth of 1 to 2 mm. The 
overflow or lap is from leg to body indicating the legs were cast to the 
body. Low elevations of metal inside the vessel just above the legs 
indicate the leg metal was poured through perforations in the bottom and 
locked in place by underflowing the edge. Across the underside is a low 
ridge about 8 cm. long and 0.5 cm. wide, which appears to be a cut-off 
sprue. It has been abraded down to the level of the bottom. 

The vessel proper and the figures in high relief were probably cast 
without using piece molds. All of the fine detail, however, the tiny 
whorls, the checkered background, and the diamond pattern of the 
border appears to be chased or engraved. Other design elements were 
made with a tracer or ring punch. 

A distinguishing feature of the vessel is the large number of chaplets, 
about 30, in the vessel wall. They seem to be located consistently in 
areas of low relief. Most of them are square, about 0-5 cm. on a side, 
and many are crossed by unbroken lines of the engraved decor. There 
are also a number of chaplets in the bottom; many of them show no 
seams at the edges and can only be detected by their slight color contrast 
with the surrounding metal. 

The entire surface is covered with smooth, gray-green tin-oxide patina 
giving the object a handsome appearance. There are only minor areas of 
thin corrosion crusts. The condition is excellent. 

Composition : Sample taken from underside of one leg. 

Wet chemical analysis : Cu 87. 1 % ; Sn 10.4 ; Total 97.5. 

Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Pb 0.1%; 

Ag 0.01 ; Fe 0.03 ; Co 0.01 ; Ni 0.09 ; Sb 0.02. 
This is one of the few bronze vessels in which lead, except for a trace, 
is absent. 



615 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWENTY-TWO PLATE 116 



Lien 

Han dynasty (1st century B.C. -1st century A.D.) 

No inscription 

Height, 18.1 cm.(7i in.) 

Width, 19.7 cm. (7f in.) 

Weight, 1.79 kg. (3 lbs., 15oz.) 

Accession number 23.2 



This vessel of standard lien shape is entirely gilded on the surface and 
incised with bands of scroll designs and geometric patterns. On the 
central band are two escutcheon masks holding loose rings. The incised 
scroll patterns are repeated inside the lid and under the vessel where they 
are painted in red and green pigments and also include flying birds. The 
surface shows a good deal of malachite encrustation, and the vessel has 
been much damaged and repaired. 



616 



PLATE 116 




NUMBER TWENTY-TWO (35.12) 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWENTY-TWO 



STYLE AND CHRONOLOGY 

A surprisingly large number of closely related lien exist from the Han 
period. Most, if not all, of the extant examples in gilt bronze have cloud- 
scroll patterns engraved on their exterior surfaces; in at least one case, 
this has been transformed into a landscape with animals.'^^® The design 
of phoenix and tortoises painted inside the lid is to be seen also in three 
or four other lien of the period.'*"^ In these painted designs, the cloud- 
scroll pattern serves as a background to the phoenix, presumably 
representing actual clouds here, although the striding or dancing 
position of the birds' legs would suggest rather that they are on the 
earth. The manner of the drawing, in fine fine of even thickness com- 
bined with flat washes of color, is standard for early Chinese painting, 
but few examples of such delicacy and refinement have survived from the 
Han period. There seems to be no clear evidence for dating these vessels; 
Mizuno places the Tenri Museum lien in the Western Han period, with- 
out giving his reasons for doing so. 

TECHNICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Both members, vessel and lid, seem to be cast in one piece since no joins 
or seams can be seen at the edges of the legs or along the t'ao-t'ieh handle 
escutcheons. The three raised bands that run around the sides appear to 
be cast integrally with the vessel. There are no visible mold joins. The 
handle rings are split. The three spindles on the lid, which serve as 
handles, coincide with rivet-like protruberences underneath. These 
spindles may have been cast to the lid through holes previously prepared 
for the purpose. The artist has used the "rivet heads" as the bodies of 
tortoises in the painted design of the under surface. Two chaplets in the 

'^08 pillsbury Collection, Minneapolis; see Karlgren, . . . Pillsbury . . . , no. 62, PI. 87. Others in Um- 
ehara, SKSjE, III, 231, (Berlin Museum) and SKSIJ, VI, 485 (M.F.A., Boston); Watson, Ancient 
Chinese bronzes, 78b (Victoria and Albert Museum); and Kidder, Earlv Chinese bronzes . . . , PI. 
XXVIII, 30.51. 

409 One, with the finest painting, in the Tenri Museum; see Mizuno, Kandai no kaiga, colorplate 1. An- 
other, on which the tortoises are not visible in the reproduction but probably present in the Sumitomo 
Collection; see Umehara, SKSjJ, VI, 483. A third in the former Eumorfopoulos Collection; see 
Umehara SKSjE III, 233 (lid only reproduced). According to Umehara, the painted design, illeg- 
ible in his reproduction, inside the lid of the lien he published as ex-collection of S. Kawai (SKSjJ, 
VI, 487) has since been cleaned to reveal another picture of a phoenix. The vessel is now in the 
Nelson Gallery. 



618 



NUMBER ONE HUNDRED TWENTY-TWO 



lid and one in the vessel side are easily discernible; and there may be 
others in both lid and vessel hidden under corrosion. 

The fine-line decor of the vessel is not cast but is traced. The exterior 
vessel sides and top of the lid are thinly gilded, done possibly by the fire 
gilding (mercury) process. The inside of the lid and both sides of the 
bottom bear painted designs of birds and animals outhned in black 
against a red background. The red pigment was identified as vermilion; 
the green is malachite; and the white is a fine inert material, not precisely 
identified but probably a clay mineral. 

The sides of the vessel have been badly damaged and crudely repaired 
with soft solder. The repairs were originally concealed with a thick layer 
of artificial patina, but this has been removed. Some natural corrosion 
crusts of malachite and some limy deposits still overlie the gilding. The 
lid, fortunately, is in much better condition; and here the fine-line decor 
can be seen to best advantage. 

Composition : Sample taken from leg. 

Wet chemical analysis: Cu 78.8% ; Sn 5.7; Pb 12.1 ; Total 96.6. 
Additional elements estimated by emission spectrometry: Ag 0.2%; 
Fe 0.2 ; Co 0.09 ; Ni 0.09 ; As 0.2 ; Bi 0.04 ; Al 0.002 ; Si 0.002. 



619 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Jn referring to periodicals the following abbreviations are used : 

AA - Artibus Asiae, Ascona, Switzerland. 
Acad S Academia Sinica Bulletin, Taipei. 

ACASA - Archives of the Chinese Art Society of America, New York. 

Acta A - Acta Asiatica, Tokyo. 

AQ Art Quarterly. Detroit. 

AS - Archaeologia Sinica, Nan-kang, Taiwan. 

BK - Bijutsu Kenkyu, Tokyo. 

BM - Burlington Magazine, London. 

BMFEA- Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm. 

CK.KHP - Chung kuo k'ao-ku hsiieh-pao, Nanking. 

CMAB- Cleveland Museum of Art Bulletin. 

CON - Connoisseur, London. 

GBA - Gazette des Beaux-arts, Paris. 

KG - Kaogu, Peking. 

KKHP- K'ao-ku hsiieh-pao, Peking. 

MS - Monumenta Serica, Peking. 

NYMMA - New York Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. 

OA - Oriental Art, London. 

RAA - Revue des Arts Asiatiques, Paris. 

RAS - Royal Asiatic Society Journal, Shanghai. 

SA - Sinologische Arbeiten, Peking. 

TG - Toho Gakuh5, Kyoto and Tokyo. 

TGK -Toho-gaku kiyo, Kyoto. 

TOCS - Transactions of the Oriental Ceramic Society, London. 
WW Wen-wu, Peking. 



Works in Western Languages 

Ackerman, Phyllis. Ritual bronzes of ancient CJiina. New York, 1945. 
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pp. 1-38. 

Argyropoulo, Alexandre J. "The Chinese ritual bronzes." CON, February 1964, 
V. 155, no. 624, pp. 90-94. 

Bachhofer, Ludwig. A short history of Chinese art. New York, 1946. 

Barnard, Noel. Bronze casting and bronze alloys in ancient China. Canberra, 1961. 

Buckingham. SEE Kelley. 

Cahill, James F. The art of Southern Sung China - Asia House 1962. New York, 1962. 



621 



Chan Hui-chLian, editor. Ancient relics of China. Peking, 1962. Text in Chinese, 

English and Russian. 
Cheng Te-k'un. Arcliaeoloi^y in Cluna. Cambridge, England, 1959- , 8 vols. 
— . 'Travels of the Emperor Mu.'^ RAS, North China Branch, 1933-34, v. 64, 

pp. 124-142: V. 65, pp. 128-149. 
Consten, Eleanor von Erdberg. ''A hu with pictorial decoration." ACASA, 1952, 

V. 6, pp. 18-32. 

— . "A terminology of Chinese bronze decoration." MS, 1957, v. 16; 1958, v. 17; 

1959,v. 18. 
Cull. SEE Yetts. 

Davidson, J. Leroy. "The bird-in-the-animal-mouth on Chinese bronzes." GBA, 

January, 1945, pp. 5-14. 
— . "New light on Middle Chou bronzes." AQ, Winter, 1940, v. 3, pp. 93-106. 

Eilsseeff, Serge. "Quelques heures a Texposition des bronzes chinois (mai-juin 

1934)." RAA, 1934, v. 8, pp. 229-241. 
Eumorfopoulos. SEE Yetts. 

Freer Gallery of Art. A descriptive and illustrative catalogue of Chinese bronzes 
acquired during the administration of John Ellerton Lodge. Baltimore, 1946. 

Hansford, Sidney Howard. A glossary oj Chinese art and archaeology. London, 1961. 
Hentze, Carl. Bronzegerdt, kultbauten, religion im ditesten China der Shang-zeit. 

Antwerpen, 1951, 2 vols. 
Heusden, Willem van. Ancient Chinese bronzes of the Shang and Chou dynasties. 

Tokyo, 1952. 

Higuchi Takayasu. "Newly discovered Western Chou bronzes." Acta A, Tokyo, 
1962, V. 3, pp. 30-43. 

Ho Wai-kam. "Shang and Chou bronzes." CMAB, September 1964, v. 51, no. 7, 
pp. 174-187. 

Janse, Olav. Archaeological research in Indo-Cliina. Cambridge, Mass., 1947- 58, 
3 vols. 

Jenyns, Soame and William Watson. Chinese art. Vol. 2, New York, 1963. 

Karlgren, Bernhard. "Bronzes in the Hellstrom collection." BMFEA, 1948, no. 2, 
pp. 1-38. 

— . A catalogue of the Chinese bronzes in the Alfred F. Pillsbury collection. Min- 
neapolis, 1952. 

— . "New studies on Chinese bronzes." BMEEA, 1937, no. 9, pp. 1-1 17. 
— . "Notes on the grammar of early bronze decor." BMFEA, 1951, no. 23, 
pp. 1-80. 



622 



— . "On the date of the Piao bells." BMFEA, 1934, no. 6, pp. 137-149. 

— . "Some bronzes in the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities.'" BMFEA, 1949, 

no. 2 1 , pp. 1 -25 and plates. 
— . "Some characteristics of the Yin art." BMFEA, 1962, no. 34, pp. 1-28. 
— . "Yin and Chou in Chinese bronzes." BMFEA, 1936, no. 8, pp. 9-1 54. 
Kelley, Charles Fabens and Meng-chia Ch'en. Chinese bronzes from the Buckingham 

collection. Chicago, 1946. 
Kidder, Jonathan Edward, Jr. Early Chinese bronzes in the City Art Museum of St. 

Louis. St. Louis, 1956. 

Li Chi. The beginnings of Chinese civilization. Seattle, 1957. 

— . "Examples of pattern dissolution from the archaeological specimens of 

Anyang." AA, 1959, nos. 1-2, pp. 138-142. 
Lion-Goldschmidt, Daisy and Jean Claude Moreau-Gobard. Chinese art. Vol. 1, 

New York, 1960. 

Lippe, Aschwin. "A gift of Chinese bronzes." NYMMA, 1950, v. 9, pp. 97-107. 
Lochow, Hans Juergen von. Sammlung Lochow: Chinesische hronzen. Herausge- 

geben von Gustav Ecke. Peking, 1943-44, 2 vols. 
Loehr, Max. "The bronze styles of the An-yang period (1300-1028 B.C.)." ACASA, 

1953, V. 7, pp. 47-48. 

— . "Bronzentexte der Chou-zeit." 1(1), SA 2, 1944, pp. 30-91; 1(2), MS, 1946, 
V. 11, pp. 269-325. 

— . "The Cull Chinese bronzes, by W. Percival Yetts." A review. MS, 1948, v. 13, 

pp. 420-426. 
— . Relics of ancient China. New York, 1965. 

Loo, C. T. & Co., New York. An exhibition of ancient Chinese ritual bronzes loaned 
by C. T. Loo & Co. . . . Detroit Institute of Arts, October 18 - November JO, 
79^(9. New York, 1940. 

Loo, C. T. SEE Tch'ou To-yi (Ch'u Te-i). 

Musterberg, Hugo, "An anthropomorphic deity from ancient China." OA, 1951, 
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Pillsbury, A. F. SEE Karlgren, B. 

Salles, Georges. "Les bronzes de Li-yu." RAA, 1934, v. 8, no. 3, pp. 146-158. 
Salmony, Alfred. Asiatische kunst, ausstellung Koln, 1926. Miinchen, 1929. 
Schafer, Edwards. The golden peaches of Samarkand; a study of T'ang exotics. 
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Sickman, Laurence and Alexander C. Soper. The art and architecture of China. 
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Soper, Alexander C. "The tomb of the Marquis of Ts'ai." OA, Autumn 1964, n.s. 

V. 10, no. 3, pp. 1 53-1 57. 
Speiser, Werner. The art of China: spirit and society. New York, 1961. 



623 



Stephen, Barbara. "Early Chinese bronzes in the Royal Ontario Museum." OA, 

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Tch'ou To-yi (Ch'u Te-i). Bronzes antiques de la Chine appartenant a C. T. Loo et Cie 
avec une preface et des notes de M. Paul Pelliot. Paris et Bruxelles, 1924. 

Thoms, Peter Perring. A dissertation on the ancient Chinese vases of the Shang 
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Trubner, Henry. "Arts of the Han dynasty." ACASA, 1960, v. 14, pp. 2-48. 

Vandier-Nicolas, Nicole. "Notes sur un vase chinois du Musee du Louvre." RAA, 
1938, V. 12, pp. 133-141. 

Waterbury, Florance. Early Chinese symbols and literature: vestiges and speculations 
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1942. 

Watson, William. Ancient Chinese bronzes. London, 1962. 

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"Ch'ang-sha fa-chiieh pao-kao" ^'i^ SEE Clmng-kuo t'ien-yeh k'ao-ku 

pao-kao chi ^^Hff%i&^^^. 



624 



Ch'en Meng-chia m^-M. "Hsi-chou t'ung-ch'i tuan-tai" M i*] ^ §s ir ft. KKHP, 
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no. 10. 

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Series 2, no. 5. 

Fu-feng t^cMl. SEE Shan-hsi sheng po-wu-kuan 

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^li ^ TG, Kyoto, March 1964, no. 34, pp. 199-298. 

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625 



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Hui-hsien fa-chiieh pao-kao M^-^. SEE Chung-kuo t'ien-yeh k'ao-ku pao- 



kao chi ^ ^ BB ff ^-S" fR^ 
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Indai-seidd hiiiika no kenkyil f&K^m^ it om'^. TG, Kyoto, 1953, v. 23. 

Jung Keng compiler. Pao-yiin-hu i-ch'i ru-hi Peking, 1929. 

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Kuo Mo-jo ^15 'i^ ^. Liang-chou chin-\ven-tz"u ta-hsi t'u-lu k^ao-shih ^ M'^.'X^'X^ 
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Kuo Pao-chiin viSWI^- Shan-piao-chen yii liu-li-ko Peking, 1959. 

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— . Yin-hsii c/i'u-fu ch'ing-t'ung ku-hsing clfi chih yen-chiu PA^^±^^W^M^ 
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626 



Liu T'i-chih m ffi t?. Hsiao-chiao-ching-ko chin-shih wen-tzii /h U n.p. 
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— . Shan-chai chi-chin-lu #^ Lu-chiang (1934?). 

Lo Chen-yu Iti^i. Meng-wei ts'ao-t\mg chi-cliin-t'u 115 j|l ^ ^ ^ il n.p., 1917. 
— . Yin-wen-ts'un PAX'if- n.p., 1917. 

Lo-ya/ig chuiig-c/iou-ln \^ "t" W i^^^- SEE C/uiiig-kuo t'ien-yeh k'ao-ku pao-kao chi 



Lo-yang Shao-koii Han mu m mmfimW,. SEE Ihid. 
Lii Ta-lin ^ k^}i,. K\w-ku-fu [rSl, n.p., 1752. 

Ma Te-chih # Chou Yung-chen jfj 7l< i^^ and Chang Yiin-p'eng ^ ® H. "I-chiu- 
wu-san nien An-yang Ta-ssu-k'ung ts'un fa-chiieh pao-kao" — A3lH 
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Mizuno Seiichi 7KSq=in— . "In-sho seidoki hennen no shomondai" ^ ]§i W isl 
^ © 1^ 'M. TG, March 1953, no. 23, pp. 79-134. 

— . In-shii seidoki to gyokii /Jici^j t 5., Tokyo, Nihon keizai, 1959. Summary 

and list of plates in English. 

— . Kamhi no kaiga ii ^ © ft St, Tokyo, 1957. 

Nei meng-ku tzu-chih ch'Q wcn-wu kung-tso tui ?^ U '^%'X% ^^i'^W. Nei 
meng-ku clfu-t'u ^ven-\\•u hsiian-chi R ^ Hi ± 34:; % ii ^, Peking, 1963. 

Ning-shou-chicn-ku '^uMii, Peiping, 1913. 

Sekai hijursii taikei^ ^^m-X Vols. 8-10: ''Chugoku bijutsu" ^Mi^. ff, Tokyo, 
1963-65. 

Sekino Tadashi Hff Jl, et al. Rakurd gun jidoi no iseki ^ 5$ O Itff , Tokyo, 
1925. 

Sen-oku sei-sho /jl^ill^S!. SEE Sumitomo Kichizaemon <£^^:£||iP^. 
— . SEE Umehara Sueji ^ Ji?;^^p. 

Shan-hsi shcng po-wu-kuan 1^ ffi tJtf fit. Ch'ing-tung-ch'i ru-shih ^^^MW, 
Peking, 1960. 



627 



Shan-hsi sheng po-wu-kuan 1^^ W ^i' 1# 1% tfi . Fu-feng cJti-chia ts'uii clfiiig-t'ung-ch'i 

cinin ^n^mti m w m m, 1 963. 

Shang Ch'eng-tso l^j ^ ;fiV-. Ch'ang-sha clfu-t'u ch'u ch'i-chU t'u-lu ;g ai ± ^ ^ ^ 
il II, Shanghai, 1955. 

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Shang-hai po-wu-kuan ±.M\%^W. Shang-hai po-wu-kuan ts'ang ch'ing-tung cJti ± 
Ummnm"^ m shanghai, 1 964, 2 vols. 

Shang-ts'un-ling ±# ^. SEE Chung-kuo t'ien-yeh k'ao-ku pao-kao chi ff' ^ ffl # 

Shou hsien Ts'ai-hou m^-W:^- SEE Chung-kuo t'ien-yeh k'ao-ku pao-kao chi 4'^ 

Sumitomo Kichizaemon tt^ n'&^P'J. Sen-oku sei-sho ^M^raX n.p., 1921-26, 
2nd edition. Some explanations in English. 

Sun Hai-po Hsin-cheng /-c//'/ ff S15# Peiping, 1937. 

Sun Tso-yiin -^-hi^^M. "Shuo tMen-wang kuei wei wu-wang mieh-shang i-ch'ien 
t'ung-ch'i" t&^:^ -ji^3-:M [^>^ mjislts. WW, 1958, no. 1, pp. 29^31. 

T'ang Lan jt if. Ch'ing-rung ch'i ru-shih -^m^^M % Peking. 

Tuan Fang ^IS:^^. Tao-chai chi-chin-/u ^11, Shanghai, 1908. 

Umehara Sueji ^W^^'ia. Henkin no kokogaku-teki kosatsu ^ cD % i& ^ S^J % ^, 
Kyoto, 1933. (Toho-bunka-gakuin Kyoto kenkyusho. Memoire, vol. 2.) 

— . In-kyo P&m^ Tokyo, 1964. 

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— . Kanan anyo ihd fop^" ^ Pis jifi W, Kyoto, 1940. 

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:i.<DWm. TGK, July 1959, v. 1. 

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628 



— . Rakuyd kin son koho s/ulei i^^^.U-^M^^, Kyoto, 1937. 

— . Sengoku shiki ddki no kenkyii ^M^^^t (DW;%, Kyoto, 1936. (Toho-bunka- 
gakuin Kyoto kenkytisho. Memoire, vol. 7.) 

— . Sen-oku sei-sho /%Mtra i^', Kyoto, 1961. 

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H ;*:mfi, 6 vols. Osaka, 1933 35, 1959-64. 

Wang Fu and others 3^11^. Po-ku fu-lu m-tim H n.p., 1752. 

Wen-wu ts'an-k'ao tzu-liao 'X^^^'kp!. Peking, 1950—. 

Juan Yiian ^x. Chi-kit-chai chung ting i-ch^i k^iian-shih Uxii^^^AA^^^kWi, 
Wu-ch'ang, 1879. 



629 



LIST OF CHINESE CHARACTERS 



An (vessel) 

An-yang 

Chan-kuo 

Chang-chia-p'o 

Ch'en-ch'en 

Ch'en Chieh-ch'i 

Chi-po-kuei 

Ch'i (axe) 

Chia (vessel) 

Chih (vessel, early type) 

Chill (vessel, later type) 

Ch'ih (dragon) 

Chin-ts-un 

Ch'in kuei 

Ch'in-kung-kuei 

Ching-kuei 

Chio or chiao (vessel) 

Chu-nu-kuang 

Ch'Li 

Ch'un-ch'iu 

Chung-chou-lu 

Chung-kuei 

Chiieh (vessel) 

Erh-li-t'ou 

Fang-hu 

Fang-i 

Fang-ting 

Fang-tsun 

Feng-hsi 

Fu-chai 

Fu-feng 

Fu-shih-li-kuei 



4,^ 



MM. 

4^ 'M ^ 
S M 

-^'^ 



Hai-tao-ying-tze 

Han-huang-fu-kuei 

Heng ^ 

Hou-chia-chuang 

Hou-ma ^ 

Hsi-pei-kang H ^ 

Hsi-wang-mu ffi3£# 

Hsiang, Duke of Lu # M ^ 

Hsiao-t'un /h 

Hsien (vessel) M 

Hsin-cheng MM 

Hu (vessel) ft 

Hu-hsien mU 

Huai-ho MP] 

Huan-kung tl<& 

Huang-ch'ih Hu 

Huang-ho (Yellow River) MP] 

Hui Hsien 

Huo (vessel) ^ 

I (vessel) # 

I (pouring vessel) M. 

Jui-kung-ting p^^iftl 
Jung-tzu 

Keng-jen-ting ^ Jl i»l 

Keng-ying-yu Jit M ^ 
Ku (vessel) 

Kuang (vessel) M 

Kuei (vessel) Si 

K'uei (dragon) M 

Lan-fien Ml ffl 

Lei (vessel) ^ 

Lei-wen W ^ 



630 



Li-yii 




Ta-pao-kuei 




Liu-li-ko 




Ta-ssu-k'ung-ts'un 




Lu-kuei 


§.m 


T'ai-pu-hsiang 


± m m 


Lung (dragon) 


m 


Tan-i 




Mi-shu-kuei 


mum 


T'ang-shan 


JU 111 


Ming-ch'i 




T'ao-t'ieh 




Mu-t'ien-tzu-chuan 




T'i-liang-yu (vessel) 




P'an (vessel) 




T'ien-kan 




Pao-chi-hsien 




T'ien-wang-kuei 




Pien-hu (vessel) 




Ting (vessel) 




Po-shan-lu 




T'o-kuei 




P'oLi (vessel) 




Tso-ch uan 




P'u-tu-ts'un 




Tso-pao-ting 


m. ifH 


San-tai 




Tsun (vessel) 




Shan-fu-k-Q-ting 




Tui (vessel) 




Shan-piao-chen 


lU 11 


Wang Mang 




Shang-ts'iin-ling 




Wang-ssu 




Shao-hsing 




Wang-sun i-che chung 




Shih-ch'i-ting 




Wei 


m 


Shih-yu-kuei 


m m m 


Ya-hsing 




ShoLi Hsien 




Yen-shih Hsien 


m n M 


Shou-kung-p'an 




Yen-tun-shan 




Shu-wei 




Yu (vessel) 


ii 


Ssu-mu-wLi-fang-ting 




Yii (vessel) 


JIIL 


Ssu-po-ts'un 




Yii-ting 




Sung-kuei 


mm 


Yiarinkan 


^1 If 



631 



INDEX 



American Art Association, 418, 546. 
An (type), 9, 463, 542, 544, 599. 
Ancestor gods, 7. 

Ancient Chinese vases of t lie Shang dynasty, 5, 20, 

290, 380. 
Animal heads. See Decoration. 
Animals. See Decoration. 

Bachhofer, Ludwig, 492. 

Barnard, Noel, 3, 208, 314, 428, 442. 

Bears. See Decoration. 

Beasts. See Decoration. 

Bells, 2. 

Piao bells, 480. 
Biot, EdoLiard C, 5. 
Birds. See Decoration. 
Bishop, Carl W., 444. 
Blades. See Decoration. 
ButTalo. See Decoration. 

Chan-kuo period, 481, 482, 540, 580. 
Chang-chia-p'o, Feng-hsi, Shensi Province, 67. 
Ch'ang-sha, Hunan Province, 128, 224, 598, 599, 
612, 613. 

Chao, King (966-948), 328, 382, 386. 

Chariots, 67, 484. 

Ch'en-ch'en Set, 12, 234, 414. 

Ch'en Meng-chia, 192, 194, 240, 306, 328, 338, 

376, 386, 390, 450. 
Ch'eng, King (1024-1005), 12, 113, 187, 192, 240, 

286, 300, 306, 307, 327, 354, 366, 382. 
Chi ku chai chung ting i ch'i k'lian shih, 266, 297, 

443. 
Chi-ku-ht, 5. 

Chia (type), 7, 9, 60, 120, 122, 126, 128, 131, 132, 

134, 148, 202, 240, 254, 338. 
Chien (type), 9, 459, 478, 480, 483, 484, 486, 487, 

504, 521, 570. 
Chih (type), 9, 86, 394, 396, 398, 400, 408, 412, 

414, 544. 
Chih family, 480. 
Chin (State), 462, 480. 
Chin-ts'un, Honan Province, 560, 613, 614. 
Chinese dictionary, 5. 

Ch'ing dynasty catalogues, 5, 189, 346, 348, 378. 

Chio (type), 152. 

Chou chin wen ts'iin, 331. 

Chou-li, 5, 570. 

Ch'u (State), 598, 613. 

Chun-hsien, Hupei Province, 189. 

Ch'un-ch'iu period, 459, 552, 580. 

Chung-chou Lu, Honan Province, 534. 

Clweh (type), 7, 9, 22, 131, 138, 140, 142, 144, 146, 

148, 154, 156. 
Cicadas. See Decoration. 



Collections of Chinese bronzes: 
Asano, 48. 

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 316. 
Berlin Museum, 22, 521. 
Bing, S., 388. 

British Museum, London, 36, 49, 100, 166, 186, 
244, 400. 

Brundage, A., 36, 113, 202, 214, 348, 370, 530, 
576. 

Buckingham, C. (Art Institute of Chicago), 1 18, 

492, 552, 553, 566. 
Cernuschi Musee, Paris, 224, 257. 
Chen Ta Whah Ling, 402. 
Ch'en Chieh-ch'i, 308, 405. 
Ch'eng Ch'i, 280. 
Ch'ien-lung, 590, 599, 604. 
Ch'ien Tien, 442. 
Chou Chin, 56. 

City Art Museum of St. Louis, 86, 118, 122, 

353, 400. 
Cohen, D., 376. 

Cull, A. E. K., 480, 499, 500, 521. 
Cunliffe, Lord, 376. 
Eumorfopoulous, G., 6. 

Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, 42, 270, 328, 

348, 370, 515, 576. 
Fujii Yurinkan, Kyoto, 234, 420, 492. 
Fujita Museum, Osaka, 230, 257, 259. 
Hakutsuru Museum, Kobe, 11, 113, 280, 296, 

327, 328, 329, 353, 370, 421, 608, 612, 613. 
Heinrich Hardt Collection, Berlin, 178. 
Heusden, W. van, 122. 
Hiroumi, 270. 

Holmes, Mrs. C, 80, 152, 492. 

Hosokawa Collection, 614. 

Jannings, W., 486. 

Kawai, S., 48, 56. 

Kung, Prince, 26, 418, 546. 

Kunstindustrie Museum, Copenhagen, 348. 

Lochow, H. J. von, 43. 

Loo, C. T., 390, 420, 521. 

LulT, R. E., 202. 

Malcolm, Maj. Gen. Sir Neil, 286. 
Manchu Imperial Household, 370, 376, 421. 
Menten, J. H. P. F., 86. 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 43, 152, 208, 

214, 234, 286, 300, 388. 
Minneapolis Institute of Art, 134. 
Moore, Mrs. W. H., 370. 
Mount Trust, England, 152. 
Musee Guimet, Paris, 128, 230. 
Museum fiir Kunst and Gewerb, Hamburg, 348. 
Museum of Eastern Art, Oxford, 400. 
Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm, 

48, 122. 



633 



INDEX 



Collections of Chinese bronzes — continued 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 414. 
M useum van Aziatische Kunst, Amsterdam, 344. 
Nanking Museum, 459. 
Nara Museum, 22, 172, 570. 
National Palace Museum, Taiwan, 113, 194, 

208, 360, 492, 510, 566. 
Nelson. See William Rockhill Nelson Gallery 

of Art below. 
Nezu Museum, Tokyo, 122, 214, 244, 250. 
Oeder, R. H. G., 178, 230, 300, 521. 
Oppenheim, H., 534. 
Peking Museum, 338, 570. 
Pillsbury, A. F., 100, 240, 270, 290, 292, 348, 

353, 354, 376, 408, 458, 483, 514. 
Portland Art Museum, Oregon, 48. 
Pilster, 521. 

Rhciss Museum, Gothenburg, 492. 

Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, 234, 450, 

544, 560. 
Sackler, A., 172. 
Seattle Art Museum, 145. 
Sedgwick, Mrs. W., 474. 
Seligman, C. G., 28, 459. 
Shiohara, M., 156. 

Sumitomo, Baron, 22, 28, 96, 128, 152, 186, 
224, 240, 244, 250, 251, 257, 259, 270, 328, 
409, 432, 599. 

Tenri Museum, Nara, 432, 618. 

Tokyo Art School, 614. 

Toledo Museum of Art, 338, 390. 

Tuan Fang, 152, 286, 300, 302, 327. 

University Museum, University of Pennsylvan- 
ia, 409, 514, 515. 

Vignier, Charles, 43, 566. 

William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art, Kan- 
sas City, 134, 178, 192, 193, 214, 427. 

Yale Art Gallery, New Haven, 613. 
Consten, Eleanor von E., 16, 486. 
Creel, Herrlee G., 6. 

Davidson, Joseph L., 354. 
Decoration: 

Abstract band, 458. 

Animal heads, 28, 46, 100, 102, 104, 238, 261, 
262, 338, 342, 409, 475. 
beasts, 306, 534, 548, 560. 
bovine, 46, 104, 126, 298. 
buffalo, 232, 238, 368. 
feline, 238, 242, 468. 

monster, 116, 132, 254, 384, 426, 430, 464. 

rams, 294, 296, 329. 

sheep-like, 241. 
Animal triple band, 235, 364, 366. 
Animals, 10, 235, 241, 244, 259, 286, 298, 353, 

370, 374, 415, 418, 420, 446, 458, 480, 484, 

504, 534, 599, 602, 608, 612, 614. 



Arabesques, 409. 

Bears, 608, 610. 

Beasts, 118, 286, 306, 354, 426. 
fabulous, 606, 608, 610. 

Birds, 10, 12, 26, 28, 34, 36, 98, 106, 118, 214, 
230, 234, 238, 242, 244, 248, 254, 259, 270, 
272, 284, 286, 298, 300, 327, 328, 352, 354, 
370, 382, 384, 386, 390. 408, 412, 414, 415, 
418, 427. 456, 458, 468, 556, 558, 560, 561, 
564, 568, 602, 604, 610, 612, 614, 616. 
back-to-back, 274. 
C-shaped, 328. 

confronted, 106, 110, 113, 116, 184,212, 292, 
324, 386, 390, 400, 406, 420, 502, 510. 

crested, 46, 94, 104, 126, 128, 268, 290, 329, 
376, 380, 382, 384, 388, 398, 406, 554. 

fabulous, 290. 

in animal's mouth, 248, 254, 360, 388, 398, 
424. 

long-tailed, 106, 186, 187, 409. 
with snakes in the mouth, 502, 508. 
Blades : 

hanging, 34, 116, 120, 132, 154, 172, 336, 
338, 452, 475, 508, 524. 

rising, 58, 60, 71, 74, 84, 86, 90, 98, 104, 106, 
110, 120, 132, 142, 234, 338, 342, 406, 408. 
Bosses and nipples, 190, 192, 193, 310, 353, 

356, 370, 414, 415, 458, 515, 526. 
Bowstrings, 60, 74, 306, 316. 
Braid pattern, 478, 480, 484, 490, 496, 499, 500. 
Buffalo, 11, 230, 261, 368, 374, 376, 377. 
Chevron pattern, 86, 132, 420. 
Cicadas, 58, 60, 66, 71, 106, 132, 170, 172, 250, 

257, 274, 278, 280, 284, 310, 314, 316, 338, 

342, 384. 
Circles, 40, 54, 56, 78, 314. 
Clouds, 16, 614, 618. 
Cowries, 478. 
C-pattern, 244, 328, 442. 
Crescents, 228. 

Curls, 56, 106, 306, 480, 493, 504, 514. 
Deer, 376. 

Demons, 224, 257, 612. 

Diagonal and curl pattern, 486, 521. 

Diagonal and volute pattern, 546. 

Diagonals, 514, 576. 

Diamond pattern, 388, 606. 

Diaper pattern, 13, 192, 370, 596, 598. 

Dragons, 10, 12, 13, 15, 28, 34, 36, 48, 78, 106, 
178, 200, 228, 230, 238, 242, 244, 248, 254, 
260, 262, 278, 290, 300, 304, 306, 307, 342, 
346, 348, 356, 360, 408, 409, 414, 418, 427, 
458, 472, 474, 477, 499, 538, 540, 592, 606, 
608. 

angular band, 414, 474, 477. 
bird, 510. 

bottle-horned, 34, 200, 222, 278. 



634 



INDEX 



Decoration : 

Dragons — continued 
coiled, 254, 388. 

confronted, 34, 36, 46, 104, 120, 132, 176, 338. 
crested, 290, 402, 406. 
elephantine, 172. 
elongated, 284, 336, 409. 
fish, 257. 

horizontal, 98, 394. 
horned, 261. 

interlaced, 508, 524, 570. 

interlocked, 456, 468, 472, 478, 490, 496, 

508, 524, 528, 546, 550, 568. 
k'uei, 15, 26, 34, 46, 50, 54, 90, 104, 106, 132, 

164, 193, 206, 222, 228, 230, 238, 268, 

270, 338, 346, 350, 368, 370. 
linear, 298. 

monocular, 20, 22, 46, 244, 264, 268, 270, 

342, 346, 353, 368, 402. 
proboscid, 46, 278. 
serpent, 192, 259, 268, 548. 
s-shaped, 186, 234. 
strap-work, 526. 
trunked, 71, 280, 376. 
vertical, 98, 110, 132, 336, 380, 394. 
Ducks, 528, 530. 

Elephants, 11, 228, 230, 238, 244, 254, 259, 354. 

Feather tips, 596, 598, 599, 602. 

Fish, 11, 34, 36, 238, 244, 254, 484, 486. 

Fluting, 424, 440, 442, 472, 474, 596, 598. 

Geese, 484, 486. 

Griffin, 458. 

Hares, 11, 238, 244. 

Horns, 193, 230, 241, 270, 350. 

bottle, 34, 46, 192, 193, 222, 224, 238, 248, 
254, 259, 262, 268, 298, 306, 452. 

buffalo, 254, 261. 

curling, 254, 259. 

piscamorphic, 261. 

rams, 98, 132, 238, 259, 261, 426. 
Human figures, 484, 578, 608, 612, 613. 

heads, 222, 224, 257, 260. 

kneeling, 558, 560, 561. 

serpent-bodied, 257. 

with bear's heads, 564. 

with snake-like bodies, 254. 
Inlay: 

copper, 516. 

copper and silver, 512, 514, 574, 576. 
gold, 538, 540. 

gold and silver, 116, 262, 332, 334, 514, 521, 
564, 566, 612, 613, 614. 

silver, 518, 522, 536. 
Leaf, 86. 
Lei-wen, passim. 

Linear pattern, 80, 100, 156, 192, 257, 286, 514, 
614. 



Lotus, 606. 

Lozenge, 34, 314, 370, 514, 596, 598, 612. 
Masks, 132, 154, 172, 178, 200, 224, 225, 259, 
475, 616. 

animal, 128, 192, 193, 241, 252, 270, 304, 382, 

406, 502, 512, 532. 
beast, 128, 244, 270, 526. 
bird, 248, 254. 
bovine, 11, 234, 370, 454. 
buff'alo, 284. 
feline, 11, 248, 278, 364. 
human, 224, 350, 353. 
owl, 244. 

monster, 98, 160, 180, 222, 254, 262, 268, 
274, 314, 324, 346, 350, 358, 364, 374, 380, 
384, 402, 408, 418, 424, 436, 452, 456, 468, 
472, 478, 484, 486, 528, 558, 578. 
tigers, 212, 244, 424, 558. 
Meanders, 86, 134, 458. 
Monoculi, 22, 40, 48, 436. 
Monsters, 532, 535, 536. 

Owls, 10, 242, 245, 259, 268, 270, 276, 280, 354, 

570. 
Oxen, 286. 
Phoenix, 618. 
Quatrefoil, 599, 602. 
Quills, 122. 
Rams, 244, 259, 261. 
Rattles, 28. 
Rectangles, 222. 
Reptiles, 261. 

Sawtooth pattern, 596, 598, 599. 

Scale pattern, 86, 132, 230, 242, 244, 257, 268, 

271. 329, 420, 424, 430, 432. 436. 448. 
Scroll pattern, 154, 160, 170, 388, 426, 542, 564, 

574, 616. 
S-curve bands, 409, 452, 458, 510. 
Serpentine band, 190, 212. 
Serpents, 11, 36, 58, 60, 66, 74, 154, 156, 198, 

224, 272, 294, 350, 356, 358, 475. 
Spikes, 368, 370. 

Spirals, 56, 310, 408, 414, 478, 480, 486, 492, 

496, 512, 514, 570. 
Split-skin serpents, 190, 192, 198, 294, 296. 
Striation, 257. 353, 475, 492, 570. 
String markings, 454. 
Swastikas, 502, 505. 
T'ao t'ieh, passim. 

Tigers, 1 1, 22, 36, 254, 496, 499, 558, 560, 608. 
Tortoise, 36, 486, 618. 
T-pattern, 40, 86, 162, 192, 430, 432. 
Triangles, 160, 472, 475, 478, 480, 492, 502, 

504, 514. 
Turtles, 484. 

Vertical ribbing, 25 1 , 280, 286, 292, 300, 368, 370. 
Volutes, 13, 496, 500, 502, 512, 521. 
Volutes and spirals, 498. 



635 



INDEX 



Decoration — continued 
Volutes and triangles, 484, 502, 564. 
V-shape, 505. 

Wave pattern, 418, 420, 452, 454, 606. 
Whorl circle, 28, 40, 120, 172, 198, 310, 312, 
454, 505. 

Zoomorphic, 160, 420, 426, 427, 446, 447, 458. 
Demons. See Decoration. 
Deer. See Decoration. 
Dragons. See Decoration. 
Ducks. See Decoration. 

Elephants. See Decoration. 

Erh-li-tou, Yen-shih Hsien, Honan Province, 7. 

Fang-lni (type), 502, 512, 514, 515, 522. 

Fang-i (type), 9, 11, 42, 113, 137, 192, 200, 202, 

206, 208, 212, 214, 219, 250, 293, 296, 327, 338, 

353. 

Fang-ting (type), 124, 190, 192, 194, 196, 198, 214, 

224, 225, 296, 370. 
Fang-tswi (type), 104, 106, 110, 113, 214, 327. 
Feng-hsi fa-chiieh pao-Kao, 1962, 67, 246. 
Eish. See Decoration. 

Ereer, C. L., 1, 2, 20, 26, 50, 54, 90, 116, 126, 154, 
180, 196, 206, 262, 274, 290, 294, 314, 332, 346, 
358, 374, 380, 388, 402, 418, 436, 440, 448, 452, 
542, 546, 550, 554, 558. 

Fu (type), 9, 13, 459, 546, 548, 550, 552, 553. 

Eu-ch'ai, King (495-473), 521. 

Eu-feng-ch'i-chia Ts'un, Shensi Province, 420, 427. 

Geese. See Decoration. 

Hai-tao-ying-tzu Ts'un, Jehol Province, 300, 306, 

338. 
Handles: 

Animal heads, 116, 126, 232. 

Bail, 278, 284, 298. 

Bird-in-animal's-mouth, 360. 

Bird-shape, 134, 248. 

Chain, 510, 526. 

Crested bird, 388. 

C-shape, 244. 

Dragon, 456. 

Interlocking rods, 564. 

Monster masks, 418, 456, 464, 486. 

Monsters, 132, 350, 352, 374, 418. 

Ring, 452, 542. 

Strap, 120, 122, 128. 

Tiger, 496. 

Twisted rope, 314, 332. 
Hares. See Decoration. 
Hill censer. See Po-shan-lu. 
Horns. See Decoration. 

Hou-chia-chuang, An-yang, Honan Province, 60, 
66, 396. 



Hou-ma, Shansi Province, 474, 481. 
Hsi-ch'ing-ku-chien-i-pien, 89, 416, 442. 
Hsi-pei-kang, An-yang, 338. 
Hsiang, King (318-296), 8. 
Hsiang, Duke of Lu (572-542), 475. 
Hsiao-chiao cin'ng ko chin sliili nen tzu, 62, 331, 
378, 416. 

Hsiao-t'un, An-yang, Honan Province, 42, 60, 

100, 140. 
Hsien (type), 189, 306. 

Hsin-cheng Hsien, Honan Province, 446, 510, 

526, 544, 552. 
Hsu, 9. 

Hsii Yin wen ts'un, 73, 246. 
Hsuan-ho (1119-1126), 5. 

Hu (type), 9, 13, 40, 42, 46, 48, 106, 162, 215, 312, 
412, 414, 415, 418, 420, 454, 462, 464, 480, 486, 
496, 499, 500, 504, 508, 510, 515, 521, 534, 570, 
590, 596, 598, 604, 608. 

Huai style, 458, 459, 480, 530. 

Huang Chun, 244. 

Huang-fu, 432. 

Hui, King (676-652), 463. 

Hui Hsien, Honan Province, 52, 156, 540. 

Hui-tsung, Emperor, 5. 

Human figures. See Decoration. 

Hunting-style, 13, 458, 484, 486, 502, 504, 505, 
514,566, 608,613. 

Huo (type), 7, 9, 11, 12, 113, 119, 214, 222, 224, 
225, 228, 230, 232, 234, 235, 244, 257, 312, 462, 
463, 468, 475, 558, 560, 564, 566. 

/ (type), 9, 472, 473, 474, 475, 492, 560. 
/, King (907-898), 432. 
Indo-China, 560, 598. 
Inlay. See Decoration. 
Inner Mongolia, 556. 

Intaglio, 13, 34, 37, 78, 132, 150, 154, 160, 208, 
222, 268, 310, 394, 414, 478, 484, 496, 505, 508, 
550, 558. 

Janse, Olav R. T., 560, 598, 608. 
Juan Yuan, 266, 443. 

Jung Keng, 6, 265, 266, 354, 366, 378, 414, 433, 

459, 544, 580. 
Jung-tzu set, 250, 327, 329. 

K'ang, King (1004-967), 187, 192, 214, 250, 300, 

306, 316, 327, 328, 329, 376, 382. 
K'ao-ku-hsiieh-pao, 6. 
K'ao-ku-t'u, 5, 182, 334, 442. 
Karlbeck, Orvar, 6. 

Karlgren, Bernhard, 6, 12, 16, 80, 186, 280, 292, 
344, 354, 376, 390, 408, 414, 424, 480. 

Kosai takuhon, 188, 210, 297. 

Ku (type), 7, 9, 22, 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60, 64, 66, 68, 
71,74, 76, 80, 90, 100, 113, 148,240, 344. 



636 



INDEX 



Kiiaiii; (type), 9, 192, 224, 238, 240, 242, 244, 245, 
248, 250, 254, 257, 259, 262, 264, 344, 567. 

Kuei (type), 9, 106, 186, 192, 235, 241, 246, 257, 
259, 261, 286, 288, 296, 306, 312, 328, 338, 342, 
344, 346, 348, 350, 353, 354, 358, 360, 364, 365, 
366, 368, 370, 374, 376, 380, 382, 384, 386, 388, 
390, 396, 400, 408, 424, 426, 427, 430, 432, 436, 
438, 440, 442, 444, 446, 454, 459, 462, 464, 475, 
526. 

Kuo Mo-io, 6, 186, 187, 327, 328, 354, 366, 382, 
390, 427, 432, 433, 450, 463, 552. 

Lach-triro'ng, 560. 

Landscapes, 409, 598, 599, 606, 608, 610, 612, 614, 
618. 

Lei (type), 9, 22, 62, 116, 118, 210, 224, 264, 452, 

454, 456, 458, 459, 474. 
Lei-wen. See Decoration. 
Li (type), 7, 9, 234. 

Li, King (857-828), 186, 420, 427, 432, 454. 
Li Chi, 42, 56, 66, 202. 
Li-tini^ (type), 176, 178, 180, 280. 
Li-yu, Shansi Province, 486, 492, 499, 504, 530, 
540. 

Li-yu style, 459, 480, 486. 487, 492, 534. 

Liang-lei hsien i cli'l tii shiiu 433. 

Lien (type), 598, 599, 602, 604. 605, 606, 608, 610, 

612, 613, 614, 616, 618. 
Lipschitz, Jacques, 286. 

Liu-ii-Ko, Hui-hsien, Honan Province, 475, 504, 

553. 
Liu T'i-chih, 6. 
Lo Chen-yii, 6. 

Lodge, John E., 1, 50, 54, 196, 346. 483. 

Loehr, Max, 48, 60, 71, 122, 134, 162, 187, 240,480. 

Lo-lang, Korea, 599. 

Lo-yang. 214, 235, 250, 306, 376, 540. 

Lii Ta-lin, 5. 

Marquis of Tsai (Tomb of), Shou-hsien, 510, 526, 

548, 553. 
Masks. See Decoration. 

Meyer, Mr. and Mrs. Eugene, 1, 254,472,512,568. 
Ming-clfi, 462. 
Mirrors, 477, 599. 

Mizuno, Seiichi, 6, 122, 140, 152. 180, 214, 250. 

280, 300, 344. 408, 420, 432, 530, 540, 560, 618. 
Mo, Prince of, 376. 
Morrison, Rev. Dr., 5. 

Mu, King (947-928), 8, 186, 234, 327, 382, 390, 
408. 

Mu-t'ien-tzii-chuan, 8. 

Nieli-ling set, 12, 113, 214, 327. 
N ing-shou-clnen-l<u, 442. 
Northern nomad animal style, 376. 
Northern nomads, 505. 



Oracle bones, 7. 

Ordos, 259, 558. 

Ou-yang Hsiu (1007-1072), 5. 

O vis pal i, 254. 

Owls. See Decoration. 

Oxen. See Decoration. 

P'an (type), 9, 34, 36, 49, 268, 306, 448, 450, 463, 
468, 471. 

Pao-chi Hsien, Shensi Province, 286. 

Pao-chi set, 152, 234, 306. 

Phoenix. See Decoration. 

Pien-lni (type), 262, 462, 518, 521. 588, 592. 

Po-I^u fii-lii, 5, 182, 276, 334, 442, 566, 608. 

Fo-slmn-lii, 598, 608, 612. 613, 614. 

Pottery. 22. 42, 224. 348, 404, 534, 599, 613. 

P'oii (type), 9, 20, 22, 26, 28, 42. 128, 198. 224. 

312, 459, 462, 464, 524, 526. 
P'u-tu ts'un, Chang-an, Shensi Province, 454. 

Rams. See Decoration. 
Roszak, Theodore J., 286. 

Salles. George, 530. 
San-tai chi chin wen ts^nn, 71. 
Serpents. See Decoration. 
Sel<ai tiijiitsu taikei, 608. 
Shan-chai-chi-chin-lu, 442. 

Shan-piao-chen. Hui-hsien. Honan Province. 480, 

486, 492, 526, 540, 548. 
Shang-Choii i-clfi t'lmg k'ao, 62, 378. 
Shang-ts'un-ling, Honan Province, 36, 446, 450, 

458, 462, 474. 
Shili-cliilK 570. 

Shili-Iiii-cli'ang-lo-t^ang-ku-cli^i k'uan-sliih-k'ao, 
442. 

Shou Chou, Anhui Province, 599. 
S/niang-chien, 62. 
Sickman, Laurence, 224. 
Ssu-po-ts'un, Shensi Province, 426. 
Sullivan, Michael, 612. 

Sung dynasty catalogues, 183, 346, 348, 378. 

Ta-ssu-k'ung Ts'un, Shansi Province, 66. 
Ta-t'ung, Shansi Province. 492. 
T'ai-pu-hsiang, Honan Province, 459. 
T'ang Lan, 462. 

T'ang shan-Shih, Hopei Province, 504. 
T'ao fieh. See Decoration. 
Taoism, 608. 

Thoms, P. P., 5, 20, 290, 380. 
Tigers. See Decoration. 

Ting (type), 7, 9, 42, 86, 106, 118, 162, 164, 166, 
170, 172, 176, 178, 180, 184, 186, 187, 192, 338, 
340, 370, 382, 409, 420, 454, 459, 464, 474, 475, 
480, 490, 492, 493, 530, 554. 580, 582, 584. 

Tomb o f the kneeling person, 560. 



637 



INDEX 



Tortoise. See Decoration. 
Ton (type), 9, 492, 534, 538, 540. 
Tray, 554. 
Tso-chiiaii, 462. 

Tsuii (type), 9, 52, 78, 80, 84, 86, 90, 91, 94, 96, 
98, 100, 113, 128, 235, 244, 327, 338, 384, 386, 
390, 402, 404, 406, 408, 409, 420, 421, 458, 482, 
568, 570. 

Tiii (type), 9, 515, 574, 576, 578, 580. 
Tun (type), 480, 528, 532, 534, 540. 
Turquoise, 508, 510, 511, 524. 
Turtles. See Decoration. 

Umehara, Sueji, 6, 42, 100, 134, 144, 152, 234, 280, 
286, 400, 530, 534, 560, 580, 590, 598, 599, 604, 
608, 610, 612. 

Wang Fu, 5. 
Wang Mang (9-25), 598. 
Wannieck, Charles, 530. 
Waste of Yin, 7. 



Watson, William, 12, 106, 152, 186, 234, 280, 316, 

376, 390, 400, 420, 454, 458, 492, 505, 553. 
Wen-wii, 6. 

Wenley, Archibald G., 1, 274, 346, 444, 612, 613. 
Wu, King, 306, 353. 
Wu-ti, 598. 

Yellow River, 225. 

Yen (State), 377, 505. 

Yen-tun Shan, Kiangsu, 306. 

Yetts, Walter P., 6, 474, 480, 499. 

Yi-lin-kuan chi-chin t'u-chih, 53. 

Yu (type), 9, 11, 12, 62, 106, 186, 211, 224, 234, 
235, 257, 268, 270, 274, 276, 278, 280, 281, 284, 
286, 288, 290, 292, 294, 296, 298, 300, 304, 306, 
310, 312, 314, 316, 320, 324, 328, 329, 332, 353, 
354, 370. 376, 386, 400, 404, 408, 412, 414, 415, 
416, 420, 421, 482, 599, 604, 605. 

Yii (type), 9, 336, 338, 390, 599. 

Yu-ting, 186. 

Yiiii c/i'ing kiian chin shih In. 97. 



638